2012-2013 Progress Report Canada’s Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security

Executive Summary

This is the second annual report on Canada’s implementation of its National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security (C-NAP). It covers the period from April 2012 to March 2013, and follows the format of the first annual report to help ensure consistency and underline the continuous flow in implementation from year to year.

In 2010, the Government of Canada developed its National Action Plan to guide and support its implementation of the United Nations Security Council Resolutions (UNSCRs) on Women, Peace and Security (WPS). In doing so, Canada affirmed its commitments to human rights, peace and security and to support and protect women and girls in conflict and post-conflict situations through its engagement in peace operations and work in fragile states. The UNSCRs explicitly recognize the differential impact of conflict and post-conflict situations on women and girls as compared to men and boys. Through its commitment to fully implement UN Security Council Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security, Canada further extended its commitment to the promotion and protection of women’s and girls’ human rights and to equality within the framework of the 1995 Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, and Canada’s obligations under the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and other international human rights instruments.

To implement C-NAP, Canada adopted a whole-of-government approach, through which four specific partner government agencies with international operations are responsible for implementing and reporting on progress under the Action Plan. The partners this year are the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), the Department of National Defence (DND) and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP). DFAIT and CIDA amalgamated in June 2013 and the next annual report will reflect this new structure.

The empowerment of women, in decision-making processes, including for conflict resolution, is central to Canada’s foreign policy. The broad approach to enhancing the role of women in international peace and security put forward by the Canadian Foreign Minister at the G-8 Foreign Ministers’ Meeting in April 2012 led directly to the very strong and encompassing statements by G-8 Leaders at Camp David and leaders of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in Chicago in June 2012. Minister Baird reiterated the Canadian approach in his speech to the Montreal Council on Foreign Relations on September 14, 2012. Canadian policy development, advocacy and programming has benefitted from this broad-based approach and focus on delivering concrete results for women and girls in the interests of sustainable peace, security and development.

In this second year of C-NAP implementation, the four departments and agencies undertook activities within their respective mandates and resources. Coordination continued primarily through an interdepartmental working group on women, peace and security with the outcomes of its meetings and activities reported to senior management through the Advisory Board for the Stabilization and Reconstruction (START), which has Director-General representation from all implementation partners.

Partners also shared training on taking a gender-based approach to WPS policy and programming as was called for in last year’s report, and officers learned, for example, of the benefits of engaging men and boys in preventing discrimination and sexual violence against women and girls.

Policy and Programming

The government financed interventions in conflict and post-conflict situations that focused on the development of regulations and governing systems such as codes of conduct and internal staff policy on prevention of violence against women and girls. Canada also invested significantly in programs and projects that sought to promote and support women’s active and meaningful participation in peace processes. At the Canadian level, the government paid greater attention to the quality and quantity of international postings offered to women in peace and security operations. It also organized the participation of women police peacekeepers in an international conference on police women with the aim of promoting increased women’s participation in peace operations.

Canada supported women from selected fragile and conflict-affected states to engage regionally and internationally to address their concerns and priorities. In terms of protection, Canada continued to ensure integration of systematic analysis of the differential impact of conflict on women, girls, men and boys in policies, programs and projects to ensure effective protection to support vulnerable groups. The government also supported interventions that addressed the physical and psychological effects of sexual violence on women and girls, while also pursuing perpetrators of violence.

Canada also showed its determination to fight against sexual violence and to holding perpetrators accountable by pledging $18.5 million at the Sommet de la Francophonie in DRC for relief and recovery interventions focused on addressing the needs of women and girls through humanitarian and long-term development initiatives, including education projects and in some contexts livelihood support. Canada also funded initiatives to implement global standards for the protection of girls and boys in humanitarian action.

Capacity-Building

Canada showed a strong performance in aligning and repositioning its training procedures along with the principles of the UNSCRs on women, peace and security. Departments collaborated and coordinated training efforts, primarily to capitalize on their combined synergies and expertise on gender training, specifically as it relates to prevention of violence and protection of women and girls in conflict and fragile contexts. Staff deployed to international missions were offered related training sessions either in person or take online courses. In addition, staff deployment training modules were revised based on the requirements of Canada’s Action Plan on women, peace and security.

Advocacy and Policy Dialogue

Canada continued to stand firm on its message to international partners on the importance of empowering women in decision-making processes, including those related to conflict resolution. Canada also affirmed with partners the need to prevent violence against women and girls in conflict and fragile situations and to provide protection to women and girls, including protection from sexual violence. Canada encouraged and supported new governments in fragile contexts to promote and integrate a greater number of women in key leadership and decision-making positions. These efforts continue to contribute to increased opportunities for women to participate in peace processes. Canada remained a key partner in international networks and groups promoting women, peace and security, allowing Canada to both advocate for and influence partners on WPS, and to stay connected to current issues affecting women’s and girls’ human rights in conflict-affected and fragile situations.

Research projects targeted the area of women, peace and security with the intent of collecting evidence on the links between humanitarian outcomes and equality between women and men.

Reporting of actions and results

C-NAP calls for a distributed and coordinated approach to be taken across the government to ensure cohesive reporting and implementation. While some departments have already implemented comprehensive reporting mechanisms to collect qualitative and quantitative data; others are developing reporting guidelines and mechanisms. Reporting of WPS results is integrated at the planning stages, and as a result there is an improvement in performance and reporting as a result of the experience from last year.

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Acronyms

C-NAP
Canada’s Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security
CAF
Canadian Armed Forces
CEDAW
Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women
CAP
Consolidated Appeals Process
CFLI
Canada Fund for Local Initiatives
CIDA
Canadian International Development Agency
CSO
Civil Society Organization
CSW
United Nations Commission on the Status on Women
DFAIT
Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade
DFATD
Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada
DMTC
Directorate of Military Training and Cooperation, DND
DND
Department of National Defence
DRC
Democratic Republic of the Congo
ECOSOC
United Nations Economic and Social Council
EVAW
Elimination of Violence against Women law, Afghanistan
GPSF
Global Peace and Security Fund
IASC
Inter-Agency Standing Committee
ICRC
International Committee of the Red Cross
ICGLR
International Conference on the Great Lakes Region
IPD
International Policing Development, RCMP
KNU
Karen National Union, Burma
LOGiCA
Learning on Gender and Conflict in Africa
MTCP
Military Training and Cooperation Program
NAP
National Action Plan
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NGO
Non-governmental Organization
OCHA
United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
OHCHR
Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
PSEA
Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Abuse
PSTC
Peace Support Training Centre
RCMP
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
SGBV
Sexual and Gender-based Violence
START
Stabilization and Reconstruction Task Force, DFAIT
TMAF
Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework
UN
United Nations
UNDP
United Nations Development Program
UNICEF
United Nations Children’s Fund
UNFPA
United Nations Population Fund
UNHCR
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
UNSCR
United Nations Security Council Resolution
UN Women
United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women
WFP
World Food Program
WLB
Women’s League of Burma
WPS
Women, Peace and Security

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1. Canada’s Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security

Introductory Overview

1.1 The UN Security Council Resolutions

In 2010, the Government of Canada developed a National Action Plan to support its implementation of the United Nations Security Council Resolutions (UNSCRs) on Women, Peace and Security (WPS).

UNSCR 1325 (2000) on Women, Peace and Security affirms the essential role of women in the prevention and resolution of conflict and ensure their full participation in the promotion and preservation of peace and security. Based on the foundations of human rights and the rule of law, Resolution 1325 recognizes the impact of women’s participation and equality between women and men in international peace operations and in fragile states.

Complementary resolutions to UNSCR 1325 include UNSCRs 1820, 1888, 1889, and 1960 Footnote 1 . UNSCR 1820 (2008) explicitly recognizes that sexual violence is a tactic of war and a threat to international peace and security and calls on the Security Council to consider these acts when determining and applying sanctions. UNSCR 1888 (2009) was developed to support the implementation of 1820 by mandating peacekeeping missions to protect women and children from sexual violence during armed conflict. In 2009, Resolution 1889 was adopted to encourage greater participation by women in peacemaking and post-conflict recovery and to call for a set of global indicators to monitor implementation. In response to UNSCR 1889, the Secretary-General put forward performance indicators to the Security Council in 2010, thereby highlighting the need for accountability for the implementation of Resolution 1325.

1.2 Canada’s Approach and Role

Canada’s approach in implementing the UNSCRs on women, peace and security (WPS) recognizes that equality is achieved when the concerns and experiences of women and girls are systematically integrated into peace operations and work in fragile states. The empowerment of women and girls is therefore central to establishing and strengthening systems and structures that support equality between men and women, and among women and girls of different status within a community. Canada employs a range of strategies to implement the UN Security Council Resolutions, including advancing international norms and standards, conducting sustained advocacy on a bilateral and multilateral basis; seeking mechanisms for accountability and implementation; and building knowledge and skills for practitioners, among others.

Canada’s Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security (C-NAP) is implemented by the Department of National Defence (DND), the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). DFAIT and CIDA amalgamated in June 2013 and the next annual report will reflect this new structure.

The UNSCRs on women, peace and security and the 2010 Report of the Secretary-General on Women, Peace and Security (S/2010/173) guided the development of Canada’s National Action Plan (C-NAP), which is organized into the following themes:

  • Prevention – integrating a perspective that takes into account the differential experiences of men and women, boys and girls in conflict situations into all conflict prevention activities and strategies; strengthening efforts to prevent violence, including sexual violence, against women and girls in peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations.
  • Participation – ensuring the full and meaningful participation and representation of women in all decision making processes, including political, economic and conflict resolution. This must include the representation of women and local women’s groups in peace and security activities, including peace processes.
  • Protection – protecting women’s and girls’ human rights by helping to ensure their safety, physical and mental health, well-being, economic security, and equality; promoting and protecting the security and rights of women and girls; protecting women and girls from violence, including sexual violence.
  • Relief and recovery – promoting and working to ensure women’s equal access to humanitarian and development assistance, promoting aid services that support the specific needs and capacities of women and girls in all relief and recovery efforts.

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2. How this report is organized

This second annual report on Canada’s implementation of its national action plan on Women, Peace and Security covers the period from April 2012 to March 2013, and follows the format of the first annual report to ensure consistency and facilitate yearly comparison.

The report was compiled from data and information provided in departmental reports on WPS actions. The four implementing government departments (CIDA, DFAIT, DND and RCMP) also included in their reports matrices detailing their progress on the C-NAP actions and indicators. A composite matrix of these reports for 2012-2013 can be found in the annex of this report.

There are four sections in the chapter on Canada’s Achievements, based on UNSCR 1325 and C-NAP key themes: prevention: women’s participation, protection, and relief and recovery. Each thematic area looks into actions taken with regard to policy and programming, training, and accountability in that area. The policy and programming sections cover initiatives focusing on policy development (e.g. code of conduct development) and programmatic support provided through various funding mechanisms. Sub-sections on training and accountability address capacity-building efforts at national and international levels, and Canada’s actions to remain accountable to partners and taxpayers. The report, therefore, touches on reporting systems, policy dialogue, and WPS research, as well as advocacy and promotion of WPS to multilateral and bilateral partners. Each section also includes representative anecdotes, examples, and stories.

While efforts were made to report actions by thematic area, the themes are inter-related and in some areas overlap. For example, some protection-related interventions could also fall under the prevention category. Similarly, within each thematic area, certain activities are inter-linked. A training event that may be reported under programming could be about other activities or themes.

C-NAP recognizes the dynamic nature and changing needs and lessons associated with work on state fragility and conflict. While every attempt has been made to track C-NAP Actions and Indicators from the first year to this second implementation year, changes in the international situation and in states of concern sometimes lead to certain Actions and Indicators being more relevant and important in one year than is the case in another year. This report will work to address and explain the impact of changes as they occur.

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3. Canada’s Achievements

3.1 Prevention

In the context of women, peace and security, prevention actions included activities that took into consideration the differential experiences of men and women, boys and girls in conflict situations. In the second year of the Action Plan’s implementation, Canada reinforced efforts to prevent violence, including conflict-related sexual violence against women and girls. Prevention actions continued to focus on policy development and strengthening, training of Canadian personnel and international partners, and advocacy and policy dialogue.

3.1.1 Policy and Programming

As prevention is the primary gateway to the implementation of UN resolutions on women, peace and security, Canada supported humanitarian and long-term development initiatives to prevent and eliminate violence against women and girls.

Media campaign on violence against women, Libya

Canada supported a media campaign in Libya, where 30 billboards bearing messages on respectful relationships, effects of violence on families, and quotes from the Quran were displayed for a period of 6 months. The campaign is reported to have increased the general population’s awareness of violence against women.

The Canadian government continued to require a code of conduct in line with the core principles detailed in the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Plan of Action on Protection of Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (PSEA) in humanitarian crises from its NGO partners working on humanitarian assistance. CIDA's grant agreements with humanitarian NGO partners include a clause stating that NGOs must have a code of conduct that is consistent with the core principles identified in the IASC Plan of Action on Protection of Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (PSEA) in humanitarian crises. However, the extent to which the codes of conduct are fully consistent with the core principles of the IASC Plan of Action varies from partner to partner. In some cases, the codes of conduct explicitly refer to PSEA principles. Canada also instituted and continued policies on prevention of violence against women and girls, including sexual violence, abuse and exploitation by staff (e.g. civilian government officials, police officers or members of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), including when they are deployed on international operations.) Systems were put in place to ensure allegations of violations of human rights by deployed Canadian personnel are all taken seriously. In addition, Canadian military personnel are expected to report and take necessary measures to halt observed incidences of infractions of the Law of Armed Conflict, including violence against women and girls, including sexual violence.

Development and Peace Project, Afghanistan

Through CIDA, Canada sought to strengthen civil society organizations that give voice to the poorest and most marginalized populations. The project focused on establishing local mechanisms for conflict management, working to stimulate democratic life by strengthening the role and influence of women in public institutions and establishing mechanisms for peaceful conflict management. As a part of this project, women and men had access to education, training, assembly and mobilization around issues concerning the socio-economic development of their communities, as well as social justice and human rights, particularly women’s human rights.

3.1.2 Training

The International Level

Gender-based analysis is now incorporated into many terms of reference for deployment, particularly for deployments to help train and develop the training capacity of the host country or organization.

UNSCR 1325 and South Sudan

Through the Canada Fund for Local Initiatives (CFLI) Canada supported a national UNSCR 1325 conference in Juba organized by the Eve Organization for Women’s Development. The conference brought together participants from the South Sudanese government and civil society organizations, giving them the opportunity to collaborate, validate a baseline study and start the preparatory work for a National Action Plan on WPS.

The Government of Canada provides training to member countries of the Military Training and Cooperation Program (MTCP) through the Directorate of Military Training and Cooperation (DMTC). Three long-standing courses – Tactical Operations Staff Course, Junior Command and Staff Course, and Caribbean Junior Command and Staff Course – all incorporate gender approaches in their curricula. For example, the Tactical Operations Staff Course is a three week program that includes training on preventing violence against women and girls, including sexual violence, the role of women in military and police service, and issues related to missions involving both women and men. This course has been conducted in Kenya, Mali, Ghana, and Botswana since 1996.

The National Level

Capacity-building efforts related to women, peace and security played an important role in improving the understanding of Canadian staff working abroad on issues such as violence, sexual exploitation and abuse, and violations of human rights of women and girls. Canadian military and non-military staff were equipped with the tools and knowledge to help them carry out their responsibilities related to the prevention of violence against women and girls.

Canada’s capacity-building actions took the form of specific training on WPS, integration of key WPS issues into ongoing staff training, or mission-specific sessions on the differential impact of conflict on women and girls covering protection issues and child exploitation. Pre-deployment training for Canadian personnel posted to international missions and peace operations included sessions on the code of conduct and ethics, human rights norms and obligations, Law of Armed Conflict and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the protection of vulnerable groups such as women and girls, cultural awareness, and gender perspectives in armed conflict. For example, the CAF’s Peace Support Training Centre provided training for peace support personnel and military observers on the relevance of gender perspectives in armed conflict, including: an introduction to UNSCRs 1325 and 1820 and gender mainstreaming; the differential impact of conflict on women and men; and standards of protection for women. Some of these training initiatives were available online while others were offered in person to staff and international partners (for example, through the DND/CAF Military Training and Cooperation Program).

Peace Support Training Centre

The Peace Support Training Centre (PSTC) is a Joint, Inter-agency, and Multinational defence training establishment in Kingston, Ontario. PSTC supports the intellectual development and training of members of the CAF, people from other government departments as well as international audiences.

As part of the Military Observer Course, the Women and Conflict presentation exposes deploying personnel to the impact of conflict on women. The course is meant to raise awareness about how women become more vulnerable and more exposed to violence in conflict situations. The course is also designed to familiarize deploying personnel with the international standards on equality between women and men and integration, focusing on United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security and related resolutions.

Following an evaluation of the Stabilization and Reconstruction Taskforce (START) Gender Training curriculum in Fall 2012, a new course in Gender-Based Analysis was developed and delivered to policy and program officers from DFAIT and other government departments, and civil society organizations (CSOs) working within the context of peace operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations. The course focused on effective mechanisms to help government and CSO staff prevent violence and protect the human rights of women and girls in the context of peace operations, fragile states, conflict-affected situations and in humanitarian crises or relief and recovery operations. In addition, it aimed to increase policy and program officers’ capacity to identify results and indicators. It also covered key national and international commitments and resolutions, including Resolution 1325, Beijing Platform for Action, CEDAW, the Millennium Development Goals, and C-NAP.

Another key development during the reporting period was the identification and training of Gender Focal Points from each division in START. The Gender Focal Points promoted and integrated women’s and girls’ human rights into START programming and policy work.

Before deployments, justice experts were educated on the effects that conflicts have on women and children.

During the reporting period, CIDA’s Continuous Learning Division offered CIDA development officers two gender equality courses: 1) “Integrating Gender Equality into Programming”, a basic 2-day course, and 2) “Managing for Gender Equality Results”, an intermediate level course. Both courses included a component on Canada’s commitments to international law applicable to the protection and promotion of women’s and girls’ human rights, including in fragile states and conflict-affected situations.

3.1.3 Accountability

Advocacy

Canada remained committed in its policy dialogue at multilateral and bilateral meetings on the prevention of sexual violence in humanitarian emergencies. In 2012, Canada raised its concern on the sexual violence in Mali and Syria in its national statements to the UN Security Council Open Debate on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict, to the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), and to the UN General Assembly. In bilateral contexts, the Government of Canada provided advice and support on the implementation of international human rights, crime prevention, and criminal justice standards. Advocacy efforts also focused on promoting the integration of WPS into the mandates of all Canadian-sponsored UN missions for peace operations and work in fragile states and conflict-affected situations. In addition, Canada advocated for Gender Advisors to continue working with the International Security Assistance Force during the drawdown for Afghanistan operations to ensure the rights and protection of women and girls remained a top priority for NATO.

Canada promoted the empowerment and protection of women in its engagement with multilateral partners at a number of venues. These included Executive Board and Committee meetings of the World Food Program (WFP), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Donor Support Group, High Level Meetings and Annual Bilateral Consultations, and Annual Bilateral Consultations of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). Canada also promoted protection in its engagement with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), an important partner as it plays a key role in upholding the Geneva Conventions and protecting civilians affected by armed conflict. Canada also advocated for the inclusion of language on the empowerment and protection of women during negotiations on UN General Assembly resolutions and the annual ECOSOC humanitarian resolution.

Institutional Monitoring

There was a significant effort by government departments responsible for funding implementing partners to monitor the level of gender assessment integration into partner interventions. DFAIT adapted CIDA’s standard Gender AssessmentFootnote 2 tool in combination with the project’s logic model to determine to what extent the perspectives of women and girls were taken into consideration at the planning phase. The same principle was applied to the sole recipient organization of core funding from the GPSF. Average scoring of the assessment criteria showed a general improvement in the percentage of projects integrating equality between women and men and a decline in the percentage of projects where this was not taken into consideration.

Reporting

All relevant government departments have voluntarily committed to report annually on WPS actions and each is responsible for developing its own reporting and learning systems. Some departments had existing monitoring tools in place and did not have to develop new systems to report on WPS initiatives. Other departments, however, had to design and adjust new reporting systems. The development of reporting tools is ongoing as departments implement and adapt new formats.

Canada took steps to track the impact of its training initiatives from deployed staff. For example, many Canadian police officers deployed to peace operations received induction training from hosting multilateral organizations. Through a new reporting format implemented by International Policing Development (IPD) at the RCMP, several deployed officers reported receiving gender training once in mission.

3.2 Participation

Canada continued to work on promoting the full and meaningful participation and representation of women in all decision-making processes, including political, economic and conflict resolution and ensuring the representation of women and local women’s groups in peace and security actions, including peace processes.

3.2.1 Policy and Programming

The International Level

Of Global Peace and Security Fund (GPSF) programming for women, peace and security issues, the highest allocation of funding supported women’s and girls’ inclusion in phases of peace operations, including peacekeeping, peacebuilding, peacemaking, peace enforcement, conflict prevention, mediation and stabilization and reconstruction. Such programming recognized the disproportionate impact of conflict and post-conflict situations on women and girls and highlighted the importance of their essential participation in the development of stable states and a fuller long-term realization of human rights, peace and security. The types of projects implemented to increase women’s participation included consultation of women’s groups in security system reform, engagement of women’s groups and NGOs in formal peace processes, involvement of women’s groups in the design of projects related to conflict prevention or resolution, and meaningful inclusion of women in project implementation and management.

Memory Boxes in Afghanistan

Canada funded an exhibition titled “Memory Boxes”, comprising artifacts provided by women to share their grief and tell their stories of personal loss as a result of years of conflict and insecurity in Afghanistan, highlighting the different experiences of women and men affected by war.

Partnerships with CSOs are important for Canada to fund community-based interventions on women’s and girls’ human rights and security. For example, in Afghanistan, CIDA provided multi-year institutional support to Afghanistan’s Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC) to promote, protect and monitor human rights and to investigate human rights abuses, including helping to ensure that Afghan women’s voices are an active part of decision-making processes. This initiative helped the AIHRC work to prevent the Afghan government from reversing progress made in women’s human rights and strengthened knowledge and understanding of women’s human rights among Afghans.

Empowering Libyan Women to Advocate for Inclusive Political Processes, Libya

The GPSF funded the Building Resources in Democracy, Governance and Elections training project through the International Foundation for Electoral Systems, which included the first-ever gender- and elections-focused training in Tripoli and Sabha. These four day workshops provided the important basis for relationship building between civil society organizations from around the country and the High National Election Commission representatives who participated. The training supported women’s advocates to effectively communicate with newly-formed commissions, transitional bodies, the General National Congress and Civil Society Organizations to discuss and prepare constitutional reforms and new legal frameworks for political and civil rights, and the inclusion of women in the political process at the local and national level. The overall participation of women in the July 2012 General National Congress elections in Libya was higher than initially predicted. Women turned out in numbers to vote and 33 seats out of 200 in the Congress went to women.

Canada continued to promote the importance of women’s participation in peace operations in venues such as the 10th Anniversary of the Canadian International Model United Nations, underlining the importance of the UNSCRs on women, peace and security, and the Canadian Action Plan.

The National Level

Canada made a commitment to increase the visibility of Canadian women in peace operations both in terms of numbers and strategic positions. Female police officers in peace missions play an important role in building and keeping peace with civilian populations, especially with women and girls. Women officers’ presence reassures local populations, reestablishes trust that may have been lost, and creates opportunities for female role models and mentors that may not have been previously possible. Furthermore, enhancing the presence of Canadian women in peace initiatives is effective not only from a quantitative perspective, but also through supporting women to secure high-level and strategic positions in peace missions.

Anecdote from a female RCMP Officer on her experience, UN Operation in Cote d’Ivoire

“My current mission is with United Nations Operation in Cote d’Ivoire (UNOCI) and it is quite the experience. Working as a female police officer in charge of the Public Information Office (PIO) section in an African mission is different from any position I have held in Canada. I encounter men who have the fundamental belief that women are inferior. As a woman, I use my presence in the workplace as a role model to demonstrate that police women and police men are equal.

Overall, my experience as a peacekeeper has helped me develop personally and professionally. For International Women’s Day, I came up with the idea to produce a video on UN police women to talk about what it means to work on a UN peace mission. Police women from several countries participated in the video, available in French at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zkEppMP4H1o”

As reported in 2011-2012, Canada is a world leader in terms of the proportion of women in its military and the functions in which they can serve. In fact, all combat occupations in the Canadian Armed Forces have been open to women for more than two decades, with the last barrier (serving on submarines) removed in 2001. Among Canada’s allies, the CAF is regarded as being at the forefront for the integration of men and women.

In line with Canada’s values on women’s equal representation, the RCMP shares the UN’s target of 20 per cent female representation in peace operations. While the percentage of women police officers deployed fluctuated between March 2011 and March 2013, there has been an overall rise in the percentage of women deployed to peace operations. In December 2012, the percentage of women police officers deployed reached 14 per cent from 12 per cent Footnote 3 at the beginning of the fiscal year (see chart below). Note that the percentage of women in the Canadian police is approximately 20 per cent, and police deployed to missions voluntarily apply for deployment opportunities. A significant change in policy that took place within the RCMP during the reporting period was the inclusion of a formal statement in all job bulletins for peace operations to encourage greater women’s participation.

Canada’s efforts to increase police women’s participation on international missions

In September 2012, the RCMP organized the participation of three female police peacekeepers and a civilian in the International Association of Women Police 2012 Training Conference. The group staffed a booth throughout the week; made an official presentation to conference participants on the positive impacts of police women serving on international peace operations both for the mission and for the officers’ personal and professional development; and highlighted the need for more police women to serve on missions. The RCMP, Toronto Police and Calgary Police used a joint social media approach to promote the contributions of their members in the conference.

Stories from the field written by female and male Canadian police peacekeepers are published on the RCMP’s website and social media to increase awareness and promote women’s participation. Stories authored by women or those with a focus on gender issues were promoted on International Women’s Day, but also appear throughout the year. One of the stories featured on International Women’s Day was later reprinted in the UN Police Magazine (July 2013).

3.2.2 Training

Capacity-building for women leaders was a key element of projects seeking to increase women’s meaningful participation and representation in peace and security initiatives. Canada supported the training of traditional women leaders in West Africa, advocacy and information for women and youth on their human and political rights, education on peace and conflict prevention for armed forces and civilians, rural women’s confidence-building to influence decision-making at the local level, and the development of communication and information tools for citizenship building and local democracy promotion. A greater focus was put on inter-community tolerance and dialogue to restore confidence between the military and civilians, giving priority to women leaders’ participation. The African Police for Peace is one such initiative that strives to promote equal access for female and male police officers to peace operations.

Centre of Excellence to Mainstream Women in Democratization Process, Libyan Women’s Forum

DFAIT and the UN supported the Libyan Women’s Forum (LWF) to establish a base of operations and a training program for women from across Libya on embedding women’s human rights in the constitution. The training has had a direct impact on the official and unofficial dialogues concerning the constitution and the role of women. LWF’s programs focus on educating women on the political and constitutional processes and are helping to groom new political activists and future women candidates.

Canada also provided funding to sponsor women professionals from conflict-affected and fragile countries to participate in international conferences such as the annual NATO Communicators’ Conference in Dubai and the 2012 Tokyo Conference on Afghanistan. By participating in such meetings, women were able to voice their concerns about political transition processes in their countries.

Building Social Capital, Burma Border Areas

The CIDA project, Building Social Capital, contributes to the development of civil society organizations in Burma and to building their capacity to identify needs, deliver services, and promote the interests of vulnerable and displaced people

During the reporting period, the project funded the Women’s League of Burma (WLB) to expand the reach of its materials and awareness-raising activities on the prevention of violence against women from a baseline of 12 townships in 2009 to 46. WLB implemented activities to increase women’s participation in the peace process through a signature campaign, meetings with ethnic armed groups and the government’s peace negotiating team, and holding training workshops for its members in peace negotiations.

The project also reached out to ethnic organizations for greater inclusion and representation of women’s human rights issues and has helped support public calls for inclusion of women’s organizations and representatives into peace process negotiations, including direct engagement of ethnic armed groups on this issue.

Through advocacy efforts of the Karen Women’s Organization, the project influenced the Karen National Union (KNU) in re-electing the only women in the top leadership of the KNU as Vice-Chair. The KNU Congress has formally expressed its commitment to “adopt future work plans to increase women’s participation in politics and national affairs.”

In conflict-affected and fragile states, Canada concentrated its focus on building women’s capacity in relation to constitutional and political processes through training of trainers and a series of targeted workshops.

Reflections from a female Canadian Police Officer in Afghanistan

A female police officer from the Toronto Police Service deployed to the European Union Police Mission in Afghanistan shared the following reflections

“Working as a Mentor/Advisor, Human Rights & Gender in Afghanistan, I was involved in mentoring and training female and male police officers. I was also involved in attending the women’s prison, a local orphanage and worked with other international [personnel] on Gender and Rule of Law Boards.

I felt that my presence as a female officer in one of the provinces in Afghanistan had a big impact. My mentee, a young female officer, would tell me how my presence in supporting her and others gave her confidence and encouragement. Wherever I went, the female officers would approach me to shake my hand and share a smile.

My experience with the women in Afghanistan was that they are strong and brave. Respecting their cultures and progress, I realized that having more female officers in [the] mission would continue to give them encouragement. My last meeting with my mentee was tearful and her words to me that she did not want me to leave and called me her sister confirmed for me the impact our presence has in Afghanistan.”

3.2.3 Accountability

Canada encouraged multilateral efforts to involve women in peace and security interventions, including in peace agreement negotiations and mediation processes, particularly as such agreements contribute to the differential experiences of women men, girls and boys, and to the respect and promotion of women’s and girls’ human rights. For instance, in all relevant statements at the UN Security Council and within the Group of Friends of Afghanistan, Canada put emphasis on the importance of protecting women’s rights in any political agreement between the Government of Afghanistan and insurgent groups. As a member of the Women’s Caucus in Afghanistan, Canada strongly advocated for greater engagement with and participation by Afghan women in the Afghan Penal Code Reform process. This advocacy led to the appointment of ten female Afghan legal experts to the Ministry of Justice’s Criminal Law Reform working groups. The DFAIT Afghanistan program also advocated for the recruitment of female officers to the Afghan National Police.

The government also passed on congratulatory and supportive messages to fragile states that promoted women’s political participation. In November 2012, Canada welcomed the appointment of women to Somalia’s new cabinet.

3.3 Protection

Canada protected women and girls by supporting projects to defend their human rights; to ensure their safety, physical and mental health, well-being, economic security, and equality; and protect them from violence, including sexual violence.

3.3.1 Policy and Programming

The RCMP developed a “Concept of Operations” (ConOps) for engagement in one international peace operation this year. The ConOps is an internal document that outlines the scope, history and context of a mission. Canadian police personnel are generally deployed to multilateral organizations that have their own mandates, but the Canadian ConOps defined the role of police and the scope, or limit, of the Canadian police personnel’s operations and actions. In addition, the ConOps was aligned with that of the multilateral organization. A section on gender and the protection of women’s and girls’ human right was included in the ConOps.

Similarly, Canada’s Code of Conduct for its armed forces in international operations set the standard for treatment with regard to local civilian populations. The Code of Conduct went a step beyond by making special considerations to protect women, girls and boys, prohibiting discriminatory treatment based on sex, including rape, enforced prostitution or any form of indecent assault.

In most cases, programming on the protection and promotion of women’s and girls’ human rights was guided by a gender-based analysis to identify and address the differential impacts of conflict on women and girls. Initiatives that sought to protect and promote the rights and safety of women and girls included:

  • the development of laws and institutions that enshrine women’s and girls’ human rights;
  • workshops and educational events on women’s and girls’ human rights;
  • increasing access to rule of law services for women and girls who are victims of violence, including sexual violence;
  • support of development and/or implementation of National Action Plans in other countries;
  • increasing access to justice for women whose rights have been violated;
  • enabling access to livelihood support services for women and girls affected by violence; including sexual violence; and,
  • support to women and women’s organizations in activities to prevent, manage, resolve and respond to violations of women’s and girls’ rights in situations of conflict and fragility.

Canada supported projects to address the physical and psychological effects of sexual violence on women by facilitating collaboration between representatives of the police, judicial, psychosocial and medical sectors. Such projects have led to increased access to services for women and girls, and a change in service protocols that have become increasingly sensitive to the needs of victims of violence, including sexual violence. For example, CIDA invested in projects to fight against impunity for the perpetrators of violence and support survivors of sexual violence through reinforcing and expanding judicial services; improving the processes for investigating and prosecuting crimes involving sexual violence; and increasing the knowledge, skills, and independence of judges and court officials.

The government continued to support activities that addressed violence against women and investment in this area will be a priority for future programming. During the reporting period, projects focused on mitigating sexual violence or violence against women in conflict; workshops that addressed sexual violence against women in conflict; access to rule of law services for women and girls who were victims of sexual violence; and the introduction of legislation which recognized and criminalized sexual violence. Canada raised awareness of the prevalence and consequences of child, early and forced marriage at a panel titled “Too Young to Wed” in New York, during the Commission on the Status of Women and to mark International Women’s Day.

Ensuring accountability for conflict-related sexual crimes through international and domestic courts and commissions of inquiry

Canada funded a UN Women project in which a dedicated pool of sexual investigative experts were identified and trained to be deployed to courts and commissions of inquiry to contribute to increasing the number of successful prosecutions of sexual crimes. Through this project, a gender expert was deployed on the second phase of the Commission of Inquiry for Syria. The Commission consequently reported that there are reasonable grounds to believe that rape and sexual assault were perpetrated against men, women and children by government forces and Shabbiha members. It was also found that rape and sexual assault were part of torture in official and unofficial detention centres. These investigations are crucial for future efforts to bring perpetrators to justice. In addition to building individual capacity, UN Women also worked with the existing international and hybrid courts to harmonize manuals on sexual violence prosecutions, consolidate lessons learned and produce training materials for use by future courts, both domestic and mixed.

At the country programming level, the Canada Fund for Local Initiatives (CFLI) supported initiatives on women’s and girls’ human rights, with an explicit focus on protecting women and girls from violence, including sexual violence. Canada also prioritized engagement with and empowerment of women, especially female politicians in fragile states, on barriers to their public participation and in particular, their personal security.

Canada also funded local studies on legal systems, with a particular focus on judicial sentences and how judicial systems treat women. Analyzed cases were used as examples to create awareness among judges on how to better incorporate gender considerations into the legal system.

Other local support included innovative projects in fragile states such as Libya to address the persistent concern of harassment of and violence against women. A national NGO designed a campaign titled “Kul Bint Leebiya Ukhtak”, which translates to “Every Libyan girl is your sister – respect her and respect yourself”. The project engaged women, university and youth groups in the development of the advertising messages. As a result, the project was widely publicized in local media, and helped draw attention to the problem of violence against women. Additionally, the project produced a website using crowd mapping software to enable women to report incidents of harassment and threats online. The website allowed data and statistics collection on the amount of harassment taking place in Libya, creating a record of a widespread practice that was tacitly accepted and used to enhance neighborhood pride, putting the onus on neighborhoods to become safe and secure spaces for women.

Equal Access – Protection of Women’s Human Rights within Islam, Afghanistan

Through the Global Peace and Security Fund, Canada facilitated the implementation of an innovative and dynamic public information campaign to engage religious and community leaders at all levels on women rights issues. The project increased discussion and awareness of women’ rights within families, social and religious networks, and community groups through the creation of listening and dialogue groups, mobile theatre performances and post-performance discussions, and the production and broadcast of radio episodes.

Selected anecdotal testimonials from participants who interacted with the Listening Group coordinators include:

“I listen to your radio program and I got to know that education is very important for girls because there must be women physicians, women nurses, and women teachers in every community for the development of a society.” (A female respondent)

“Early marriage, giving away girls for dispute resolution, forced isolation in the home, exchange marriage are widespread harmful traditions, which should be prevented by the government.” (A male respondent)

“…Also we learned that getting education is necessary for both male and female according to Islam and Afghan Law; no one has the right to prevent women from getting educated. Violence against women is a curse and against the values of Islam; each and every woman should know their rights.” (Respondent details not provided)

3.3.2 Training

Canada frequently raised the need for UN agencies and member states to increase the effectiveness of peace operations, including the protection and promotion of the rights and safety of women and girls through the development of Protection of Civilians doctrine and training. In addition, Canada promoted human rights issues, focusing on the rights of women and girls, and positive change through public information campaigns.

At the community level, activities were held to create awareness among community leaders on the causes and consequences of violence against women and girls, including sexual violence, services available for treating victims, and their role as leaders in preventing and addressing violence. A preliminary survey of these activities shows a change in attitude among some leaders who admit that the campaigns allowed them to recognize forms of violence they had not condemned in the past.

Initial Training and Professional Development of the Haitian National Police’s Managerial Staff

CIDA conducted professional development and training of police office officers, inspectors and commissioners in Haiti. Out of 44 commissioners trained, five were women. To ensure their participation in the training, CIDA put in place special measures to maintain the quality of life of the women commissioners, including the dedication of certain spaces as ‘women-only’ for women commissioners to use if/as needed, creation of a harassment policy, and organization of meetings between women commissioners and the project director. The project supported the development of a new training curriculum and the development and implementation of the organizational and administrative structure for a training institution. The eleven modules that were developed for the Haiti training incorporated gender equality concepts.

Through awareness-raising, Canada sought to improve the human rights record of security forces in selected countries and to support key partners to combat human trafficking and illegal migration. The projects integrated conflict resolution training and brought together civil society and security forces to better understand their respective roles for security and good governance.

3.3.3 Accountability

Canada takes its mandate to protect women and girls in war-affected situations seriously. During the Sommet de la Francophonie in the DRC, Minister for International Cooperation Julian Fantino conveyed a strong message on the need to combat impunity in the context of sexual violence. The meeting was held with the United Nations Stabilization Mission in DRC (MONUSCO), the Ministry of Gender, UNDP, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), UNICEF, and the European Union Police Mission. As an indication of Canada’s commitment, the Prime Minister of Canada announced at the summit a five-year $18.5 million project to fight against sexual violence and impunity in the eastern DRC.

Anecdote from a male RCMP Sergeant, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Community Security Initiative, Kyrgyzstan

“Living and working in an isolated region of southern Kyrgyzstan in 2012, I encountered a number of prevailing traditions that served to aggravate ‘gender relations’ and clearly embodied an unequal division of power amongst men and women. The lack of opportunities on the part of women to express themselves and/or be heard was most evident in the traditional practice of ‘bride kidnapping’.

In organizing and conducting English lessons for local high school girls, we created a venue where young women could not only discuss the impact of such an embedded ritual, but also pursue self-empowerment and confidence. Dialogue and consultation with substantive local actors, including the police, in developing strategies to deter ‘bride kidnapping’ soon followed. In this instance, a global seed was planted into a local culture and served to sprout awareness, promote intervention, and ultimately provide a voice to the traditionally silent.”

In Afghanistan, Canada advocated for stronger and more widespread implementation of the Elimination of Violence against Women (EVAW) law with various interlocutors. As a result, the Government of Afghanistan agreed to report on the application of the EVAW law as part of the commitments it made under the Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework (TMAF).Footnote 4

Regular reporting of violations of women’s and girls’ human rights provides an important overview of the effectiveness of protection-related actions over time. The Canadian Mission to Afghanistan’s 2012 Human Rights Report for Afghanistan featured the issue of women’s and girls’ human rights and was made possible by data collected through periodic reporting.

Over the reporting period, the Government of Canada participated in the 2009 NATO Bilateral Strategic Command Directive, “Integrating UNSCR 1325 and Gender Perspectives into the NATO Command Structure including Measures for Protection during Armed Conflict.” The directive aimed to fully incorporate gender perspectives, including the protection of women and girls from sexual violence, into training for, planning, and conduct of operations. Canada contributed to the NATO initiative by participating in the NATO Committee on Gender Perspectives, an advisory body to NATO’s Military Committee on gender issues, such as by promoting gender mainstreaming. In 2012, a CAF officer seconded as deputy gender advisor to NATO’s Allied Command Transformation participated at the committee by making a presentation on gender perspectives that was very well received by participants.

3.4 Relief and recovery

Canada actively worked to promote women’s and girls’ equal access to humanitarian and development assistance. It also advocated for aid services to support the specific needs and capacities of women and men, girls and boys in all relief and recovery efforts.

3.4.1 Policy and Programming

Canada supported a range of activities to assist women and girls in humanitarian and development assistance in relief and recovery efforts. These activities aimed to ensure that women’s and girls’ education and health needs are met in conflict and post-conflict situations; respond to the needs of women and girls, including victims of sexual and gender-based violence, ex-combatants, and refugees in relief programs; and address security and the other needs of women and girls through disarmament, demobilization and reintegration and security system reform programs.

The CIDA-funded Girls Education Support Program applied a comprehensive and holistic approach to respond to the diverse physical and cultural barriers limiting girls’ access to education in Afghanistan. During the reporting period, the rates for girls enrolled in classes increased significantly. For middle school (grade 6-7), the progress rate exceeded the 85% target, reaching 99%. Part of the success in increasing girls’ access to education can be attributed to the project’s focus on outreach and peer support groups for parents (male and female) to encourage girls to attend school. In addition, the program included practical and logistical support for girls to attend university entrance exams and supported families to send their girls to study away from home by building a dormitory for 108 female students at a teacher training college.

Learning on Gender and Conflict in Africa (LOGiCA), Great Lakes Region of Africa

CIDA funded the LOGiCA project to support its efforts to increase programming in post-conflict countries in the region, focusing on demobilization and reintegration programming. During the reporting year, the project showed improvements in the capacity of Burundi and Rwanda demobilization and reintegration commissions to implement gender action plans. Consequently, programs have supported the gender-specific needs of 851 ex-combatants and over 6,000 of their dependents. LOGiCA activities have also generated 15 knowledge products and 17 ground-breaking studies touching on a variety of social and economic dimensions of gender in conflict and post-conflict contexts.

3.4.2 Accountability

Canada raised its concerns about protection issues at forums such as the UN Security Council, UN General Assembly, ECOSOC, donor support groups and civil society organizations in relation to key conflict contexts, including Syria, Sudan and South Sudan, Mali, Afghanistan and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Canada continues to advocate for humanitarian partners to consider the gender dimensions and the specific needs and capabilities of women and girls in their response efforts both as beneficiaries and decision-makers.

Minimum Standards for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action

CIDA supported the dissemination, implementation and monitoring of the Minimum Standards for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action, which promote equality between women and men, giving consideration to local social norms and cultural restrictions. Each Standard caters to the different needs of girls and boys. Indicators capture results both in terms of delivery of assistance and gender-balance of the organization involved. Canada’s contribution is expected to help, among others, translate and distribute copies in French, Spanish and Arabic, provide technical assistance for humanitarian agencies through the deployment of child protection experts, and prevent violence against girls and boys.

Canada ensured language on violence against women was included in a resolution it co-sponsored on Assistance to Somalia in the field of human rights at the 20th session of the Human Rights Council.

In the 2013 bilateral consultations with the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), Canada focused on the need for OCHA to maintain equality between men and women as a key policy priority. Similarly, Canada continued to promote through the OCHA Donor Support Group a greater consideration of the differential impacts that humanitarian crises have on women and girls, including through the robust use of the Gender Marker and the full implementation of the Gender Policy Instruction. The latter are tools to help ensure that gender is mainstreamed throughout the humanitarian response, that targeted support to address gender inequality is based on a gender analysis, and that all affected populations have equal access to protection and assistance.

At humanitarian coordination meetings, Canada advocated for greater integration of gender in the UN-led Consolidated Appeal Process (CAP) with a special focus on including gender-sensitive responses to humanitarian needs in the CAP’s sectoral response plans. UN agencies welcomed the Canadian initiative to improve integration of gender in the CAP and committed to do so in CAP 2014. CIDA also worked with other donors (Spain and Italy), UN Women and OCHA to support a gender coordinator position to ensure that gender is effectively integrated across sectors of the humanitarian response.

Research

Canada’s investment in evidence-based research to promote equality and improve program and project design for the prevention of and response to violence against women has yielded promising results. It has helped identify WPS initiatives that have shown results in improving the psychological, social, economic, and physical situations of victims of violence, including sexual violence. There is also significant potential for replication of such interventions in future relief and recovery actions. For example, over the reporting year, the ongoing CIDA-funded research on Gender Equality and Humanitarian Outcomes has been looking at how equality programming contributes to improving humanitarian outcomes. The findings of the research are expected to shape the IASC’s approach to gender equality programming, inform calls for increased accountability among stakeholders, and contribute to the broader collection of evidence on gender-responsive humanitarian outcomes.

Project Gateway: Expanding access to justice through mobile phone networks for Afghan women, Afghanistan

Canada’s Global Peace and Security Fund supported “Project Gateway” to equip and staff the first-ever call centres providing quick and effective legal advice and counselling services, including referrals to local service providers and to Afghan women in marginalized regions of Afghanistan. A toll free hotline was created and promoted exclusively for this purpose. The hotline serviced an average of 340 callers per week, which resulted in about 731 occasions of legal advice, 196 referrals to field-based service providers and 1,702 occasions of delivering psycho-social support. Referral partners cite the call centre as a cause of increased demand for services and it is estimated that up to 12% of callers actually sought further services. Despite promoting the service only in the Eastern Region, the hotline received calls from 29 provinces in every region of Afghanistan.

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4. Progress since Last Year

In the second year of C-NAP implementation, the government continued interdepartmental collaboration on its work on women, peace and security among the four key implementing departments: the Department of National Defense; the Royal Canadian Mounted Police; the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, and the Canadian International Development Agency. Although much of the work on establishing the foundation for the implementation of C-NAP took place in the first year, there was room for adjusting and refining reporting templates, mechanisms, and procedures in the reporting period. Departments captured new data through modified reporting processes, although some reported the need to still improve reporting mechanisms.

Prevention

In the thematic area of prevention, the government’s policy and programmatic interventions supported the development of codes of conduct and internal regulations on the prevention of violence against women and girls in conflict-affected and fragile contexts. Canada’s training initiatives for staff and Canadian partners maintained a steady momentum. During the reporting period, prevention-related training showed a strong Canadian focus, in keeping with C-NAP’s intention to provide “Canadian training for military, police and civilian personnel being deployed operationally…” Footnote 5 Training is one of the most active areas in which each department contributes in terms of technical knowledge and logistical support. In addition, an important change was made to the current START curriculum in order to make the Gender-Based Analysis course more context-relevant and effective in improving the capacity of Canadian personnel to prevent violence. Advocacy is another area in which Canada continued to effectively demonstrate its commitment to women, peace and security, specifically to protect the human rights of women and girls. The government continued to promote and engage its international partners on policy dialogue concerning the security and human rights of women and girls in conflict-affected and fragile states in all long-term development and humanitarian actions.

Participation

Supporting women’s active and meaningful participation in all decision-making processes, including peace operations and peace processes remained a priority for the government. Canada funded women to attend conferences and events on women, peace and security, which enabled the participating women to voice their concerns and priorities. In addition, Canada placed greater emphasis on the quality of international postings for peace operations offered to women police officers. The number of female staff deployed to international peace operations – including the police and armed forces – rose from 12 percent to 14 percent. The government has sustained its efforts to recruit more women while giving them the flexibility of opting out and choosing the location of their deployment.

Canada contributed to important progress in fragile states such as Libya, where it followed up on Foreign Affairs Minister John Baird’s 2011 statement of support for women’s leadership in Libya. Canada maintained its practice of financing civil society organizations, including women’s groups, to collaboratively work on preventing violence against women and girls and protecting their human rights.

DFAIT adapted CIDA’s gender equality coding tool into a performance measurement tool specific to WPS programming, which helped it to monitor the number and percentage of projects integrating gender equality issues, including women, peace and security. The tool was used to prepare the departmental annual C-NAP report and allowed for a better analysis and insight into the programming and funding allocated to women, peace and security.

Protection

The government made conscious efforts to systematically analyze the differential impact of conflict on women, girls, men and boys in order to provide effective protection support to vulnerable groups. In addition, Canada continued to finance interventions that addressed the physical and psychological effects of sexual violence by bringing together professionals from the police, judicial, psychosocial and medical sectors. This led to increased services for women and girls, as changes were made to service protocols to be more responsive to women’s and girls’ specific needs. The government not only engaged with vulnerable women, but also with women holding political office in order to understand their level of personal security. Canada’s investments during the reporting year concentrated on strengthening legal and judicial systems, creating awareness among community leaders, increasing access to rule of law services for women and girls, supporting women’s organizations, and training and professional development of international partners.

At the 2012 Sommet de la Francophonie in Kinshasa, Canada also pledged $18.5 million to fight against sexual violence and impunity in the DRC. Over the reporting period, the government used its resources and influence to advocate for greater protection for women and girls affected by conflict.

Relief and Recovery

Canada’s investments in this thematic area were split between policy/programming and accountability. The government concentrated efforts in improving the quality of life of women and girls in conflict, fragile, and post-conflict situations through supporting interventions linked to education, well being, and equality. It funded projects that responded to the needs of women and girls, including victims of sexual violence, ex-combatants, and refugees, and that addressed security and other needs of women and girls through disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) and security reform programs. In addition, it also financed initiatives to develop global standards for the protection of girls and boys in humanitarian response. Canada sustained its efforts on policy negotiation and advocacy on matters concerning women and girls in humanitarian crises and how they are affected differently than men and boys. Canada maintained its support for evidence-based research, specifically to promote gender equality and its correlation to improving humanitarian outcomes.

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5. Lessons Learned

The lessons learned in the second year of C-NAP implementation confirm the experience of the first cycle, including the importance of coordination between implementing partners. The distributed approach to C-NAP implementation through which departments and agencies undertake and report on their activities in their respective ways reflects the organization of the government and the very differing roles, resources and mandates of the organizations involved.

Maintaining dialogue with Canadian civil society organizations as well as international networks of experts such as within the G8 and the Group of Friends of Women Peace and Security at the UN proved to be invaluable to keeping in touch with priorities in Canada and around the world.

Due to the rotational nature of military, diplomatic, development and police officials it was necessary to refresh the investment in training on women, peace and security issues for programming and policy officers, which will continue throughout the remaining years of C-NAP.

The data collection and reporting process revealed, as anticipated by the C-NAP, that changing situations can render certain C-NAP Actions and Indicators less relevant than they were when the plan was drafted in 2010. The C-NAP mandates a mid-term review which will be undertaken in 2014 and will allow for the Actions and Indicators to be updated to better reflect changing situations.

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6. Next Steps

As the government looks forward to the third year of C-NAP implementation and the 2013-2014 reporting cycle, continuity can already be seen for work undertaken over the past two years. For example, Canada’s leadership on WPS issues at the G-8 and NATO last year led to G-8 Foreign Ministers launching at their meeting in London in April 2013 a related Declaration on the Prevention of Sexual Violence in Conflict in which partners committed to concrete actions to prevent sexual violence, including by enhancing the role of women in international peace and security.

Canada appointed its first female Ambassador to Afghanistan in July 2013.

The government will undertake a mid-term review of C-NAP and consider new opportunities for women, peace and security collaboration, including those presented by the 2013 amalgamation of DFAIT and CIDA into the new Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development (DFATD). This amalgamation will allow even closer cooperation across peace, security and development activities, including augmenting existing collaboration and coordination mechanisms on women, peace and security.

Finally, the government will examine how Canadian policy and programming can be enhanced to support women and girls through harmonization across our leadership agendas on eliminating violence against women; women, peace and security; trafficking in women and girls; maternal, newborn and child health; and child, early, and forced marriage. In addition to a shared emphasis on the human rights of women and girls, they all share common elements such building community resistance and resilience, support for survivors and victims, and the investigation and prosecution of associated criminal activity.

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Annex: Aggregated Data Matrix

Action 1

Ensure that all organizations receiving Government of Canada funds for humanitarian assistance have organizational codes of conduct relating to sexual exploitation and abuse consistent with the core principles of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Plan of Action on Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Humanitarian Crises.

CIDA

In 2012-2013, CIDA included a clause in each grant agreement with NGO partners working in humanitarian assistance, stating that the NGO must have a code of conduct that is consistent with the core principles identified in the IASC Plan of Action on Protection of Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (PSEA) in humanitarian crises. Consistency with all of the core principles of the IASC Plan of Action on PSEA in humanitarian crises varies from partner to partner.

Indicator 1-1

Number and percentage of organizations receiving Government of Canada funding for humanitarian assistance that have organizational codes of conduct relating to sexual exploitation and abuse consistent with the core principles of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Plan of Action on Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Humanitarian Crises.

CIDA

Number of NGO partners: 23; Number of NGO partners with codes of conduct relating to PSEA*: 23 Number of NGO partners CIDA reviewed to determine if code of conduct is consistent with IASC PSEA: 7** Of the 7 NGO partners reviewed, #of NGO partners with code of conduct consistent with IASC PSEA: 2

*Included in each grant agreement with NGO partners working in humanitarian assistance is a clause stating that the NGO must have a code of conduct that is consistent with the core principles identified in the IASC Plan of Action on Protection of Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (PSEA) in humanitarian crises. **Consistency with the core principles of the IASC Plan of Action on PSEA in humanitarian crises varies from partner to partner. Of CIDA's 7 major NGO partners in delivery of humanitarian assistance, 2 have PSEA codes of conduct that are fully consistent with the IASC principles and the rest adhere to some of the principles.

9% NGO partners with code of conduct consistent with IASC PSEA Two of the seven assessed NGOs have codes of conduct that are fully consistent with the IASC PSEA. In some cases, the PSEA principles are not explicitly stated, while in others specific principles are omitted (e.g. in one case the two missing principles were: Exchange of money, employment, goods or services for sex is prohibited; and Sexual relationships between humanitarian workers and beneficiaries are strongly discouraged.)

Afghanistan:

The Afghanistan Program’s multilateral partners for humanitarian assistance programming for 2012-2013 included CARE, Canadian Red Cross (CRC), WFP and the UN Mine Action Service. All are in compliance with IASC principles.

West Bank and Gaza:

Care International is a partner for international humanitarian assistance, and has such a code of conduct. Otherwise, WB/G provides assistance under the UN Consolidated Annual Appeal (CAP) for West Bank and Gaza. The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance (OCHA) in West Bank and Gaza says that it does not do such vetting in-country as part of the process to submit projects to the CAP.

Burma:

In 2007, the partner launched the “Prevention of Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (PSEA)” project, which by 2010 introduced, translated into local languages, and provided training for Community Based Organizations partners on IASC guidelines for prevention of sexual and gender-based violence in humanitarian settings. Contractual agreements now require all partner Community Based Organizations to have codes of conduct that comply with IASC guidelines.

No other country programs supported humanitarian assistance programming through bilateral envelopes in 2012-2013.

Action 2

Systematically include modules on women, peace and security, including codes of conduct, cultural awareness, HIV/AIDS, trafficking in persons, and Canadian and international law applicable to the human rights and protection of women and girls in all Canadian training for military, police and civilian personnel being deployed operationally, in a manner which addresses any differential impact of armed conflict on women and girls.

CIDA

  • In 2012-13, all CIDA staff selected to leave on mission took part in 'Pre-Departure training', which include a series of mandatory and highly-recommended courses, including the DFAIT- delivered courses considered mandatory for officers going to fragile states.
  • The Continuous Learning Division played a key role in recommending several courses from DFAIT, CIDA, and DND to employees selected for a posting. The Personal Security Seminar, Hazardous Environment Training and Intercultural Effectiveness Pre-posting courses are highly recommended. These three courses allow employees selected for a posting to better understand the context in fragile and conflict-affected situations and Canada's commitments for implementation of C-NAP and to discuss the differential impact of conflict on women and girls.
  • In 2012-2013, all development officers were strongly encouraged to take one of the two Gender Equality courses offered by CIDA's Continuous Learning Division: 1.) The basic 2-day course, "Integrating Gender Equality into Programming," and 2.) The intermediate course, "Managing for Gender Equality Results." These courses included a component through which participants learned Canada's commitments to international law applicable to the protection and promotion of women’s and girls’ human rights, including in fragile and conflict-affected situations. These courses were recommended for all CIDA staff, not just staff sent to fragile and conflict-affected situations, as part of CIDA's Gender Equality Action Plan.

DFAIT

  • START’s Deployment and Coordination Division carried out gender training for all program and policy officers in START. The training was also extended to other government departments and relevant CSO partners. This training gave officers an increased awareness of gender issues in the context of peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations; an increased capacity to ensure gender-based analysis is applied in programs and projects; and an enhanced capacity to identify gender results and indicators.
  • The CFLI unit provides training to CFLI managers at missions. In 2012-2013, the first year of this training, there was no specific WPS module. In 2013-2014, one of our monthly teleconferences will be specifically focused on gender programming.

DND

Training for CAF personnel deploying internationally included human rights, codes of conduct, and cultural awareness components, which addressed issues such as the protection of women and girls and gender as a factor on operations.

RCMP

  • Pre-deployment training for police deploying to peace operations included sessions on cultural awareness, gender awareness, code of conduct and ethics. Pre-deployment training for police deploying to United Nations peace operations also included two mandatory online modules which addressed Effective Mandate Implementation and Standards, Values and Core Business.
  • Effective Mandate Implementation addressed, in a generic manner, the key elements candidates need to know to effectively implement a mission’s mandate under the following headings: international law relevant to peacekeeping operations; international human rights law; human rights protection in peacekeeping operations; women, peace and security: the role of peacekeeping operations; protection of children: the role of peacekeeping operations; and working with mission partners
  • Standards, Values and Core Business covered expectations of members in mission under the following headings: conduct and discipline; sexual exploitation and abuse; the consequences of misconduct; HIV/AIDS and peacekeeping operations; respect for diversity; and the core business of police in peace operations.

Indicator 2-1

Percentage of Government of Canada departmental pre-deployment or general training courses, including courses taken while deployed on mission, for peace operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations that examine the differential impact of armed conflict on women and girls and address key issues such as codes of conduct, cultural awareness, HIV/AIDS, trafficking in persons, and Canadian and international law applicable to the protection and promotion of women’s and girls’ human rights.

CIDA

  • 17%. During the reporting year, two of twelve pre-deployment training courses included components in which participants were made aware of Canada's commitments to international law applicable to the protection and promotion of women’s and girls’ human rights, including in fragile and conflict-affected situations. These courses were recommended but not mandatory for personnel being deployed to fragile and conflict-affected states.
  • CIDA did not provide training for personnel while deployed on mission for peace operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations over the reporting year, though some personnel were trained through DFAIT-provided opportunities.

DFAIT

10%. START offered a total of 10 training courses, including Government of Canada departmental pre-deployment training. Out of these 10 courses, one course (Gender-Based Analysis) focused on the differential impact of armed conflict on women and girls. The Gender-Based Analysis course aimed to train for an increased awareness of gender issues into the context of peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations.

DND

  • Cultural awareness training delivered to CAF personnel deploying on peace support operations or to fragile states or conflict-affected situations incorporated gender considerations.
  • Individual Pre-Deployment Training delivered by the Peace Support Training Centre included an examination of the differential impact of armed conflict on women and girls

RCMP

100%. The required two- to three-week pre-deployment training course for police deploying to peace operations addressed the relevant issues in the indicator. In addition, police deployed to United Nations peace operations completed online modules, which included International Law relevant to Peacekeeping Operations; International Human Rights Law; Human Rights Protection in Peacekeeping Operations; Women, Peace, and Security: The Role of Peacekeeping Operations; Protection of Children: The role of Peacekeeping Operations; Working with Mission Partners; Conduct and discipline; Sexual exploitation and abuse; The consequences of misconduct; HIV/AIDS and Peacekeeping Operations; Respect for diversity; and Core business of police in Peace Operations.

Indicator 2-2

Number and percentage of Government of Canada personnel deployed to peace operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations who receive pre-deployment training or training while deployed on mission that examines the differential impact of armed conflict on women and girls and addresses key issues such as codes of conduct, cultural awareness, HIV/AIDS, trafficking in persons, and Canadian and international law applicable to the protection and promotion of women’s and girls’ human rights.

CIDA

45%. Nine CIDA employees of twenty deployed to peace operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations received pre-deployment training in which participants were made aware of Canada's commitments to international law applicable to the protection and promotion of women’s and girls’ human rights, including in fragile and conflict-affected situations.

DFAIT

28 of 66, or 42%. This includes all of START deployments of civilians, including to fragile and conflict-affected states, as well as to election observation missions. DFAIT will work to ensure that experts deployed to or working with fragile and conflict-affected states receive the appropriate training.

DND

CAF personnel deployed to peace support operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations received pre-deployment cultural awareness training that incorporated gender considerations, as well as codes of conduct and training on Canadian and international law and human rights applicable to the protection and promotion of women’s and girls’ human rights.

RCMP

100%. All (152) police deploying to peace operations were required to complete the two- to three-week pre-deployment training course, which included some or all of the key issues in the indicator.

Indicator 2-3

Extent to which the content of mandatory training courses for deployed personnel or for policy and program staff associated with peace operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations reflect the UNSCRs on Women, Peace and Security.

CIDA

  • Integrating gender equality into Programming: This 2-day course (12 hours) focused on the key concepts of gender equality and aimed to assist CIDA development officers in carrying out their responsibilities in the implementation of CIDA’s Policy on Gender Equality. Approximately 50% of the content (about 6 hours) addresses the importance of Gender Equality in International Development and CIDA’s Corporate and Global Commitments to gender equality. The other 50% addressed the role of development officers in the implementation of the policy on gender equality and provided them with tools to better play this role.
  • Managing for Gender Equality Results: This one-day course (6 hours) focused on designing, managing and monitoring of development projects so they achieve the best possible results to close gaps of inequality between women and men. 100% of the content (6 hours) of this one-day course was dedicated to this topic.

DFAIT

All START training reflected Canada’s commitments to UNSCRs on WPS. All policy and program staff who took part in START training, whether from START, other government departments or from partner organizations, work within the context of peace operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations.

DND

  • Training on human rights and the law of armed conflict was mandatory for CAF personnel deploying on peace support operations, or to fragile states or conflict-affected situations. This training reflected UNSCRs on Women, Peace and Security by addressing the protection of vulnerable groups, including women and girls.
  • Cultural awareness training was mandatory for CAF personnel deploying on peace support operations, or to fragile states or conflicted-affected situations. This training considered the impact of gender on operations, such as when interacting with the local population.
  • Individual Pre-Deployment Training offered by the PSTC included “Human Rights” and “Women in Conflict” modules that addressed UNSCRs on WPS, including Resolutions 1325 and 1820. This training included an introduction to gender mainstreaming and a discussion of the impact of conflict on women and girls.

RCMP

The RCMP took the approach of providing specific training on the UNSCRs on Women, Peace and Security to police deploying to UN missions, through the online module Effective Mandate Implementation. The tenets of the UNSCRs were further reinforced through subject-matter experts who provided lectures to officers during pre-deployment training.

Action 3

Deliver programming under Government of Canada international programs in the justice and security sector that reflects an analysis of the differential impact of conflict on women and girls.

DFAIT

  • CFLI projects in this area included: gender legal theory and practice training (Burma) and training and empowering young female lawyers to defend women’s human rights (Egypt and Bangladesh).
  • GPSF employed a gender analysis of logic models and performance measurement frameworks to determine the impact of conflict on women and girls

DND

Training offered by the Military Training and Cooperation Program included sessions that integrated a gender perspective.

Indicator 3-1

Extent to which programming delivered under the Military Training and Cooperation Program (MTCP), Anti-Crime Capacity-Building Program (ACCBP), Counter-Terrorism Capacity-Building Program (CTCBP) and the Global Peace and Security Fund (GPSF) and similar Government of Canada international programs in the justice and security sector operationalizes an analysis of the differential impact of conflict on women and girls.

DFAIT

  • All Civilian deployment programs, projects and deployments are reviewed for gender risks and benchmarks. Terms of reference for all civilian deployments take into account the differential impact of conflict on women and girls; this is particularly true in the case of those experts who are conducting conflict analysis
  • On a rating scale of o-3, the START Stabilization and Reconstruction Programs average .95 out of 3.00 on gender analysis.
    • 46 projects – 0 (no gender analysis)
    • 53 projects – 1 (limited integration)
    • 21 projects – 2 (integrated)
    • 9 projects – 3 (specific)

DND

The Military Training and Cooperation Program’s Peace Support Operations courses incorporated a gender perspective as a part of the discussion of subjects such as international law, human trafficking, and child soldiers.

Action 4

Continue to engage in policy dialogue with multilateral partners—including through the UN and its various bodies, funds and programs; the World Bank and other international financial institutions; the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development; NATO; the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe; the International Organization for Migration; the Organization of American States; the Commonwealth; and La Francophonie—to encourage the strengthening of their capacities to plan for, implement and report on issues of Women, Peace and Security in peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations.

CIDA

Geographic Programs:

Colombia:

  • The Gender Working Group held consultations regarding the March 2013 Colombian policy document on “Public Policy and Integral Plan for a Life Free of Violence,” which was approved with respective budget allocations.
  • The Colombian government is implementing the Victims and Land Restitution Law, which was informed by input from CIDA-funded women’s groups, specifically in Choco.
  • Through CIDA funding, OHCHR provided information to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women outlining the gender aspects of the implementation of the Victims’ and Land Restitution Law. OHCHR also assisted a UN Team of Experts with making recommendations to the national authorities regarding the draft bill on Access to Justice for Victims of Sexual Violence.

Guatemala:

CIDA convened donors to the UNDP/Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala to discuss improving gender outcomes and was able to influence Commission programming to include specific actions around violence against women and trafficking of women. The Commission is now working closely with the specialized prosecutor's office on human trafficking and the development of a methodology for criminal investigation to address cases of murdered women and trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation and other forms of violence against women.

Burma:

CIDA-supported women's groups were the first to highlight humanitarian challenges on Burma's northern border, and have been active in dialogues on the question of refugee repatriation. One result was that the Myanmar Peace Support Initiative postponed plans related to resettlement of displaced Shan into an insecure location.

Afghanistan:

  • The Afghanistan program remained engaged with UN Women’s quarterly multi-donor forums in Kabul and through regular Gender Donor Coordination Group meetings coordinated by UN Women.
  • CIDA’s support t, and close work with GenCap,Footnote 6 strengthened the humanitarian system’s integration of gender issues in Afghanistan. CIDA staff were very active in this regard. The GenCAP Advisor’s position, however, was eliminated in December 2012. CIDA continued to engage in regular policy dialogue on gender equality issues with OCHA, UN Women, WFP and key bilateral donors. CIDA’s advocacy efforts focused on the reinstatement of a full-time, in-country senior Gender Advisor for humanitarian assistance in Afghanistan.
  • Challenges included:
    • Keeping gender equality on the agenda, given other priorities and events (transition, elections and insecurity);
    • Building consensus with members of the international community to support gender equality, with a focus on results (not only general principles); and,
    • Advocating for gender equality and women’s access issues in humanitarian assistance programming, given the limited capacity of partners and level of commitment by the Afghan government.

West Bank/Gaza:

  • While humanitarians recognize the importance of gender equality, it is often overlooked when responding to other more urgent priorities. Keeping gender front and centre requires sustained pressure from donors on humanitarian actors.
  • Nonetheless, at humanitarian coordination meetings in 2012-2013, CIDA advocated for greater integration of gender in the UN-led CAP process with a special focus on including gender-sensitive responses to humanitarian needs in the CAP’s sectoral response plans. UN agencies welcomed the Canadian initiative to better integrate gender in the CAP and committed to do so in CAP 2014. CIDA also worked with other donors (Spain and Italy) and UN agencies (UN Women and OCHA) to support a gender coordinator position to ensure that gender is effectively integrated across sectors of the humanitarian response.

South Sudan:

CIDA’s contribution to the Joint Donor Office (JDO) (mandated to provide technical expertise to Joint Donor Partners and the Government of South Sudan in support of sustainable peace, poverty reduction and the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals) resulted in technical support to gender coordination mechanisms for harmonization and effectiveness of development partner support, including implementation of UNSCR 1325.

Democratic Republic of Congo:

  • On the occasion of Minister Fantino’s visit to DRC during the Sommet de la Francophonie, a meeting was held with the United Nations Stabilization Mission in DRC (MONUSCO), Ministry of Gender, United Nations Development Program (UNDP), United Nations Population Fund, United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and the European Union Police Mission (EUPOL) to discuss ongoing issues related to the fight against impunity in the context of sexual violence. Canada further demonstrated its determination and commitment to addressing this important issue. At the Sommet de la Francophonie, Prime Minister Harper announced a five-year, $18.5 million project to fight sexual violence and impunity.
  • In 2012-2013, CIDA's field office in Kinshasa actively participated in the development of a National (DRC) strategy on women, peace and security under the supervision of the Ministry of Gender, Family and Children. Building on this strategy, an Action Plan was developed. Both were validated and sanctioned by the government.
  • In July 2012, in Kinshasa, CIDA's field office participated in the High-Level meeting of the Ministers of Gender and Justice in the Great Lakes Region where the Kampala Resolution and the related protocols were discussed and approved. The Kampala Resolution included the commitment to accelerate the domestication process of the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region ICGLR) Protocol on Prevention and Suppression of Sexual Violence against Women and Children, in order to combat sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV).
  • The adoption of the protocols at the High-Level meeting in Kinshasa for the reduction of sexual violence and fight against impunity provided a firm basis upon which many activities were held in 2012, namely the setting up of proximity and specialized tribunals, the establishment of special judicial procedures to prosecute the perpetrators of sexual violence and, finally, the launch of the “Tolerance Zero” campaign.
  • The Embassy in Kinshasa participated actively in the launch of the “Tolerance Zero’’ campaign organized by the ICGLR. This campaign was an opportunity for the region and the international community to underline the importance of the engagement of Governments of the Great Lakes to reduce sexual violence and impunity.

West and Central Africa :

Since March 2011, CIDA contributed $4.3 million to a World Bank-managed Multi-Donor Trust Fund worth $9.2 million, and played an active role in policy dialogue at the bilateral and regional level to address the gender-specific needs of ex-combatants in the context of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programs. CIDA support led to improvements in building the capacity of the Burundi and Rwanda Demobilization and Reintegration Commissions to implement gender action plans, which have supported the gender-specific needs of 851 ex-combatants and over 6,000 of their dependents. Nonetheless, insecurity and violence persist in the DRC, causing challenges and delays in service delivery and program development and implementation.

Mali:

  • Policy dialogue took place through the Gender Equality Donor Coordination Group, and in bilateral discussions with the Netherlands. The importance of supporting women to advance their human rights linked to peace and security was stressed at these events
  • Policy dialogue also took place through the Rural Economy Donor Coordination Group, where Canada stressed the importance of fully integrating gender equality into policy documents. The weak capacity of the Government of Mali in gender equality limited the integration of this cross-cutting thematic in the latest version of the country’s Rural Development Policy.

Multilateral and Global Programs Branch:

  • The protection of women is a key tenet of CIDA's engagement with multilateral partners for International Humanitarian Assistance. CIDA makes use of a number of forums to advance gender-related issues, including Executive Board/Committee meetings of WFP and UNHCR, the OCHA Donor Support Group, High-Level Meetings and Annual Bilateral Consultations, OHCHR Annual Bilateral Consultations and ICRC Annual Donor Support Group Meetings. Engagement with the ICRC is particularly important as it plays a key role in upholding the Geneva Conventions and protecting civilians affected by armed conflict.
  • Canada also advocates for the protection of women during negotiations at the UN General Assembly and the annual ECOSOC Humanitarian resolution. The final negotiated text in the 2012 ECOSOC resolution on Strengthening of the coordination of emergency humanitarian assistance of the United Nations included the following: “Urges Member States to continue to prevent, investigate and prosecute acts of sexual and gender-based violence in humanitarian emergencies..” and “...Requests Member States...to ensure that all aspects of humanitarian response address the specific needs of women, girls, men and boys, taking into consideration age and disability, including through improved collection, analysis and reporting of data disaggregated by sex..”

Strategic Policy and Performance:

  • - Canada co-Chairs the Development Assistance Committee’s International Network on Conflict and Fragility at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and is a member of the Development Assistance Committee’s Network on Gender Equality. In 2012-2013, CIDA engagement with these networks included the provision of gender equality advice to the Secretariat of the Network for the development of a policy brief and guidance on gender equality and statebuilding. This guidance will be published in both official languages.
  • Canada also contributed to the development of proposed monitoring indicators for the Peacebuilding and Statebuilding Goals of the New Deal for Engagement in Fragile States by providing key recommendations to help ensure indicators disaggregated by sex. As this input was taken forward by the g7+ grouping of 20 self-identified fragile and conflict-affected states, it influenced the proposed goals and indicators put forward in the Report of the High Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda. As a consequence, Goal 11 (Ensure Stable and Peaceful Societies) has four indicators, and three of these can be reported on with sex-disaggregated data. If they are eventually embedded within the final Post-2015 Development Framework, the pursuit of equality between women and men with regard to access to justice, the reduction of violent death, and the professionalism of security forces will be established as a global norm, a major accomplishment to which Canada has made an important contribution.

DFAIT

  • At the April 2012 G-8 Foreign Ministers’ Meeting, Minister Baird led the discussion on women in international peace and security.
  • At the May 2012 G-8 Camp David Leaders’ Summit, Prime Minister Harper and his colleagues endorsed a Declaration urging respect for the human rights of women and girls, recognizing that according women full and equal rights and opportunities is crucial for all countries’ political stability, democratic governance, and economic growth, and reaffirming a commitment to advance human rights of and opportunities for women, leading to more development, poverty reduction, conflict prevention and resolution, and improved maternal health and reduced child mortality.
  • During a visit of UK Foreign Secretary Hague to Ottawa in September 2012, he and Minister Baird “renewed and refreshed” the Canada-UK Joint Declaration, including a commitment to “strengthen international efforts and coordination, including at the UN and within the G-8, to prevent and respond to sexual violence in conflict, such as rape as a weapon of war, and to promote accountability, as well as to prosecute perpetrators, both nationally and internationally, and support states to build their capability to tackle such perpetrators.
  • Minister Baird participated in the December 2012 Club de Madrid meetings where he was the keynote speaker on women’s participation in peace and security.
  • Canada advocated for the inclusion of WPS concerns in the UN Department of Political Affairs on the development of UN Guidance for Effective Mediation.
  • Canada advocated for the development of and consensus on May 2012 NATO Summit statement and annexes, including the NATO systematic review of WPS on policy and operations, and strengthened emphasis on the value and tenets of the UNSCRs on WPS
  • On November 30, 2012, Canada made a statement to the Security Council reaffirming the important role women play in the prevention and resolution of conflicts and in peacebuilding, and called for the continued meaningful participation of women throughout peace processes.
  • Canada’s June 25, 2012, statement to the Security Council on behalf of the Working Group on the Protection of Civilians drew attention to the fact that civilians continue to be victims of rape and sexual violence in conflict.
  • Canada’s statement to the Security Council on Children and Armed Conflict in September 2012 emphasized concern at the killing and rape of girls and boys.
  • In September 2012, Canada emphasized in its statement to the Security Council on Afghanistan the importance of the empowerment of women to shape their future, stressing that the human rights of women and girls must not be overlooked and drawing attention to the participation of women in civil society.
  • In March 2013 Canada emphasized the importance of considering the provision of healthcare services in the Security Council debate on MINUSTAH.
  • At the UN General Assembly in 2012, Canada supported the First Committee resolution on Women, Disarmament, Non-Proliferation and Arms Control.
  • Canada advocated for strong language on WPS issues to be included within the Security Council resolution renewing the mandate of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan
  • At the UN General Assembly in 2012, Canada supported the inclusion of a section on Children and Armed Conflict in a resolution on the Rights of the Child.
  • At the UN General Assembly in 2012, Canada supported the inclusion of WPS considerations and follow-up to the World Summit Outcomes Document in a plenary resolution on the causes of conflict in Africa.
  • DFAIT’s engagement with NATO in 2012-2013 encouraging NATO partners’ consideration of WPS issues and a gender perspective in operations; included participation in the NATO conference Female Leaders in Security and Defence (July 2012, Sofia); liaising with NATO partners on national implementation and reporting arrangements of the UNSCRs; discussions on the NATO review of practical implications of UNSCR 1325 for NATO operations and missions with the newly-appointed Special Representative of the NATO Secretary General for WPS, Mari Skare; and Director-level participation in the NATO WPS Review and Conference in Stockholm, December 2012.
  • Canada supported discussions on WPS issues at the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, including at regular meetings of the Permanent Council
  • At the UN General Assembly in 2012, Canada co-sponsored numerous resolutions related to the protection of women and girls, including resolutions on violence against women and the trafficking of women and girls, and promoted the International Day of the Girl.
  • At the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) in March 2013, Canada contributed to the debate, worked to ensure acceptance of, and joined consensus on the Agreed Conclusions, the final outcome document of the CSW, which this year focused on the theme of Violence Against Women. The Agreed Conclusions referenced prior UN resolutions in this area, noting all prior UNSCRs on WPS and called on member states to ensure accountability, end impunity and prioritize prevention of and response to sexual violence in conflict

Action 5

Continue to work with partners, including in Canada’s role as Chair of the Working Group of the UN Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations (“C-34”), the Group of Friends of Women, Peace and Security, and the Group of Friends on Children and Armed Conflict, as well as through relationships with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the African Union, the League of Arab States and others, to fully implement zero-tolerance policies on sexual exploitation and abuse in peace operations and to promote the implementation of international human rights, crime prevention and criminal justice standards relevant to protecting the rights of women and girls.

DFAIT

  • At the United Nations in New York, Canada continued its role as Chair of the Group of Friends of Women, Peace and Security and of the Group of Friends of Children and Armed Conflict. In this role, Canada convened monthly meetings of the groups to discuss emerging policy and items on the Security Council’s agenda, organized and chaired events on topics of interest, and represented the Groups of Friends at the UN Security Council.
  • The Canadian Permanent Mission to the UN in New York engaged in targeted discussions and advocacy with the UN Department for Peacekeeping Operations and UN Women throughout the year, including groundwork to elaborate commitments for the Security Council within the Presidential Statement adopted in October 2012 on WPS and the role of civil society.
  • The Canadian Permanent Mission to the UN in New York supported the work of the Special Representative of the Secretary General on Sexual Violence in Conflict, including by hosting a discussion between the Special Representative and the Group of Friends of Women, Peace and Security to discuss priority issues.
  • The Canadian Permanent Mission to the UN in New York organized a meeting between the Group of Friends of Women, Peace and Security and UN Department for Peacekeeping Operations Gender Advisors from the field to discuss their work and exchange ideas.
  • In the June 2012 Universal Periodic Review at the United Nations Human Rights Council, Canada called for South Africa to investigate all allegations of sexual exploitation and abuse by South African peacekeepers; prosecute and punish offenders; take measures within South African peacekeeping contingents to prevent future offences; and report the results back to UN peacekeeping authorities.
  • In July 2012, the Group of Friends of Women, Peace and Security with Canada as Chair emphasized the links between WPS and arms, making explicit links to gender-based violence.
  • Canada continues to be an active advocate for the inclusion of policies and recommendations in the “Gender and Peacekeeping” section of the Report of the UN Special Committee on Peacekeeping. The Special Committee on Peacekeeping is the body in charge of providing strategic and operational guidance on UN peacekeeping. Canada negotiates as part of the CANZ group (Canada, Australia and New Zealand), in which Canada has the lead role for setting and advancing priorities and strategies on gender and peacekeeping. For the 2013 session of the Special Committee on Peacekeeping*, Canada specifically sought to advance language recognizing the importance of deploying gender advisers; the inclusion of gender expertise in mission transitions; the development of mission-specific early warning indicators on conflict-related sexual violence; the rapid deployment of women protection advisers; and the implementation of guidance and training modules on gender for all deployed personnel. *NB: due to lack of consensus on procedural matters, the Special Committee on Peacekeeping failed to conclude negotiations on its 2013 report.

Afghanistan

  • Canada advised the Government of Afghanistan, through the Criminal Law Reform working groups, on incorporating its obligations under various international human rights treaties and instruments into Afghan law
  • As a member of the Women’s Caucus, Canada advocated for greater engagement with and participation by Afghan women in the Afghan Penal Code Reform process, resulting in the appointment of ten female Afghan legal experts to the Ministry of Justice’s Criminal Law Reform working groups.
  • Canada advocated for stronger and more widespread implementation of the Elimination of Violence against Women (EVAW) law in private meetings with Afghan interlocutors, in international forums, including the UN and the Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework (TMAF) Senior Officials Meeting, and in public statements.
  • Canada has advocated in meetings with Afghan officials against the imposition of criminal penalties for women accused of so-called “moral crimes”, which are not crimes under Afghan law.

Action 6

Advocate for improved accountability mechanisms on the part of the UN and reporting by Member States on progress made to implement Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security (UNSCRs 1325, 1820, 1888 and 1889).

DFAIT

  • The START Policy Officer for Women, Peace and Security participated in discussions on financing of National Action Plans in New York, October 2012.
  • The Canadian Permanent Mission to the UN in New York hosted a series of WPS events in October and November 2012, encouraging discussion between UN Missions and civil society.
  • In its role as the Chair of the Group of Friends of Women, Peace and Security, Canada advocated for increased accountability for sexual violence in conflict with the 4 cases of the Special Court for Sierra Leone. The Group of Friends of Women, Peace and Security also engaged with Justice Rapid Response and the Team of Experts on the Rule of Law of the Special Representative of the Secretary General for Sexual Violence in Conflict to understand and promote their work on accountability.
  • Canada’s statements to the UN Security Council advocated for improved accountability mechanisms on the part of the UN and member states, including at the June 25, 2012 debate on Protection of Civilians.
  • Through the CFLI, Canada supported a project in South Sudan to develop a WPS national action plan.

Action 7

Advocate for Women, Peace and Security issues to be included in the mandates of all UN missions for peace operations, and throughout the work of the UN Peacebuilding Commission, while encouraging the creation and work of appropriately resourced and influential specialist teams on Women, Peace and Security issues within new peacekeeping operations.

DFAIT

  • In its role as Chair of the UN Peacebuilding Commission Sierra Leone country configuration, Canada used its profile and influence, including through open statements at the Security Council, to highlight and encourage action by the Government of Sierra Leone and its international partners on the declining presence and participation of women in Sierra Leone political office and processes.
  • Encouraged the strengthening of UN capacity to report on WPS issues by negotiating language with the international community to welcome these steps in the 2012 and 2013 Human Rights Council Resolution on the Elimination of all forms of Violence against women.
  • Canada advocated for the inclusion of strong language on promoting and protecting the rights of women and girls in both the International Security Assistance Force and the mandate resolution for the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan.
  • Canada also advocated for the continuance of Gender Advisors with International Security Assistance Force during mission drawdown in Afghanistan to ensure that gender issues remain a top priority for NATO.

Action 8

Promote evidence-based research and analysis, and engage in policy dialogue and development on the Women, Peace and Security agenda, including discussions with Canadian, international and local civil society organizations.

CIDA

Multilateral and Global Programs Branch:

Work on the Canada-funded Gender Equality & Humanitarian Outcomes research study was ongoing during the reporting year. The study is jointly commissioned by OCHA, UNICEF and UN Women, and assesses how gender equality programming has or has not contributed to improved humanitarian outcomes. The findings of the research will help to refine the Inter-agency Standing Committee’s (IASC) approach to gender equality programming, inform calls for increased accountability among stakeholders, and contribute to the broader collection of evidence on gender-responsive humanitarian outcomes.

Evaluations:

Strategic Policy and Performance Branch

1. Canadian Police Arrangement/ International Police Peacekeeping and Peace Operations

  • The corporate horizontal evaluation of the Canadian Police Arrangement and International Police Peacekeeping and Peace Operations Program was completed in 2012. The Canadian Police Arrangement and International Police Keeping is the product of cooperation between DFAIT, Public Safety and CIDA, and has an annual budget of $48.2 million. The goal of the Canadian Police Arrangement is to support the government's commitments to build a more secure world through Canadian participation in International Police Peacekeeping and Peace Operations Program operations, critical to longer-term security system reform and conflict prevention efforts. One of the components of the program is the deployment of Canadian police officers to UN missions.
  • The evaluation reported that Canada is the 17th largest provider of women police officers in the UN missions and the first among the industrialized countries, and that a Canadian deployment included 16 women in March 2011. This contribution was appreciated by the UN in consideration of the low proportion of women among UN peacekeeping staff. Twelve percent of graduates from the Haitian National School of Police were women. In Afghanistan, a Canadian woman worked closely with the Ministry of the Interior in Kabul to create positions for women police officers.
  • Although there were no recommendations addressing gender equality, the management response to the evaluation stated that the RCMP will continue to promote higher female participation to its police partners. The evaluation report was not informed by a gender analysis, thus rendering it difficult to assess the gender-based inequalities that should have been addressed in the program and whether appropriate attention was actually paid to the promotion of gender equality.

2. Regional Human Rights and PeaceBuilding Fund

  • The evaluation of the Regional Human Rights and PeaceBuilding Fund was completed in 2012. The $5 million five-year project was implemented in Morocco, Tunisia and Egypt. The fund provided financial and technical assistance to selected local and regional CSOs. Gender equality results were planned for in the areas of women’s and girls’ human rights, peacebuilding and conflict resolution, capacity-building in advocacy and governance, and enhancing democratic reform and transition.
  • The project was successful in achieving expected outcomes with regards to gender equality given the difficult environment in which initiatives took place. Results include:
    • Legal support, free legal advice and psychosocial services were provided to 150 women, among others, in the area of sexual and domestic violence.
    • There was a 40% participation rate of women in peacebuilding and conflict resolution initiatives
    • More than 760 women increased their skills in advocacy and women in politics.
    • In Palestinian camps, female social workers (80% of social workers) increased their knowledge and skills in the area of women’s empowerment.
    • At least 200 girls received information on the new constitutional provisions regarding human rights of women and youth participation in governance.
  • The evaluation reported that new and innovative ways are needed to reach specific populations in the area of peacebuilding and conflict resolution - especially youth (particularly boys) and women, and that the role of young people in promoting equality and human rights needs to be strengthened.

Policy Dialogue:

Strategic Policy and Performance Branch

  • The Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies is a network of representatives from NGOs, UN agencies, donor agencies, academic institutions, schools, and affected groups advancing the right of quality and safe education in emergencies. The network includes a Gender Task Team that support gender mainstreaming and attention to gender equality in and through education in emergencies, post-crisis and contexts of fragility.
  • In 2012-2013, Canada supported the Network’s Gender Task Team to help revise the Inter-Agency Standing Committee’s Gender-Based Violence Guidelines to ensure they reflect global good practice for supporting access to quality, gender-sensitive education in emergencies, conflict, post-conflict, and situations of fragility.

Geographic Programs Branch

Colombia:

In Colombia, gender-based violence is still a taboo issue and people are often afraid of reporting incidents because the perpetrators are armed actors. With support from CIDA funding, UNHCR/UNFPA published a manual on the Implementation of the Gender-Based Violence Information Management System in Colombia. The system allows humanitarian actors responding to incidents of gender-based violence in the areas of health, justice and psycho-social assistance to effectively and safely collect, store, and analyze incidents of gender-based violence reported by survivors. The UNHCR reports that 444 cases of SGBV were registered in the system during the three years of implementation in four municipalities.

Haiti:

CIDA supported coordination structures between state and non-governmental actors to address violence against women and gender-based violence, particularly at the departmental level in Nippes and South-East departments.

Burma:

  • CIDA-supported women's groups were the first to highlight humanitarian challenges on Burma's northern border, resulting in the Myanmar Peace Support Initiative postponing plans related to resettlement of displaced Shan into an insecure location, and have been active in dialogues on the refugee repatriation question.
  • CIDA-supported women's groups engaged ethnic organizations for greater inclusion and representation of women's human rights issues, resulting in the Karen National Union re-electing the only woman in the top leadership of the KNU, this time as Vice-Chair. In addition, the Congress announced formally that it would “adopt future work plans to increase women’s participation in politics and national affairs.” These accomplishments directly followed the first Karen women’s seminar (supported by this program), which was held just prior to the congress.
  • CIDA-supported women’s groups pressed for clear and public calls for inclusion of the public and women's organizations and representatives in the peace process negotiations, including direct engagement of ethnic armed groups on this issue and holding WLB training workshops for its members in peace negotiations. This has resulted in the Pa-O National Liberation Organization invitation to the Pa-O Women’s Union to send one representative to join their peace team. The main think-tank for the border-based ethnic political groups (the Working Group for Ethnic Coordination) also invited the WLB to send two representatives to join their monthly coordinating meetings.

Nepal:

The Peacebuilding From Below project engaged local Community-Based People’s Organizations and Village Development Committees to ensure women’s inclusion in local decision-making and development projects, and the centrality of gender equality to peacebuilding and development. Through the implementation of the project, Community-Based People’s Organizations saw a rise in women’s attainment of decision-making positions and inclusion in decision-making processes, and an overall increase in women’s mobility. While Community-Based People’s Organizations reported a decline in violence against women—and attributed this to women’s growing confidence, assertiveness, and solidarity to address gender equality-specific issues—district level authorities felt that violence against women was on the rise (for generally the same reasons Community-Based People’s Organizations attributed a decline). The project did not collect data on this issue or have a concerted strategy to address it.

Afghanistan:

  • To strengthen the planning of initiatives for the new Women’s Rights and Empowerment sector, CIDA undertook a Donor Mapping exercise. The report focused on violence against women and girls, women in decision-making and WPS. The report was very useful for CIDA and other donors and sparked an interest by UN Women and the donor community to develop a broader mapping exercise. CIDA supported the Gender Donor Coordination Group in the development of Terms of Reference for a comprehensive sectoral mapping study. UN Women is planning to take the lead on this.
  • CIDA’s Knowledge Fund supported research and the preparation of a report on National Action Plan for Women of Afghanistan, focusing on evaluating the current level of implementation of this program and provide recommendations for a way forward.
  • The Senior Director presented Gender Equality lessons learned at the Wilton Park Workshop on evaluation lessons from Development Assistance to Afghanistan held in the UK in February 2013.
  • Canada engaged in policy dialogue with key development stakeholders (Government, Civil Society Organizations, the Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission and other donors) through forums including the Gender Donor Coordination Group and the Women, Peace and Security Working Group on key issues to promote the protection and participation of Afghan women and girls. Close collaboration between CIDA and DFAIT’s resulted in consistent, strong and effective Canadian messaging. Examples include:
    • Canada engaged in periodic and focused policy dialogue with our partner ministries. These efforts led to opportunities to advance gender equality, and to reinforce commitments under the National Action Plan for Women in Afghanistan.
    • CIDA continued to provide multi-year institutional support to Afghanistan’s Independent Human Rights Commission. In partnership with civil society, the Commission played a pivotal role in preventing the Afghan Government from reversing the progress in women’s human rights, and strengthened knowledge and understanding of women’s human rights among Afghans. The Commission plays a strategic role in monitoring and reporting incidents of violence against women, which is used to advocate with the government for greater measures to promote women’s security, including stronger implementation of the EVAW law.
    • In 2012, on the margins of the Tokyo Conference on Afghanistan, Canada organized and chaired a Strategic Dialogue Session where seven representatives of Afghan Women's organizations had the opportunity to exchange views with key members of the international community. Issues of concern on women’s and girls’ human rights were integrated into the TMAF, which will measure progress both by donors and the Afghan government. The TMAF will be monitored through the implementation of the EVAW law. It will also contribute to the effectiveness of the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission and support the Millennium Development Goals related to gender equality.
    • In 2012-2013, the Canadian Embassy in Kabul organized two roundtables to discuss issues related to gender- based violence and, in particular, strategies on strengthening enforcement of the EVAW law.
  • A key challenge and priority is to build the resiliency of women’s organizations and the capacity of CSOs to continue to engage and promote government accountability. With a decreased international presence and with continuing insecurity in what appears to be an increasing level of violence directed at women, it will be paramount to ensure women’s voices are heard in the decision-making process.

Pakistan:

  • The WPS agenda is difficult to work on directly in Pakistan due to the sensitivities about the status of Pakistan as a conflict-affected state. However, under the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Fund, CIDA funded the Gender and Child Unit of the National Disaster Management Authority for seven months (Dec 2012-June 2013). This unit consisted of a four-person team that held workshops on capacity-building and formulation of policy guidelines for gender mainstreaming and integration of concerns of vulnerable groups such as women and vulnerable children into the National Social Protection Policy. The unit is also responsible for ensuring that gender, women’s human rights and child safety are integrated into national disaster planning, preparedness and responses.
  • CIDA participated in regular discussions with the United Nations on the humanitarian response in Pakistan and routinely raised issues related to gender equality. The Pakistan Program also participated in the Gender Task Force, co-chaired by UN Women and UN Population Fund, which acts as a mechanism for humanitarian policy and technical advice to the UN Humanitarian Country Team in Pakistan. As member and past chair of the Inter-Agency Working Group on Gender and Development, CIDA worked to ensure that gender equality is front and centre of the agenda related to humanitarian and development assistance in Pakistan.
  • CIDA, because of its technical expertise, was selected as an observer for the first year to the Gender Thematic Group - a forum of different international and national NGOs, and UN agencies to provide support to the National Disaster Management Agency. This group helps coordinate stakeholders, formulate policy and develop implementation plans on gender equality for the complete spectrum of disaster management.

West Bank/Gaza:

  • In 2012-2013, CIDA engaged in a number of policy dialogues to advance WPS issues. The bilateral program helped build the institutions that will one day serve Palestinians in a state to be created through direct negotiations between the parties to end the conflict. However, there remained a lack of progress on plans across the Palestinian Authority to address gender issues. This was exacerbated by the absence of a sitting Palestinian Legislative Council and what is seen as a lack of will and capacity by the Palestinian Authority to act.
  • CIDA engaged in policy dialogue in the justice sector through its participation at donor coordination meetings including the Justice Sector Working Group. For instance, in the context of the development of a new Palestinian justice sector strategy, CIDA advocated for greater focus on gender justice issues.
  • CIDA helped advance policy dialogue on gender equality by funding research on how women’s human rights are implemented and protected in Palestinian legislation. Through the Sharaka project supporting the Office of the Attorney General and Prosecution Service, a gender advisor was employed full-time and was involved in discussions that included integrating international norms relating to gender in day-to-day operations. CIDA supported the development of a gender strategy in its forensics project and—together with project implementers—was engaged in a number of consultations with ministries, stakeholders and international organizations to educate partners on gender issues related to forensics specifically related to gender-based violence.
  • CIDA provided technical support for the implementation of the National Strategy to Combat Violence Against Women.

Jordan:

  • Through the Gender and Social Fund, research and analysis was undertaken on the equitable participation of Jordanian women—including Palestinian refugee women—in the development of their society. The fund focused on enhancing the knowledge base of gender in Jordan, strengthening capacities to address gender inequalities, realizing women’s human rights, and supporting development initiatives that promote equality between men and women. The Gender and Social Fund also supported initiatives that strengthen civil society, governmental and private sector organizations to become more effective in promoting women’s strategic interests. It supported both Jordanian and Palestinian refugee women’s organizations. In 2012-2013, four Gender and Social Fund projects undertook lobbying activities on women's human rights, one of the three Gender and Social Fund partner women who ran for parliamentary elections won a seat in parliament, and a series of town hall meetings were held for women in eleven governorates to give feedback about the then-proposed elections law.
  • From March to June 2012, knowledge sessions were facilitated to generate lessons learned in promoting gender equality. A detailed report provided recommendations in the areas of good governance and NGOs; challenges facing women’s businesses; creative approaches to women’s human rights and gender equality; and quality of gender research.

South Sudan:

  • CIDA’s support to the Joint Donor Office’s investments in policy dialogue helped establish a foundation for gender equality in South Sudan’s nascent legislative and policy architecture. CIDA’s contribution to the Joint Donor Office:
    • Supported the Ministry of Gender and UN Women to prepare for the development of a South Sudan National Action Plan for implementing UNSCR 1325;
    • Supported the Ministry of Gender to develop its National Gender Policy for South Sudan;
    • Supported the provision of advice on the ratification and domestication of CEDAW and the African Union Women’s Rights Protocol;
    • Launched an awareness campaign to inform civil society organizations, government and women of the international legal framework for women’s human rights, including CEDAW, and supported national capacities in gender-sensitive legislative drafting, resulting in a better understanding of gender equality principles and women’s human rights in South Sudan;
    • Developed a women’s leadership training program targeting women professionals from security, legislature, judiciary and civil society;
    • Advised the Ministry of Gender on institutional strengthening and gender focal persons system;
    • Facilitated dialogue on gender and the New Deal for Fragile States as a side event to the International Dialogue, and created a platform for dialogue between civil society, government and donors to ensure that gender issues and civil society concerns are included in the development planning process for the New Deal Compact. As a result, recommendations were made on how to integrate a gender perspective into the New Deal pilot in South Sudan and possible actions; and,
    • Supported a Joint Donor Partner Gender Assessment of Safety, Security and Access to Justice programming and a final report to guide future programming which was produced in 2012-2013.
  • Nonetheless, development work in South Sudan was impeded by difficulty in accessing rural communities and the general lack of infrastructure in South Sudan. Women’s access to security, safety and justice are major challenges since many areas of the country are difficult to reach by the government and international partners, including Canada.

Democratic Republic of Congo:

  • Canada’s involvement in the fight against sexual violence contributed to policy dialogue with the Government of DRC and other partners, and to keeping the issue on the international and national agendas. CIDA’s field advisors provided key technical input to working groups and to the development of a strategy by the Gender Ministry.
  • In 2012, Canada contributed to the publication of a guide on the indicators of sexual inequalities specific to DRC. This collaboration between UNDP and Canada was published by the Ministry of Gender Family and Children. The document was produced and printed to assist in the training of civil servants responsible for planning and development of Government of DRC sector programs.

West and Central Africa :

  • In June 2012, Canada supported a regional policy dialogue led by the ICGLR, addressing the fight against SGBV and impunity. In addition, CIDA helped to build the capacity of the Organization of Women's Groups and Associations in the Great Lakes Region to become a recognized lever of influence in the sub-region to defend the rights of women victims of SGBV. As a result of this support, a total of 676 community leaders were sensitized to the causes and consequences of SGBV, the existence of services available for treating victims, and their role as leaders in preventing and addressing this violence. A preliminary evaluation of these sensitization activities revealed changes in attitude among some leaders, as the campaigns opened their eyes to forms of violence they had not condemned in the past.
  • CIDA supported the work of the World Bank and its local, national and international partners in undertaking groundbreaking evidence-based research and analysis addressing the gender specific needs of ex-combatants, especially as it relates to demobilization and reintegration programs.
  • CIDA support to high-level policy dialogue undertaken by the ICGLR resulted in concrete results, such as Organization of Women's Groups and Associations in the Great Lakes Region having successfully lobbied for the integration of gender-sensitive services for victims of SGBV into the Kampala declaration, which includes providing free medical, psychosocial and legal services to these victims. In addition, action research activities produced several knowledge products, such as gender sensitivity training videos and groundbreaking studies addressing various social and economic dimensions of gender in the conflict and post-conflict setting.
  • CIDA provided $2.75 million to support Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration programs and civil society networks providing services to victims of SGBV to access essential medical, psycho-social and legal services in the Great Lakes Region of Africa. This support increased collaboration between representatives of the judicial, psychosocial and medical sectors, resulting in a change in service protocols that are increasingly sensitive to the needs of victims of SGBV, increasing access to services for women and girls. As well, CIDA support to Demobilization and Reintegration Commissions in gender sensitivity led to the development of innovative programs that address the needs of victims of violence as well as conflict-affected women and men as they work toward reintegrating into their communities and families.
  • One major challenge is to influence other countries to adopt similar strategies and form a united front against the continued threat of violence that affects the Great Lakes Region. In addition, CIDA observed a need to improve project partners' data collection and financial processes at the local levels in order to ensure the collection of accurate quantitative data to measure certain interventions' impact on the lives of women and girls who are victims of SGBV.

DFAIT

  • In September 2012, Minister Baird included women’s human rights and participation in peacebuilding as a key theme in his speech to the Montreal Council on Foreign Relations. Minister Baird advocated for “the participation of women at all levels of society, especially as old regimes fall and new governments emerge in countries seeking progress, freedom and dignity…because states where women play vital, central roles in government and civil society are generally more prosperous AND more pluralistic overall.”
  • A Canadian official participated in a September 2012 workshop in London, co-hosted by the UK Department for International Development and the Canadian International Development Research Centre, to examine the evidence base to support the enhancement of the participation of women in international peace and security as a basis for further research.
  • The Interdepartmental Working Group on WPS held two meetings with members of the newly-formed Canadian civil society umbrella group Women Peace and Security Network–Canada, to exchange ideas on WPS policy, government plans for C-NAP reporting and emerging issues of mutual interest.
  • START liaised regularly with members of the Women Peace and Security Network–Canada to facilitate ongoing dialogue.
  • START held meetings and exchanged information with international civil society organizations from the United States, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, Colombia, and local civil society organizations from Egypt, Libya, Pakistan, Sweden, South Sudan and Kenya.
  • START participated in the March 2013 Wilton Park conference on Women in Peacebuilding. The roundtable, an off-the-record meeting, was convened to provide an expert forum to identify constraints and opportunities; consider lessons learned and build on best practice; and discuss ways forward for effective implementation. It was attended by approximately 60 participants from international and regional bodies, including policymakers and practitioners, representatives of NGOs, human rights advocates, academics, military and other specialists with expertise in women’s participation in peacebuilding, mediation and conflict resolution. The conference was structured into sessions focusing on the commitments in the UNSG’s 7-Point Action Plan. A report of the conference discussion is available at https://www.wiltonpark.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/WP1191-Report-100713.pdf.
  • START, along with officers from the North Africa Relations and UN, Human Rights & Humanitarian Law divisions, participated in the February 2012 University of Toronto conference on Sexual Violence in the Conflicts in Libya and Syria. Parliamentary Secretary Dechert’s participation on a panel was cancelled due to inclement weather.

Action 9

Advocate internationally for the strengthening of crime prevention, in particular with regard to women and girls, in a manner consistent with international standards and norms on crime prevention, including the UN Guidelines on Crime Prevention and the prevention components of existing conventions and other relevant standards and norms.

DFAIT

  • Canada has continued to advocate at the UN Office on Drugs and Crime for stronger crime prevention and criminal justice, including in the development of new and stronger norms and standards for crime prevention and criminal justice, including with respect to criminal justice issues affecting women and girls.
  • Canada continued its active support for the development of the UN Principles and Guidelines on Access to Legal Aid in Criminal Justice Systems, adopted by the UN General Assembly in December 2012.
  • Canada actively participated in the process of revisions to the UN Standard Minimum Rules on the Treatment of Prisoners, including minimum rules for treatment of vulnerable groups such as women and children.

Action 10

Encourage the active and meaningful participation of women in decision-making and in deployments for peace operations, including by identifying and addressing barriers to full participation

CIDA

CIDA continued to work toward supporting the equally active and meaningful voice, representation, and participation of women in decision-making and peace operations, including in programming teams for fragile and conflict-affected situations, in international humanitarian assistance teams, and in fragile state and gender equality policy teams.

DFAIT

  • The Canadian Mission in Senegal held an event with the Group of Friends of the Francophonie to promote women’s democratic participation on December 11, 2012. The event was opened by the Speaker of the National Assembly of Senegal. The Mission sponsored the participation of Canadian professor Dr. Allison Harell of Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM), whose presentation was titled “Quotas of Women in Politics: Where Are We?” ("des quotas de femmes en politique : où en sommes-nous ?"), with a focus on Canada and other countries around the world. The Canadian mission also sponsored the participation of an Egyptian expert. The success of this event demonstrated the high profile of the Group of Friends of the Francophonie in Dakar and the relevance of its activities surrounding current priorities of Senegal and the region.
  • Canada advocated for inclusion of WPS concerns, in particular the participation of women and the prevention of sexual violence, to be included in the Istanbul II Conference on Somalia and for language in the related Communiqué to highlight the importance of women’s involvement in economic activities and infrastructure planning and implementation, and supported recognition of Elders’ efforts to include the meaningful participation of women in new Parliamentary institutions.

DND

The CAF does not differentiate between women and men when selecting personnel for operations. Women participated actively and meaningfully in all aspects of international missions, including peace support operations. The CAF also ensures all equipment for personnel on deployed operations is suitable for both women and men. In addition, deployed women have been employed to interact with local women and girls.

RCMP

  • The RCMP made continuous efforts to encourage the active and meaningful participation of women in deployments to peace operations
  • Within the inter-departmental committee structure of the Canadian Police Arrangement, which includes officials from DFAIT, CIDA, Public Safety Canada and the RCMP, there was a general parity in the representation of both men and women, with both playing an active and meaningful role in decision-making related to Canadian police participation in peace operations.

Indicator 10-1

Number of Canadian strategic-level national and international security policy directives or guiding documents that address the participation of women in decision-making.

DFAIT

Developed indicators on women’s human rights, access to justice for vulnerable people and training of police and security officers in a new Americas Strategy.

The START Security System Reform (SSR) Guidelines have the promotion of gender equality as a principle and a reference to C-NAP as providing guidance for SSR programs and projects (available by request from http://www.international.gc.ca/start-gtsr/ssr-rss.aspx?view=d

Indicator 10-2

Number of Canadian strategic-level national and international security policy directives or guiding documents that address the deployment of women to peace operations.

DND

  • All CAF positions, including combat occupations, are open to men and women. As such, there is no distinction (in guiding documents or training) between male and female soldiers who deploy to peace operations.
  • *Note: The opening of all CAF positions, including combat occupations, to women occurred as a direct result of the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal Decision (20 February 1989). The formal announcement of the change was made on March 1, 1989.

Indicator 10-3

Number and percentage of female Canadian Armed Forces personnel, police officers and civilian Government of Canada personnel deployed to peace operations.

DFAIT

In 2012/2013 START funded the deployment of 66 Canada-based civilian experts. Of these 66, a total of 22 (33%) were women.

DND

  • As of March 31, 2013, 145 of 1142 (10%) deployed CAF personnel on international operations were women.
  • During the reporting year, 11 of 46 (24%) civilian employees deployed in support of CAF designated international operations were women.

RCMP

  • 18 women and 134 men were deployed to peace operations. 12%.
  • As deployments to peace operations overlapped reporting periods, it should be noted that the number above reflects the number of police officers who began their tour of duty in 2012-13. Over the course of 2012-13, at any given time, an average of 21 female and 144 male police officers participated in a peace operation, also accounting for approximately 12% female participation over the reporting period.

Indicator 10-4

Number and percentage of voluntary selection processes for Government of Canada personnel to deploy on peace operations that offer specific measures which work to identify and address barriers to women's participation.

DND

The CAF does not differentiate between women and men when selecting personnel for international operations, including peace support operations.

RCMP

Number : 1. Percentage cannot be determined.

  • The RCMP attempted to increase awareness of the program and promote female participation in peace operations through various means. In 2012-2013, all job bulletins for peace operations began including a line specifically encouraging women to apply.
  • The RCMP organized the participation of three female police peacekeepers (RCMP, Toronto Police and Calgary Police) and a civilian in the International Association of Women Police 2012 Training Conference in September 2012. The group staffed a booth throughout the week and made an official presentation to conference participants on the positive impacts of police women serving on international peace operations. A joint social media approach was used by the RCMP, Toronto Police and Calgary Police to promote the contributions of their membe rs in this conference.
  • IPD’s Communication section also regularly published stories from the field written by female Canadian police peacekeepers via the RCMP’s website and social media in an effort to increase awareness and promote participation. Stories from the field by females or those with a focus on gender issues were actively promoted on International Women’s Day and also appear throughout the year.
  • One of the stories featured on International Women’s Day was been reprinted in the UN Police Magazine (July 2013).

Indicator 10-5

Number and proportion of women in executive-level roles in Government of Canada departments and agencies involved in peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations.

CIDA

  • Number of encumbered positions in fragile and conflict-affected country programs, fragile states and gender equality policy divisions, and international humanitarian assistance directorate from April 1, 2012, to March 31, 2013: 32
  • Number of active EX positions within CIDA on March 31, 2013: 140
  • % of encumbered executive-level positions in fragile and conflict-affected country programs, fragile states and gender equality policy divisions, and international humanitarian assistance directorate: 22.9%
  • Number of women in indeterminate positions in FY 2012-2013: 10
  • Number of women in acting positions in FY 2012-2013: 28
  • Number of men in indeterminate positions in FY 2012-2013: 17
  • Number of men in acting positions in FY 2012-2013: 24
  • Total women: 38 (48.1%)
  • Total men: 41 (51.9%)
  1. Some employees were counted more than once as they encumbered multiple EX positions (i.e. usually in the context of acting assignments) during the established timeframe, but they were only counted once in each position they encumbered.
  2. This excludes Managers and Head of Aid positions as these are not executive level positions

DFAIT

3 of 5; Proportion: 60% The Director General and two of the four Directors in the Stabilization and Reconstruction Taskforce (START) were women, as of March 31, 2013.

DND

  • 60 of 138 (44%) DND civilian employees occupying executive level positions were women, which includes 3 of the 6 (50%) of the most senior executive level (EX-05) positions.
  • 13% of Senior Officers (Major to Colonel) in the CAF were women, including 4% of Flag Officers (Brigadier-General or Commodore and above).
  • The DND Policy Group’s International Security Policy Division and its Directorate of Peacekeeping Policy develops defence policy relating to peace support and humanitarian operations, including policies related to UNSCRs on Women Peace and Security. The Assistant Deputy Minister (Policy), and Deputy Director-General of International Security Policy were female
  • All women in executive level positions, both civilian and military, are critical to carrying out the DND and CAF’s role contributing to international peace and security, including peace support operations and missions involving fragile and conflict-affected states.

RCMP

Number:

1 in the RCMP

1 in the Service de police de la Ville de Montréal (SPVM)

Proportion: Cannot be determined within the RCMP as participation in peace operations is but a very small number of the overall role of Canadian police.

  • During the reporting period, the Director -General, International Policing (a Chief Superintendent) was a senior female officer of the RCMP and she was the line officer of the Director, IPD.
  • The Commandant in charge of the peace operations deployment group within SPVM is female.

Action 11

Identify Canadian specialists and trainers from various backgrounds with expertise in women, peace and security issues, and assist where practicable their professional development, placement on international deployment rosters or nomination for relevant multilateral assignments. These specialists can also be a source of policy and program advice for Government of Canada departments and agencies.

DFAIT

  • START recommended several Canadian speakers and participants from Canadian and international civil society organizations, government and academia for the Wilton Park conference on Sexual Violence in Conflict, November 2012.
  • START’s Deployment and Coordination Division coordinated candidates for the Senior UN Mission Leaders course. A number of these high-level candidates were women.

RCMP

  • Several IPD staff and deployed police officers participated in training initiatives relating to WPS. Two female police officers participated in a UN course on preventing and investigating sexual and gender-based violence. Four Canadian police officers participated in the course, “Investigating Cases of Sexual and Gender-based Violence in International Crimes,” with Justice Rapid Response. The course trained and certified the participants for the Justice Rapid Response and UN Women special SGBV roster, enabling the Canadian police officers to be called upon by the international community for rapid deployment to assist in investigating human rights or international criminal violations, including gender-based violence offences.
  • An IPD staff member attended a three-and-a-half-day Gender Training/Gender-Based Analysis Workshop offered through DFAIT’s START, and IPD purchased licenses for online courses on UN peacekeeping, which included several gender-focused courses. Two female officers also attended the “Senior Strategic Advisor’s Master Class on Police Reform in an International & Security Sector Reform Context.”
  • Note: Canadian police volunteer for all multilateral deployments. While women can be encouraged to apply, they cannot be compelled to do so.

Action 12

Integrate the participation and representation of women and girls in Government of Canada international security policy frameworks and projects for or in peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations.

CIDA

Canada worked to advance the equal, active and meaningful voice, representation, and participation of women and girls, including as decision-makers, in peace activities, fragile states, and conflict-affected situations through 6 projects in 2012-2013. For example:

  • - In Afghanistan, the Development and Peace project worked to improve livelihoods of the poor, especially women, youth and indigenous people in deprived rural and urban communities, while strengthening civil society organizations that give voice to the poorest and marginalized populations. The project focused on establishing local mechanisms for conflict management, working to stimulate democratic life by strengthening the role and influence of women in public institutions and establishing mechanisms for peaceful conflict management. The project also provided education, training, assembly and mobilization of women and men around the issues concerning the socio-economic development of their communities, as well as social justice and human rights, particularly women's human rights.
  • In the Burma Border Areas, the Building Social Capital project supported the WLB to expand the reach of its materials and awareness-raising activities on the prevention of violence against women from a baseline of 12 townships in 2009 to 46 in 2012. The project engaged ethnic organizations for greater inclusion and representation of women's human rights issues, and helped support clear and public calls for inclusion of women's organizations and representatives into peace process negotiations, including direct engagement of ethnic armed groups on this issue.

DFAIT

  • Women’s human rights, access to justice for vulnerable people and gender training for police and security officers were included in the new Americas Strategy.
  • START has programming has integrated the participation of women and girls in peacebuilding and democracy development interventions

DND

DND will continue to examine how promoting the full and meaningful participation of women in international operations can be more clearly and explicitly reflected in departmental policy.

Indicator 12-1

Number and percentage of departmental international security policy frameworks that integrate the participation and representation of women and girls.

DFAIT

  • DFAIT continuously integrates the participation and representation of women and girls in in new departmental international security policy frameworks which are applicable to fragile and conflict-affected states.

Indicator 12-2

Number of and funding disbursed for Government of Canada-funded projects in or for peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations that integrate the participation and involvement of women and girls or work with key stakeholders, including men and boys, to promote increased participation and representation of women and girls.

CIDA

  • 6* of CIDA’s total WPS-related projects (55) focused on supporting the participation of women and girls.
  • In 2012-2013, $7.86 million* of CIDA’s total WPS-related investments ($164.9 million) either specifically addressed or integrated gender equality results in this area.**

*One WPS-related project may address more than one C-NAP indicator. Because of double counting, these amounts should not be summed. **In some cases, only a component of the project may contribute to the participation of women and girls. It should not be assumed that 100% of the project disbursement went directly to support women’s and girls’ participation.

DFAIT

  • CFLI: 89 projects. Funding disbursed: $1.9 million One-quarter of the CFLI projects in fragile states were primarily focused on improving women’s participation and representation; for example:
    • Collected the opinions of girls on raising of the minimum age of marriage (Mozambique)
    • Promoted women’s political participation in the parliamentary election (Lebanon)
    • Capacity-building for women in civic education (human rights, gender, peacebuilding) through training (South Sudan).
  • START Stabilization and Reconstruction Programs: 88 projects. Funding disbursed: $42,904,703 Out of 129 projects, 88 (68%) included the meaningful participation of women in the development and design of conflict prevention and mitigation programming. Engagement of women/girls in all phases of peace operations consumed the highest allocation of GPSF programming when compared to other areas of focus.

Action 13

Encourage troop- and police-contributing countries to foster the participation of women in peace operations and in training relevant to peace operations.

DFAIT

  • The Government of Canada takes every opportunity to encourage troop- and police-contributing countries to ensure the participation of women in peace operations and in relevant training.
  • Canada is supporting initiatives of the Police Division of the UN Department for Peacekeeping Operations to streamline women candidates to peacekeeping and special political missions and measures to prioritize their selection. Canada encourages the UN’s stated goal of 20% women for peace operations. In 2012-2013, women made up 12% of Canadian police deployments to international peace operations.
  • Canada worked with partners Australia and New Zealand to submit language for the Gender and Peacekeeping section of the 2013 report of the Special Committee on Peacekeeping, including calls for the empowerment of women in peacekeeping mandates, appeal for concrete proposals for increasing women’s participation in missions, and a request to the UN Secretariat for statistics on the outcomes of efforts to appoint more women to leadership positions.

Indicator 13-1

Number of Canadian interventions in the United Nations Security Council, General Assembly, Special Committee on Peacekeeping or other relevant international fora that explicitly encourage troop- and police-contributing countries to address the participation of women in peace operations and in training for peace operations.

DFAIT

  • In joint statements with Australia and New Zealand, Canada made specific calls for such action during deliberations in the Fourth Committee of the UN General Assembly, October 2012 and at the UN Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations, February 2013.
  • In a statement to the Security Council on November 30, 2012, Canada called for the meaningful participation of women throughout peace processes, mission drawdown and transitions.

Action 14

Actively encourage UN and other multilateral efforts to involve women, including Indigenous women, in peace agreements and mediation processes, and ensure that such agreements take into account the differential experiences of women and girls, women’s and girls’ human rights and the rights of the child.

DFAIT

  • The Canadian statement to the Security Council on Afghanistan, September 2012, urged the participation of women, respect of their human rights and implementation of UNSCR 1325.
  • Canada supported NATO’s development of a systematic review to examine the inclusion of WPS issues in policy and operations and strengthened emphasis on the value and tenets of the UNSCRs on WPS.
  • Canada supported a Third Committee resolution at UNGA on the Rights of the Child with a focus on Indigenous Rights, which included elements on Children and Armed Conflict.
  • At the 2012 UN General Assembly, Canada co-sponsored numerous resolutions related to the protection of girls and security.
  • Canada continued to promote the International Day of the Girl to raise awareness and foster action on the situation faced by the girl child and to emphasize girls’ powerful voices of change in their families, their communities and their nations. This day aims to promote equal treatment and opportunities for girls around the world in areas such as law, nutrition, health care, education, training, and freedom from violence and abuse.

Afghanistan

  • Canada emphasized in all relevant statements at the Security Council and within the Group of Friends of Afghanistan the importance of women’s human rights being protected in any political agreement between the Government of Afghanistan and insurgent groups
  • Canada provided funding for women members of civil society to participate in the 2012 Tokyo Conference and provided a forum during the conference in which women could voice their concerns about Afghanistan’s political transition process.
  • Through CFLI, Canada funded an exhibit highlighting the impact of conflict on Afghan women. This exhibition of “memory boxes”, decorated with artifacts by women, showcased women’s experiences by allowing them to share their grief and tell their stories of personal loss as a result of years of conflict and insecurity in Afghanistan.
  • Canada provided funding to sponsor an Afghan woman journalist’s participation in the annual NATO Communicator’s Conference in Dubai.

Action 15

Support UN human resources reform processes, particularly with regard to recruitment, to increase the number of women in decision-making positions relating to peace and security and, where appropriate, identify strong Canadian candidates for such positions.

DFAIT

  • Canada has supported calls for improved performance by the UN Secretariat in recruitment of women for senior positions in the Organization, including at the Fifth Committee of the UN General Assembly.
  • Canadian senior representatives in the Secretariat include several women.
  • Canada has engaged with the UN Secretariat in their efforts highlighting the need to increase the number of women in senior level positions in the field.

Action 16

Direct Canadian diplomatic missions and deployed Canadian Armed Forces or Canadian police personnel to include information on observed or credibly reported serious violations of women’s and girls’ human rights in their periodic reporting to competent mission authorities on peace operations, and to address reports of alleged sexual exploitation or abuse by Government of Canada personnel with the utmost seriousness.

DFAIT

The Canadian Mission to Afghanistan in Kabul paid particular attention to issues surrounding the situation and human rights of Afghan women and girls in its regular reporting from Afghanistan.

DND

Deployed CAF personnel were responsible to report observed incidences of serious violations of women's and girls’ human rights to competent mission authorities while on international operations, including peace support operations.

RCMP

Through deployment of Canadian police to international peace operations, Canada took a principled stance on observed or credibly reported serious violations of women's and girls' human rights and gender-based violence in all its forms. Canadian police are trained to recognize and mandated to report human rights violations to the appropriate authorities. The individual monthly reporting project, which began during this reporting period, was modified to include a section specifically addressing this issue.

Indicator 16-1

Number of reported cases of sexual exploitation or abuse in peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations, allegedly perpetrated by Canadian military personnel, police or civilian Government officials, and the percentage that are:

  • referred to a competent Canadian authority,
  • addressed in a timely, appropriate and transparent manner.

RCMP

  • Number:
  • RCMP: 0
  • Police Partner Agency: 2*
  • Percentage (a): 100%
  • Percentage (b): 100%

*This indicator is based on the UN definition of sexual exploitation and abuse; by definition, the elements of this offence may or may not constitute a criminal offence in Canada. The United Nations reported both alleged cases to the Government of Canada. All reported cases were addressed in timely fashion and within the rule of law. The Government of Canada provides the UN with regular updates on actions taken to address the issue and will inform it of the cases’ eventual resolution.

Action 17

Develop training modules for Government of Canada personnel being deployed to peace operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations, which identify and address in a meaningful way the differential impact of conflict on women and girls. This training will be specific to protection in the region of assignment or mission area, will be offered either pre-deployment or in the field, will draw on experiences/lessons learned from previous engagements, and will address protection issues including sexual violence, sexual exploitation and abuse of women and girls, and trafficking in persons.

DFAIT

START implemented a complete evaluation and overhaul of gender training and developed a comprehensive and accessible curriculum which enables participants to gain the practical tips and tools they need to effectively integrate and address gender equality considerations in their programs and projects.

DND

Mission-specific pre-deployment training for CAF personnel deploying to international operations addresses human rights issues such as the protection of vulnerable groups, including women and girls.

RCMP

The RCMP continued to include mission-specific sessions on the differential impact of conflict on women and girls, including protection issues, in its pre-deployment training. During this reporting period, the RCMP identified additional subject-matter experts who could provide in-depth and meaningful training. The RCMP is continuously striving to improve and expand the content of this session.

Indicator 17-1

Percentage of relevant region- or mission-specific pre-deployment or field training modules for Government of Canada personnel on protection issues that address in a meaningful way the differential impact of the conflict on women and girls.

DFAIT

10%. START offered a total of 10 training courses (including pre-deployment training). Out of these 10 courses, one course (Gender-Based Analysis) focused on the differential impact of armed conflict on women and girls. The Gender-Based Analysis course aimed to train for an increased awareness of gender issues into the context of peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations.

DND

  • All region or mission-specific training delivered to CAF personnel deploying on peace support operations or to fragile states or conflict-affected situations addressed human rights issues such as the protection of women and girls.
  • In addition, Individual Pre-Deployment Training delivered by the Peace Support Training Centre included an examination of the differential impact of armed conflict on women and girls, including protection issues.

RCMP

Rather than incorporating this training into various modules, the RCMP provided a region or mission- specific pre-deployment training session on protection issues and the differential impact of conflict on women and girls to police deploying to peace operations.

Indicator 17-2

Number and percentage of Government of Canada personnel deployed to peace operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations who receive region- or mission-specific pre-deployment or field training on protection issues that addresses the differential impact of the conflict on women and girls in a meaningful way.

DFAIT

6.9%. Six out of 66 deployed Government of Canada personnel received Gender Training from START prior to their deployment. Since they were deployed during this reporting period, the training was received in the reporting period for 2011-2012.

DND

CAF personnel who deployed to peace support operations, fragile states or conflict-affected situations received mission-specific pre-deployment training that addressed the protection of vulnerable groups, including women and girls.

RCMP

Number: 131 out of 152; Percentage: 86% This region- or mission- specific pre-deployment training session that addresses in a meaningful way protection issues and the differential impact of the conflict on women and girls has become a part of all pre-deployment training for police deploying to peace operations.

Indicator 17-3

Extent to which DND/Canadian Armed Forces strategic direction or equivalent policy guidance for deployed Canadian police address in a meaningful way the importance of protecting women’s and girls' human rights on international operational deployments.

Action 18

Integrate the promotion and protection of women’s and girls’ human rights, in a manner which incorporates an analysis of the differential impact of conflict on women and girls, in Government of Canada international security policy frameworks and projects for or in peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations.

CIDA

Canada worked to protect the human rights of women and girls through its support to programming that promotes the safety, health, wellbeing, economic security and equality of women and girls in fragile and conflict-affected situations. Such programming is guided and directed by a gender-based analysis, which is required for all CIDA policies, programs and projects, including those that seek to address differential impacts of conflict on women and girls.

In 2012-2013, CIDA supported 11 projects that worked towards this Action. For example:

  • In the Great Lakes Region of Africa, the Regional Support Project to Combat Violence Against Girls and Young Women project aimed provide better protection for girls and young women in Africa's Great Lakes region from the physical and psychological effects of sexual violence. The project increased collaboration between representatives of the judicial, psychosocial and medical sectors, resulting in a change in service protocols that are increasingly sensitive to the needs of victims of SGBV. This translated into increased access to services for women and girls.
  • In Haiti, Canada funded the Initial Training and Professional Development for the Haitian National Police's Managerial Staff project, which aimed to enhance the professionalism of the Haitian National Police through initial training and professional development for inspectors and commissioners. In 2012-2013, the first round of 44 commissioners to be trained were selected, five of whom are women. Specific measures were put in place to support quality of life and participation for women commissioners, including the construction of a dormitory for up to eight women and a communal area reserved for women, and the inclusion of gender equality consideration throughout the development of 11 training modules.
  • In the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Project to Fight Sexual Violence took an integrated approach in order to respond to all facets of the problem of sexual violence in the country, including medical care, psychological support, socio-economic reintegration and access to civilian justice. Since the project began: 60,134 survivors of sexual violence gained access to medical services; 59,482 received psychosocial services; and 15,477 have benefitted from socio-economic support to facilitate their reintegration into their communities. Moreover, the project has helped support a total of 736 convictions of perpetrators. As a result, victims are now more likely to seek out the services of legal clinics.
  • At the CSW in 2013, Canada helped negotiate for Agreed Conclusions that referenced prior UNSCRs on WPS and called on member states to integrate the promotion and protection of women’s and girls’ human rights into policy and programming on conflict-affected situations and peace operations.
  • Throughout the past year, START identified gender focal points whose role it is to promote and integrate the protection of women’s and girls’ human rights into START programming and policy work.
  • START continued to mainstream gender assessments into project conception and initiation.
  • The START Policy Specialist on Women, Peace and Security was consulted systematically on START programming guidelines and was usually included on the Project Team for related START projects.
  • START programming promoted and protected the human rights of women and girls. For example, an officer from Correctional Service Canada was deployed to Afghanistan to provide mentorship and advice to the General Directorate of Prisons and Detention Centres on management competencies, prison administration best practices and operational procedures. The officer was instrumental in establishing the Gender and Human Rights Unit within the General Directorate of Prisons and Detention Centres and developing systems for recording convictions of women, particularly of home escape and moral crimes.
  • Completion of the CFLI project approval documents is an essential part of the CFLI project design phase and includes consideration of gender impacts. Ongoing training will strengthen capacity of CFLI program staff to perform gender analysis.

DND

DND will continue to examine how the recognition of the differential impact of armed conflict on women and girls, as well as the promotion and protection of the human rights of women and girls, can be more clearly and explicitly reflected in departmental policy

Indicator 18-1

Number of departmental international security policy frameworks that integrate the promotion and protection of women’s and girls’ human rights in a manner which incorporates an analysis of the differential impact of conflict on women and girls.

DFAIT

At the Third Meeting of States Parties of the Convention on Cluster Munitions in September 2012, Canada advocated for mainstreaming gender and diversity issues into the implementation of the Convention and encouraged States Parties and partners integrate gender considerations into all of their mine action and cluster munitions-related programming.

Indicator 18-2

Number of and funding disbursed for Government of Canada-funded projects that integrate the promotion and protection of women’s and girls’ human rights in a manner which incorporates an analysis of the differential impact of conflict on women and girls.

CIDA

11* of CIDA’s total WPS-related projects (55) focused on supporting the promotion and protection of women’s and girls’ human rights.

19.57 million* of CIDA’s total WPS-related investments ($164.9 million) either specifically addressed or integrated gender equality results in this area.**

*One WPS project may address more than one C-NAP indicator. Because of double counting, these amounts should not be summed.

** In some cases, only a component of the project may contribute to supporting the human rights of women and girls. It should not be assumed that 100% of the project disbursement went directly to support women’s and girls’ human rights.

DFAIT

Stabilization and Reconstruction Programs: 64 projects. $33,148,547. Out of 129 projects, 64 (50%) address the promotion and protection of women’s and girls’ human rights.

Action 19

Direct Government of Canada departments and agencies that deploy personnel on peace operations to provide deploying personnel with clear context-specific instructions on measures to protect and promote women’s and girls’ human rights, including measures to prevent sexual violence, and to respond appropriately if sexual violence occurs.

DND

  • The CAF Code of Conduct's standards of treatment with respect to local civilian populations prohibit rape, enforced prostitution or any form of indecent assault, as well as discriminatory treatment based on sex.
  • The CAF also has policies in place on the prevention of sexual and gender-based violence, abuse and exploitation that apply to CAF members at all times, including when deployed on international operations such as peace support operations.
  • CAF members are expected to report and take appropriate steps to stop observed incidences of breaches of the Law of Armed Conflict, including SGBV against women and girls.

RCMP

Canadian police personnel normally deploy to a multilateral organization, usually a United Nations mission, which has its own mandate and ConOps, both of which clearly define the role of the UN Police and the scope, or limit, of their operations and actions. During pre-deployment training, it is impressed upon Canadian police personnel that they must ensure WPS issues are promoted and that any abuses or signs of abuse are brought forward to appropriate authorities. If they themselves do not have the mandate to act, they are advised to identify the key players in their missions who can, and to whom they could, report such behaviours.

Indicator 19-1

Extent to which Government of Canada departmental guidance documents for specific peace operations explicitly address the protection and promotion of women’s and girls' human rights, including measures to prevent sexual violence.

DFAIT

Gender-Based Analysis training was for the first time offered to partner organizations and other government departments. As a result, START was in communication with partners both internal and external to the government, advertising the development and implementation of a curriculum available on the protection and promotion of women’s and girls’ human rights, including measures to prevent sexual violence. The response was very positive and a waiting list was created for the future.

RCMP

The RCMP continued to work towards the development of ConOps for its missions; a model ConOps was finalized and approved in 2012 for one mission and research and planning began for additional ConOps.

The model ConOps included a section on gender and the protection of human rights for women and girls. Each subsequent ConOps will also include this element. It is also important to note that Canadian police normally deploy to multilateral organizations, usually United Nations missions, which have their own mandate, ConOps and strategic directions regarding the protection of human rights for women and girls. The RCMP’s ConOps are aligned with those of the multilateral organization, and clearly defining the role of police and the scope, or limit, of their operations and actions.

Action 20

In Government of Canada-funded projects for or in peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations, integrate support for women’s and girls’ human rights including protection from violence, including sexual violence, sexual exploitation and abuse of women and girls, and trafficking in persons.

CIDA

In 2012-2013, Canada funded 23 projects that supported women and girls in the realization of their human rights, including through strengthening efforts to protect women and girls from violence and sexual violence in peace operations, fragile states, and conflict-affected situations. For example

  • In South Sudan, the project A Better Future for Vulnerable Youth aimed to empower conflict-affected rural youth to become more economically productive, and more engaged in their communities. This partnership between War Child Canada and the Upper Nile Youth Development Agency was designed to reach youth in the highly vulnerable agro-pastoralist fishing and cattle camps. The project aimed to increase action taken by youth in the camps to reduce violence, exploitation, and gender-based discrimination in their communities.
  • Through the Grave Violations of Children’s Rights project, Canada supported the efforts of UNICEF to monitor, report and respond to grave violations committed against children during armed conflict. The project increased awareness of children’s rights and child protection issues, including the human rights of girls, among government agencies and relevant ministries, members of armed forces/groups, children and the public. It improved access to services for children affected by sexual violence; and enhanced prevention strategies and innovative efforts to prevent violence , including initiatives that challenge the widespread acceptance – by both males and females – that sexual violence is 'normal.'
  • In the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Fight Against Impunity and Support to Survivors of Sexual Violence project worked to ensure that women and girls are better protected from violence, exploitation, and abuse in the eastern provinces of the country. The project contributed to reducing sexual violence by helping to fight impunity for the perpetrators of SGBV and promoting measures to prevent these crimes, including through: strengthening and expanding judicial services; improving the processes for investigating and prosecuting crimes involving sexual violence; and increasing the knowledge, skills, and independence of judges and court officials.

Action 20

In Government of Canada-funded projects for or in peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations, integrate support for women’s and girls’ human rights including protection from violence, including sexual violence, sexual exploitation and abuse of women and girls, and trafficking in persons.

DFAIT

Canada provided funding to support women’s and girls’ human rights through CFLI and the GPSF.

Indicator 20-1

Number of and funding disbursed for Government of Canada-funded projects for or in peace operations, fragile states and conflict-affected situations that integrate support for women’s and girls’ human rights including protection from violence, sexual violence, sexual exploitation and abuse of women and girls and trafficking in persons.

CIDA

  • 23* of CIDA’s total WPS-related projects (55) focused on support for women’s and girls’ human rights, including protection from violence, sexual violence, sexual exploitation and abuse and trafficking.
  • $87.65 million* of CIDA’s total WPS-related investments ($164.9 million) specifically addressed or integrated gender equality results in this area.**

*One WPS project may address more than one C-NAP indicator. Because of double counting, these amounts should not be summed.

** In some cases, only a component of the project may contribute to support for women’s and girls’ human rights, including protection from violence, sexual violence, sexual exploitation and abuse and trafficking. It should not be assumed that 100% of the project disbursement went directly to support the human rights of women and girls, including protection from different forms of violence.

DFAIT

There were 23 Canada Fund for Local Initiatives (CFLI) projects, totaling $496,625, that specifically addressed women’s and girls’ human rights. Some examples :

  • Reintegration of human trafficking victims through alternative livelihood (Bangladesh)
  • Training of service providers to care for victims of sexual gender-based violence (Zimbabwe)
  • Providing targeted training to authorities to protect women from violence (Afghanistan)
  • Creation of a website using crowd-mapping software to allow women to report incidents of harassment or threats, and to gather data on harassment (Libya)
  • Addressing Female Genital Mutilation (Guinea Bissau)

Stabilization and Reconstruction Programs: 35 projects. Funding disbursed: $21,253,919 Out of 129 projects, 35 (27%) address violence against women. This is the Stabilization and Reconstruction Programs’ lowest scoring indicator for the 2012/13 fiscal year for the second consecutive year.

Action 21

Support projects in or for peace operations, fragile states and conflict situations that integrate the needs and capacities of women and girls in relief and recovery efforts including but not limited to: humanitarian assistance; support to refugees, internally displaced persons, and returnees; disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration DDR); justice and security system reform (JSSR); stabilization, reconstruction, early recovery and peace and security; economic empowerment; and health and education programming.

CIDA

Canada supported 37 projects that integrated the needs and capacities of women and girls to ensure their equal access to humanitarian and development assistance in relief and recovery efforts, in such efforts. For example:

  • In Afghanistan, the Canadian-funded Girls’ Education Support Program took a comprehensive and holistic approach to respond to the diverse physical, and cultural barriers preventing girls from entering and completing education in Afghanistan. The project contributed toward considerable progress in increasing girls’ enrollment in the project areas of Badakshan, Baghlan, Parwan and Bamyan provinces, and provided practical and logistical support for girls to complete their university entrance exams.
  • In the Great Lakes Region of Africa, the Learning on Gender and Conflict in Africa (LOGiCA) project focused on demobilization and reintegration programming and gender-specific issues in post-conflict countries. During the reporting year, the project yielded improvements in the capacity of the Burundi and Rwanda D&R Commissions to implement gender action plans. As a result, programs supported the gender-specific needs of 851 ex-combatants and over 6,000 of their dependents.

DFAIT

  • Canada ensured that commitments by the Government of Afghanistan to track the implementation of the EVAW law were incorporated into the Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework.
  • Canada advocated for the inclusion of language in the National Priority Program on Law and Justice for All that emphasized the need to improve women’s access to justice, to increase resources for the investigation and prosecution of violence against women, to increase training on and awareness of laws that protect women and girls from gender-based violence, and to increase awareness of gender-specific needs in the justice sector.
  • Canada consistently advocated for the consideration of gender issues, within the International Police Coordination Board, both in the recruitment of female Afghan National Police officers and in addressing gender-based violence. This is reflected in the inclusion of gender issues in the 10 year vision for the Ministry of Interior/Afghan National Police.
  • Canada met regularly with Afghan women Members of Parliament to discuss issues related to the human rights of women and girls, with a goal of increasing the active and meaningful participation of women political leaders on issues that affect them.

Action 21

Support projects in or for peace operations, fragile states and conflict situations that integrate the needs and capacities of women and girls in relief and recovery efforts including but not limited to: humanitarian assistance; support to refugees, internally displaced persons, and returnees; disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR); justice and security system reform (JSSR); stabilization, reconstruction, early recovery and peace and security; economic empowerment; and health and education programming.

Indicator 21-1

Number and percentage of departmental planning frameworks for fragile states and conflict-affected situations that integrate the needs and capacities of women and girls.

CIDA

  • CIDA developed institutional strategies to guide its work with its key multilateral partners for the period of 2010-2013. All 18 strategies include strategic objectives related to gender equality and two have explicit commitments on integrating the needs and capacities of women and girls in fragile states and conflict-affected situations
  • CIDA's Strategy for work with UNHCR included a commitment to "ensuring that protection of women, children and groups with specific needs remain a priority for UNHCR, with a special focus on preventing and responding to sexual and gender-based violence, sexual exploitation, and abuse." In addition, CIDA committed to broaden UNFPA efforts on WPS by "continuing to advocate for the particular needs of women and girls in crisis and conflict settings."

Geographic Programs Branch

  • All country programs had country program strategies and program-level gender equality strategies that integrated the needs of women and girls except Haiti and Afghanistan. A country strategy for Sudan (including South Sudan before its independent statehood) was approved in 2009, and a new country strategy for the Republic of South Sudan (2013-18) was developed but has not yet been approved.
  • Colombia’s country program aimed to support the development of a non-violent rights-protected environment.
  • Guatemala’s country program aimed to increase women’s personal security.
  • While CIDA had no country program in Burma during 2012-13, it supported activities through the Burma Border Assistance Program that became a model of integrating and supporting WPS activities.
  • Sri Lanka’s country program integrated gender equality, but does not have gender equality objectives or activities related to the WPS agenda
  • Nepal’s country program recognized the centrality of gender and ethnicity to the conflict, and aimed to improve gender-equitable and socially inclusive delivery of public services to rural communities.
  • The Cambodia country program aimed to address conflict-related issues such as de-mining and land registration, and integrate gender equality in its programming. It specifically committed to complying and implementing the UNSCRs on Women, Peace and Security, and to engage partners to align with C-NAP. The UNDP mine action programming that CIDA supported was a global model in addressing gender equality.
  • Nepal and Cambodia country programs were closed in 2012-13.
  • The Pakistan country strategy included women’s empowerment and rights indicators, and highlighted the importance of ensuring the well-being, economic security, and equality of women and girls.
  • The West Bank and Gaza program results included specific outcomes related to application and upholding of women’s human rights to international women’s human rights standards.
  • Jordan’s country program integrated gender equality, but does not have gender equality objectives related to the WPS agenda. Nonetheless, its Gender and Social Fund did contribute to implementing aspects of the WPS agenda through its work with Palestinian refugee women’s groups. It was developed and approved before the civil war in Syria.
  • Sudan’s country program (2009-2012) aimed to improve understanding among targeted government ministries and non-governmental organizations on effective support to deliver conflict and gender-sensitive services to at-risk young women and men, girls and boys. It recognized the importance of implementing the UNSCRs on WPS, and committed to building the capacity of women’s organizations to do so.
  • DRC’s program-level Gender Equality Strategy committed to programming on the fight against SGBV.
  • CIDA’s West and Central Africa program aimed to increase regional cooperation on combating violence against children and youth, and improve services for child and youth victims of violence. The program’s Gender Equality Strategy situated these objectives within a larger recognition of gender inequality and gender-based violence in this context, which fuels violence against children and youth.
  • Given the changing development context, a short-term action plan for Mali was approved in August 2012, covering 12 to 18 months. It should be noted that when the country strategy was approved in 2009, peace and security were not indicated as prominent issues. However, women’s and girls’ needs and capacities were integrated into the program.

DFAIT

  • Stabilization and Reconstruction Programs: 11 projects. 100%.
  • In 2011-2012, there were 11 multi-year strategic envelopes, each of which included an analysis on the needs of women and girls. In 2012-2013, new planning frameworks were not developed given the expiration of the GPSF on March 31, 2013 and the anticipation of a new program being developed.

Indicator 21-2

Number of and funding disbursed for Government of Canada-funded projects in or for peace operations, fragile states and conflict situations that integrate the needs and capacities of women and girls in relief and recovery efforts.

CIDA

  • 37* of CIDA’s total WPS projects (55) focused on integrating the needs and capacities of women and girls in relief and recovery efforts.
  • $86 million* of CIDA’s total WPS-related investments ($164.9 million) specifically addressed or integrated gender equality results in this area.**

* One WPS project may address more than one C-NAP indicator. Because of double counting, these amounts should not be summed.

** In some cases, only a component of the project may integrate the needs and capacities of women and girls in access to relief and recovery. It should not be assumed that 100% of the project disbursement went directly to support the needs and capacities of women and girls.

DFAIT

  • Stabilization and Reconstruction Programs: 69 projects. Funding disbursed: $40,616,720.
  • Out of 129 projects, 69 (53%) gave women management, control and/or access to the resources and benefits of the GPSF-funded intervention.

Action 22

Engage UN Member States and agencies in improving the comprehensiveness of their approach to the substantive equality of men and women and to the human rights of women and girls, with respect to the UN’s support to or participation in justice and security system reform.

DFAIT

  • Through the engagement with the Universal Periodic Review process at the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva, Canada consistently raises issues related to the promotion of women’s human rights and violence against women and girls, including in instances where violations or discrimination exist in the context of justice or security sector. In 2012-2013 Canada made two interventions related to justice and security system reform: one related to the elaboration of women’s human rights in development of an Arab Spring country’s new constitution and the second related to sexual violence by peacekeepers from a troop-contributing country.

Action 23

Continue to intervene actively with the International Criminal Court and other international courts and tribunals to promote the implementation of the relevant objectives of the UNSCRs on Women, Peace and Security in their activities, including in mechanisms such as truth and reconciliation commissions.

DFAIT

  • Canada regularly engaged the Office of the Prosecutor at the International Criminal Court to underline the importance of ensuring justice for victims of sexual and gender-based crimes, and has carefully followed relevant trials.

Action 24

Advocate, as appropriate, for the mandates of new international accountability and judiciary mechanisms such as international courts, special tribunals and other transitional justice mechanisms, to integrate the UNSCRs on Women, Peace and Security, and women’s and girls’ human rights.

DFAIT

  • START continued to support Justice Rapid Response, a multilateral agency that rosters, trains and can rapidly deploy highly qualified and experienced legal investigators, prosecutors and witness protection experts in response to requests for this expertise. Part of Justice Rapid Response’s mandate is to ensure that these experts receive professional training to ensure their effectiveness when responding to international calls for their expertise and assistance.
  • At the CSW in March 2013, Canada worked to ensure acceptance of and joined consensus on the Agreed Conclusions, which called on member states to ensure accountability, end impunity and prioritize prevention of and response to sexual violence in conflict

Action 25

Advocate for UN agencies’ consideration of the differential impact that violent conflict and natural disasters have on women and girls, and their human rights, in all aspects of ongoing efforts to strengthen international humanitarian response capacity, including anti-human trafficking efforts.

DFAIT

  • At the United Nations General Assembly in 2012, Canada co-sponsored numerous resolutions related to the protection and security of women and girls.
  • At the CSW in March 2013, Canada advocated for language on the differential impact that violent conflict and natural disasters have on women and girls, and their human rights, in all aspects of ongoing efforts to strengthen international humanitarian response capacity
  • In promoting humanitarian assistance and protection, the Permanent Mission in Geneva supported the use of the gender marker and advocated for UNHCR, ICRC, OCHA and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies to improve disaggregated data on age, gender and diversity, and strengthen capacities of humanitarian actors in these areas.

Action 26

Continue to employ a variety of remedies to promote accountability and justice in situations where a perpetrator of a war crime or a crime against humanity (including genocide) is in Canada or wants to come to Canada, including extradition, prosecution in Canada under the Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Act, surrender to an international court or tribunal, revocation of citizenship obtained by fraud, denial of visas, and where applicable under Canada’s Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, denial of access to the refugee determination system, and removal from Canada.

CBSA CIC Justice Canada RCMP

  • The Government regularly reports on the implementation of Canada's Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Program, most recently for the period 2008-2011. The goal of the Program is to deny safe haven in Canada to war criminals and persons believed to have committed or been complicit in war crimes, crimes against humanity, or genocide. The War Crimes Program is delivered as a partnership between the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA), Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC), the Department of Justice Canada (the Department of Justice), and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and includes the enforcement of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA) in denying inadmissible persons access to Canada. The 2008-2011 report can be accessed at http://www.cbsa-asfc.gc.ca/security-securite/wc-cg/wc-cg2011-eng.html; and further reports will be available as they are prepared.

Action 27

Continue efforts to prevent, investigate and prosecute cases involving Canadian citizens or permanent residents in the sexual exploitation or abuse of children which occur in fragile states and conflict-affected situations, including child sex tourism and trafficking in persons.

DFATD

  • As a clear warning for Canadians and to prevent the exploitation of children, DFATD publishes on its website http://travel.gc.ca/travelling/publications/child-crime; the Criminal Code of Canada provisions on Child Sex Tourism. The Criminal Code of Canada is routinely enforced by appropriate authorities.

Public Safety

    • Canada is committed to combating child sexual exploitation in all its forms, including child sex tourism. The Government of Canada is aware that a number of fragile states, as well as some countries, have been identified as particularly vulnerable to child sex tourism and has taken a multi-pronged approach combating this despicable crime. Canadian criminal law comprehensively prohibits all child sexual exploitation, including where Canadians or permanent residents of Canada engage in such criminal conduct while abroad. Consular guidelines have been developed for Canadian officers at missions abroad on the issue of sexual exploitation of children by Canadians abroad and the RCMP’s National Child Exploitation Coordination Center coordinates intelligence provides investigational support and expertise to enable Canadian and international law enforcement to investigate these offences. Additionally, in order to advance police and justice system responses to this emerging issue of concern, an Interdepartmental Working Group was established in 2010, co-led by the RCMP and Public Safety Canada, to provide a forum for information-sharing and coordination on the issue of travelling child sex offenders and continues to meet and serve as a key focal point for information-sharing among a growing number of partners.

Action 28

Advocate internationally for equal access by female ex-combatants, and by women and girls associated with armed forces or groups, to appropriate benefits and resources from disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) programs.

CIDA

      • Through the Learning on Gender and Conflict in Africa (LOGiCA) program in the Great Lakes Region of Africa, Canada focussed on demobilization and reintegration programming, which improved the capacity of Burundi and Rwanda demobilization and reintegration commissions to implement gender action plans. Consequently, programs have supported the gender-specific needs of 851 ex-combatants and over 6,000 of their dependents. LOGiCA activities have also generated 15 knowledge products and 17 ground-breaking studies touching on a variety of social and economic dimensions of gender in conflict and post-conflict contexts.

Footnotes

Footnotes 1

Two additional UNSCRs on WPS have been adopted during the drafting of this report: 2106(June 2013) and 2122(October 2013).

Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnotes 2

Adapted Gender Assessment Criteria for Indicator 3-1: 0= no gender equality results; 1= limited integration; 2= integrated, or gender equality results exist at intermediate outcome level to create systemic, institutional or normative change; 3= specific, gender equality is the principal objective and result of the initiative.

Return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Police Administration Survey.

Return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

The Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework (TMAF) represents the mutual commitments of the Government of Afghanistan and the international community to help the country achieve its development and governance goals. The international community pledged to improve aid effectiveness and provide US$16 billion in development assistance through 2015 to respond to Afghanistan’s anticipated budget shortfall following military transition. In return, the Afghan Government committed to economic and governance reforms, including holding credible elections, combating corruption, improving financial transparency and promoting human rights, including the rights of women and girls.

Return to footnote 4 referrer

Footnote 5

Action 2. Canada’s Action Plan for the Implementation of the UNSCRs on Women, Peace and Security. October 2010. Pg. 6.

Return to footnote 5 referrer

Footnote 6

The IASC Gender Standby Capacity (GenCap) project seeks to build the capacity of humanitarian actors at country level to mainstream gender equality programming, including prevention of and response to gender-based violence, in all sectors of humanitarian response.

Return to footnote 6 referrer