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Evaluation of the International Academic Relations Programs

(July 2005)

Table of Contents

Executive Summary

For the last ten years, the Third Pillar, which emphasized the projection of Canadian values and culture, provided the rationale for several programs at Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada (DFAIT). Today, these programs form part of the Department's new business line of public diplomacy.

This report presents the results of the evaluation of the Canadian Studies and Scholarship programs in the Academic Relations Division (ACE). The evaluation, conducted by Universalia Management Group, aimed to assess the extent to which these programs have been effective in meeting programmatic objectives and linking to higher order objectives of Canada's foreign policy, the extent to which the programs are efficient, and the relevance of these programs to their stakeholders. The evaluation focused on the programming carried out from 2000 to 2005. The interviews, document review, surveys, and field visits for the study (to Germany, France, and Brazil) took place between November 2004 and March 2005. The timing of the evaluation coincided with a period of transformation in FAC resulting from the split of the former department into FAC and International Trade Canada and the new International Policy Statement.

The Canadian Studies program aims to develop greater knowledge and understanding of Canada among scholars and other influential groups overseas. The Program supports academics outside Canada for teaching, research and publication about Canada in a variety of disciplines. The Scholarship programs provide awards to foreign students wishing to study in Canada who show high intellectual promise and who return to their home countries with skills and knowledge gained from Canadian institutions of higher learning.

Key Findings

Links to Canadian interests and Foreign Policy Objectives

There is a logical link between the Canadian Studies Program and the Scholarship Programs and the desire by Canada to inform the world about its particular foreign policy interests. The study generally confirms the relevance and the on-going rationale for these programs. Academic networks and scholarship alumni are found to be a vital force in advocating Canadian interests, with the potential to influence "opinion leaders" in all areas, thus making them key tools for public diplomacy.

The Programs have not only been of benefit to foreign audiences, but to Canadian institutions and students as well. Canadian institutions of higher learning have gained visibility among foreign students as a result of these programs. Furthermore, the programs have encouraged the mobility of Canadian students through exchange opportunities that help them to develop a global perspective on the issues of the day as well as build networks with the decision-makers of tomorrow.

Despite the success that has been achieved as a result of the Canadian Studies Program, the somewhat limited capacity and resources may reduce the ongoing impact and relevance. The study found that resource constraints at the Missions have led some to rely heavily on resources from the public diplomacy fund (which was due to sunset in March 2005) for their activities in Canadian Studies. Another capacity limitation to these programs is the level of staffing.

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Program Effectiveness

In more than 50 countries, including the G-8 plus 5, Canadianists provide a variety of relevant programs and services in support of Canada's foreign policy objectives. Although the outputs and effects of the program vary by the stage of development of Canadian Studies in a particular country, many individuals are directly and indirectly influenced by the information and ideas on Canada that are discussed in Canadian Studies Associations or in articles that are published in The International Canadianist, a publication which enjoys a readership of over 6,900.

The scholarship program is also considered to be an effective initiative. Survey data from scholarship recipients indicates that the programs were useful and the recipients were generally satisfied. Through the skills and knowledge gained as beneficiaries of these scholarships, alumni have been able to not only impart these skills to their compatriots, but also create awareness in their home countries of the high quality education in Canadian universities.

Results and Effects on Foreign and Canadian Audiences

The credibility of the program is evidenced in the fact that distinguished Canadianists as well as their students have been recipients of prestigious awards. Not only have Canadianists published a large number of articles in respected journals, but they have been known to advise Senior policy makers and politicians on international issues. Data collected also strongly suggests that institutions of higher education around the world are increasingly interested in studying and researching Canada. Because Canadianists are quoted in the public media, civil society is exposed to their informed and arms-length analysis of key issues.

In spite of the significant role that Canadianists and scholarship alumni play in fostering Canada's foreign policy objectives abroad, the full strategic potential of this network and the Canadians who have either studied or worked abroad remains to be fully tapped. While this may be in part due to resource constraints, a greater appreciation of the strategic value and an increased focus on how this extensive network can further contribute to the promotion of Canadian foreign policy objectives is needed. The challenge currently faced by the program is how to translate the interest and the outputs into influence.

Program Efficiency

These ACE programs operate within a complex stakeholder environment that uses a management style of cooperation and goodwill. The Canadian Studies and Scholarship programs are well managed on an operational level with both programs leveraging resources to enhance efficiency and effectiveness. The study identified seven areas of best practice including the transparency of application processes, systematic selection procedures, peer review procedures, beneficiary satisfaction, use of information technology for program management, linkages with Post strategies, and dissemination to Canadianists via print and electronic media. Interviews with Heads of Missions, Canadian Mission staff, and locally engaged staff among others indicate that despite the complex environment in which they are operating, the relationships have been of a collaborative, respectful and productive nature, especially considering resource constraints.

Canadian Missions abroad play a critical role in the management of both programs. The availability of financial resources and staff capacity to facilitate and utilize Canadian Studies and Scholarship programs varies greatly across countries. Because of human and financial limitations that affect some, but not all Posts, it is critical to pay attention to issues of efficiency, use and focus in program implementation at the mission level.

While the management model used by ACE has been successful, there are areas where improvements can be made. The absence of a clearer strategy and greater targeting was cited as one of the factors that may limit program effectiveness. At the time of this study, there was only a fledgling approach to results-based management, with minimal resources being allocated to implementation of the Results-Based Management and Accountability Framework (RMAF).

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Overview of the Recommendations

The following recommendations are made to ACE Management and stem from the conclusions of the report.

  • ACE Management should develop a strategic framework that clearly links its work to FAC.

A more focused strategic framework will ensure that ACE programs are aligned in support of FAC's emerging objectives. For example, the Canadian Studies program should continue to align and adjust its expectations based on feedback from those in the field. Furthermore, in view of current resource limitations, the program should develop more focused expectations and more clearly defined outcomes based on the stage of development of the program in a particular country as well as Canada's foreign policy objectives in that country.

The Scholarship programs should be more strategically targeted than they are at present and it is crucial to maintain contact with alumni and use them to enhance specific Canadian foreign policy objectives.

  • ACE Management should develop a communication strategy for its work.

External communications is a critical element in generating support for ACE work, yet the division does not have a comprehensive communication strategy. There is a need to communicate to Canadians- both at home and abroad- the relevance, role and value of ACE-FAC programs in attaining Canada's foreign policy objectives. A coherent communication strategy should encourage Canadians to become involved in international exchanges, projects and programs.

  • ACE Management should further integrate and align both current and future networks comprising Canadians, Canadianists and Scholarship Alumni with Canadian foreign policy objectives.

There is strength in numbers thus the more people there are linked to ACE and supporting Canadian interests on the international level, the more Canadian foreign policy objectives will be met. There is a need to put in place more effective mechanisms and develop more focused strategies to fully involve and maximize the use of alumni in mission, bilateral and multilateral activities as well as build on the current network of Canadianists who are presently active around the world.

  • ACE Management should work hand in hand with FAC managers in developing an approach for better utilization of Canadians with international experience into their work.

Canadians with international experience and links to the ACE programs are an important yet largely untapped resource. The new face of Public Diplomacy requires that all Canadians view themselves as diplomats.

  • ACE Senior Management should identify the necessary minimum level of resources required to support Program work at the Country Mission level and terminate support to countries where these resources are unavailable.

The countries in which FAC operates are at various stages of evolution. FAC strategic priorities should be linked to the available level of human as well as financial resources in order to obtain suitable outcomes. The outcomes of ACE's work will be improved by linking priorities, stage of development, and funding into a results-oriented plan.

  • ACE Management needs to place more emphasis and importance on the implementation of the RMAF.

Results-based management is a key issue for the Federal Government and this approach should be integrated into ACE activities and procedures. In part, there is inadequate funding to encourage people at all levels to take increased ownership for the use of the RMAF framework. User-friendly guidelines and tools need to be developed to encourage people to use it at the mission and program level.

  • ACE-FAC Senior Management should assume a greater leadership role in the coordination of activities related to international "learning" agendas.

Canada's approach to education is relatively unique due to the distinction between the Federal and Provincial jurisdiction. Nevertheless the wide assortment of learning needs worldwide requires a more coordinated approach to education and learning in Canada. Interviewees suggested that the Federal Government become more engaged in Canada's international learning agenda, mentioning that ACE-FAC could horizontally coordinate this initiative. There are, for example, clear partnership opportunities and needs for ACE-FAC leadership in international initiatives that are of interest to HRSDC, CIDA, Heritage Canada as well as the newly formed Canadian Council on Learning among others.

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Acronyms

ACE
- Academic Relations Division
ACSUS
- Association for Canadian Studies in the United States
CAPA
- Canada-Asia Pacific Award in Canadian Studies
CCSFP
- Canadian Commonwealth Scholarship and Fellowship Program
CECO
- Centre d'études canadiennes de l'université Mohammed 1er
CIDA
- Canadian International Development Agency
CLACA
- Canada-Latin America Caribbean Award in Canadian Studies
CPEP
- Cultural Personalities in Canadian Studies Exchange Program
DEP
- Department of English Philology
ENCS
- European Network for Canadian Studies
DFAIT
- Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada
FEP
- Faculty Enrichment Program
FRP
- Faculty Research program
GCA
- Government of Canada Awards
GKS
- Gesellschaft fur Kanada-Studien
GOC
- Government of Canada
HE
- Her Excellency
HQ
- Headquarters
HRSDC
- Human Resources and Skills Development Canada
ICCS
- International Council for Canadian Studies
ICUF
- Ireland-Canada University Foundation
INAC
- Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
IRP
- Institutional Research Program
LSP
- Library Support Program
NRCAN
- Natural Resources Canada
OAS
- Organisation of American States
ODA
- Overseas Development Assistance
PDG
- Program Development Grant
PIRL
- Program for International Research Linkages
RBM
- Results-Based Management
RMAF
- Results-Based Management and Accountability Framework
TB
- Treasury Board
TBD
- Travelling Book Display
UK
- United Kingdom
UNAM
- Universidad nacional autónoma de Mexico (Mexico National University)
VCRL
- Virtual Canadian Reference Library
VGT
- Virtual Geography Textbook

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1. Introduction and Purpose of the Evaluation

The Canada in the World paper of 1995 proposed a foreign policy for Canada based on three pillars: the promotion of prosperity and employment; the protection of our security, within a stable global framework; and the projection of Canadian values and culture. In elaborating on Canadian values, the paper listed respect for human rights, democracy, the rule of law and the environment. It also stated that vitality of our culture is essential to our economic success.

As part of the third pillar, the projection of Canadian values and culture, Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada (DFAIT) has had a number of programs in place that have focused on: international academic relations, the arts, public diplomacy, and Canada-France relations. Although each of these four programming areas has its own objectives, strategies and target groups, all are intended to support this pillar. The programs are also at different stages of development; two of them, the Canada-France and the Public Diplomacy programs are coming to a close at the end of the fiscal year. The programs in International Academic Relations and Arts Promotion will continue, but seek ways to improve performance in a context of budget cutbacks and ongoing review of Canada's policy internationally.

This report addresses the evaluation of two such programs-the Canadian Studies Program and the Scholarship programs. The Academic Relations Division of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada (ACE-FAC) manages these programs.

It should be noted that the recent split of the former Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade into two separate departments, Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada and International Trade Canada, has had specific implications with respect to the objectives of some programs. For example, the Arts Promotion program is no longer responsible for opening up new markets for Canadian artists, while the International Academic Relations program is no longer in charge of the education marketing component.

There were two objectives for this external evaluation:

  1. To examine each of the four programs individually (Arts, Academic, Public Diplomacy and Canada-France), assessing the extent to which each of them is (or has been) effective in meeting its own objectives and linking to higher order objectives, efficient in implementation, and relevant to stakeholders.
  2. To examine the programs collectively, analyzing whether or not they are the right vehicles and are in effect contributing to the overarching third pillar of Canada's foreign policy.

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1.1 Canadian Studies

The Canadian Studies Program is a program aimed at supporting the projection of Canadian values and culture. The Canadian Studies Website describes the purpose and rationale for the program as follows: "The objective of the Canadian Studies Program is to develop a greater knowledge and understanding of Canada, its values and its culture among scholars and other influential groups abroad. Programs offer support to academics outside Canada for teaching, research and publication about Canada in a variety of disciplines."

At the present time there are twenty four national and multinational Canadian Studies associations in existence around the world. In fact, Canadian Studies programs can be found in the following territories: "Argentina, Australia, Austria, Baltic Countries, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Morocco, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Paraguay, the Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, Ukraine, the United States, Uruguay, Venezuela and Yugoslavia."

As will be noted in this report, the scope of Canadian studies programs varies considerably from one institution to the next. A wide range of topics are addressed including questions involving "Canada's bilateral and multilateral relations, English- and French-Canadian literature; culture and the arts; history; social and political sciences; geography; business studies; the Canadian political system; the economy; status of women; aboriginal issues; multiculturalism; social values; the environment; law; information media; and even regional development." Members of the associations include academics, business people, high school teachers, administrators, journalists, politicians, senior public servants, and other interested professionals.

The first Canadian Studies Association was established in the United States in 1971. In 1975, another association was established in Britain followed by yet another in France, just one year later. In fact, from 1979 onwards, Canadian studies associations were being established almost every year in Europe, Asia and Latin America. In May, 1981, Halifax hosted an international conference with 25 delegates from the following 10 countries: Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. An important outcome of the conference was the creation of the International Council for Canadian Studies (ICCS). The current funding for Canadian Studies programs is now approximately $5million.

A wide variety of programs are supported by ACE-FAC. The Canadian Studies Website provides a description of the following programs that are supported by ACE-FAC to facilitate the development of Canadian Studies in participating countries around the world. The programs offer support to individuals, groups and associations to assist in course development, library acquisitions, research, academic exchanges and publication of related documents in electronic and print forms.

1.2 Scholarship Programs

Scholarships are a second program area aimed at supporting Canada's foreign policy objectives. ACE-FAC supports a number of scholarship programs.

The Canadian Commonwealth Scholarship and Fellowship Program is designed to provide opportunities for students of other Commonwealth countries to pursue advanced studies in Canada. The program is intended for men and women of high intellectual promise who may be expected to make a significant contribution to their own countries on their return from study in Canada.

The Government of Canada Awards Program is intended to enable foreign students of high academic standing to undertake graduate studies or post doctoral research in Canadian institutions. Proposed programs of study must focus on a Canadian subject or include significant Canadian content. The awards are available to citizens from the following countries: Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, the Philippines and Russia.

The Organization of American States (OAS) Fellowship Programs provide awards to citizens of OAS member states for studies and research in Canada. The countries where the awards are tenable include any of the OAS member countries.

The Canada-U.S. Fulbright Program is a joint, bi-national program supported by the Government of Canada through Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada and the Government of the United States through the United States Department of State. The Canada-U.S. Fulbright Program strives to enhance understanding between Canada and the United States by providing grants to the best Canadian and American graduate students, faculty, professionals and independent researchers to conduct research, study or lecture in the other country.

A full description of each program with details on eligibility, application procedures, and deadlines can be found on their websites.

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1.3 Approach to this Review

A series of eight evaluation questions were identified for all programs under review:

  1. To what extent is the program under review linked to Canada's overall foreign and international policy objectives?
  2. Is the design of the program, and its related activities, appropriate to allow the program to successfully meet its established objectives and the objectives of its bureau/division?
  3. To what extent has the program had an impact on foreign audiences?
  4. Has the program effectively reached its target audience?
  5. Are there any unanticipated results or impacts from this program?
  6. What are the best practices from a managerial and program point of view?
  7. Are the funding recipients the most effective vehicles for achieving the program objectives?
  8. To what extent has the program fulfilled the expectations of FAC and FAC partners?

In addition, each of the program areas identified specific issues they wanted the review to cover. For ACE the issues were:

  1. To what extent has the program encouraged study of Canada in institutions of higher learning abroad?
  2. To what extent are the Terms and Conditions for the grants appropriate given the program mandate? Is there an appropriate balance between accountability to the public and flexibility, which is required for strategic grant making?
  3. To what extent is there an adequate strategy for results measurement (reflecting a balance between immediate results and the results to be achieved in 10-15 years)? How can this be improved?
  4. Regarding the scholarship programs: are theses programs operated efficiently, with full accountability, with maximum value for money, and in accordance with new Treasury Board guidelines for grants and contributions? If the former but not the latter, what changes could be made to bring them into conformity, and what would be the risks, costs and benefits of such changes? How do other agencies (i.e. CIDA) and selected other countries manage similar programs?

In order to address these questions the evaluation team, systematically interviewed stakeholders, read documents, used a survey questionnaire in which six posts responded and made three site visits to France, Germany and Brazil. Data was analyzed by theme and triangulated to develop the major findings of the study.

1.4 The Report

This report is divided into three substantive sections and a conclusion. Section2 reviews the relevance of the ACE programs under review. Section3 explores the effectiveness of these programs. Finally, Section 4 reviews the efficiency of these programs. The concluding section, Section5 summarizes the report and reviews the major recommendations.

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2. Rationale/Relevance of Canadian Studies and Scholarship Programs

2.1 Introduction

Today managers are not only asked to do things right, but they are also asked to do the right things. The program relevance\ rationale reviews the logic of the programs. Is there a substantive link between the program (outputs and outcomes) and the higher order goals that are aspired to? The following section reviews the logic of the program by exploring the links between the two programs and various Canadian interests.

2.2 Links to Canadian Interests and Foreign Policy Objectives

Finding 1: Canadian values and culture are projected through Canadian Studies and Scholarship Programs. Literally, tens of thousands of overseas people are positively affected by these programs and learn about Canada and its values-a goal of the Foreign Policy.

A key component of Canadian foreign policy is to project the values of Canada to the rest of the world; Canadian Studies and Scholarship programs play a significant role in this regard. For example, there are over 7,000 members of Canadian Studies Associations. Canadian Studies Associations in India (806 members), the United States (789) and the German-speaking (595) countries have registered over 500 members, while the following countries have associations with memberships of over 300: Britain (440), France (398), Brazil (317) and Israel (300). No less than seven other countries have memberships of more than 200 members. The number of members in Canadian Studies Associations varies in relation to when and where national conferences are held.

There are 24 national and multinational Canadian Studies Associations that are linked through the International Council for Canadian Studies (ICCS), which supports the approximately 7,000 individual members worldwide, teaching over 150,000 students around the world annually. In Europe alone, there are 16 Canadian Studies Associations and over 50 Canadian Studies Centres.

Scholarship recipients come from a wide variety of countries and the vast majority of them return to their home country with positive views of Canada and a willingness to promote it to their colleagues and future students.

An example of the international reach and potential influence of Canadian Studies was included in a report from the Canadian Mission staff in Berlin, Germany, on the success of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association of Canadian Studies in German-speaking countries (Gesellschaft fur Kanada-Studien- GKS, which was held in Grainau, February20 to 23, 2004. The report noted that in his words of welcome, the GKS President, Dirk Hoerder, highlighted the international dimension of Canadian Studies as demonstrated by the presence of so many guests from a variety of countries including the Board and Executive Committee of the ICCS, the Board of the Nordic Association and the members of the European Network for Canadian Studies Steering Committee.

Professor Hoerder went on to report that in her address to the conference: "Ambassador Bernard-Meunier emphasized the achievements of the GKS over the past 25 years such as its outstanding support of young Canadianists and students, its cooperation with Canadian Studies circles in Central Europe, its standing as a vibrant association within the Canadian Studies community..." She referred to Canadian Studies as a "key element of Canada's foreign policy agenda" and reflected on the early beginnings of the Canadian Studies Programmes developed and well-designed by only a handful of officials and academics in the 70s. She restated that Canadian Studies in the German-speaking countries is one of the "jewels in our international relations."

Finding 2: Canadian values and interests are disseminated by international academics through books, journals, articles, lectures, courses, and websites. This represents a "local voice" in explaining Canada and Canadian values to the world.

For purposes of the evaluation, the evaluation team consulted with a variety of Canadian Missions around the world, gathering their perceptions about the relevance of the Canadian Studies and Scholarship programs. The role and influence of Canadian Studies Associations varies with age, location, and size. An example of a well-established European organization is the Association for Canadian Studies in German-speaking Countries. The Canadian Mission staff in Germany reports that it draws on the strong research and publication record of German-speaking Canadianists for resident expertise, i.e., for presentations on foreign policy, federalism, elections, immigration policy and embassy web site articles.

The Report of the Association for Canadian Studies in German-speaking Countries (2003-2004) by President Dirk Hoerder documents the wide variety of activities sponsored by the Association and provides details on 128 publications in different areas of study as presented in Exhibit2.1.

Exhibit 2.1. Areas of Study by Canadianists in the Association for Canadian Studies in German-Speaking Countries (2003-2004)
Type of PublicationNumber
English-Canadian Language and Literature51
French-Canadian Language and Literature31
Geography6
Historical Sciences20
Political Science11
Gender Studies1
Other Disciplines8
Total128

The widespread conveyance of Canadian values is also illustrated in the September 2004 issue of Contact, the electronic newsletter published by the ICCS, which advertised eleven conferences with very distinct themes in eight different countries. Moreover, each conference provided a website address for further information and contact co-ordinates. Two examples are:

  1. Association for Canadian Studies in Australia and New Zealand (ACSANZ), Bi-annual conference "Learning from Each Other," September23-26, 2004, Sydney, Australia.
  2. Japanese Association for Canadian Studies, Conference commemorating the 25th Anniversary of JACS and the 75th Anniversary of Japan-Canada Diplomatic Relations, September18-19, 2004, Shonan Village Centre, Hayama, Kanagawa Prefecture

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Finding 3: Some Canadian Missions report that their interests have been well served by local Canadianists. In other words, Canadian Missions see these Programs as relevant to their goals and interests.

The evaluation team reviewed documentation and/or survey responses from more than a dozen countries in which Canadian Studies Associations had been established to varying degrees to ascertain whether or not the program served their foreign policy interests. All of the missions reported the positive benefits of involving local Canadianists in their diplomatic efforts. For example, the Canadian Mission staff in Madrid report that the Spanish Association of Canadian Studies counts 260 professors and graduate students among its members. The report notes:

"The Spanish Association is one of the most dynamic and active Canadian Studies groups anywhere in the world. Their research is especially strong in constitutional affairs and multiculturalism, with several professors having done stints as senior advisors to the Spanish government. Spain's current Justice Minister is an expert in Canadian studies, as is the Deputy President of Parliament. These are contacts that are well worth cultivating, particularly in conjunction with high-level visits from Canada."

Recent reports of interviews with Canadian Mission staff and noted Canadianists in Germany indicate that there is a growing interest in Canada as we are viewed as another "middle" power. The recent cooling of relations with the United States means that there is greater demand for Canada to play a role in transatlantic relations. In fact, those interviewed observed that Germans are looking for models and options for dealing with their hot policy issues of the day: immigration and multiculturalism, federalism, and economic reform.

Twenty-five years of Canadian Studies have developed a strong and wide-reaching network of Canadianists across the country. Since the 1970s, Canada's ambassadors to Germany have given great importance to cultural diplomacy. Cultural and Academic Relations programming have been central to the Mission's strategy.

Finding 4: Canadian Studies Programs generally support an image of Canada, which is bilingual, multicultural, and deeply influenced by its Aboriginal roots, the North, the oceans, and its own vastness. This third party imagery supports Canadian interests.

This evaluation has reviewed literally hundreds of announcements of events sponsored by Canadianists about their work in relation to Canada. An upcoming event advertised in the Canadian Internationalist describes an interdisciplinary conference entitled: First Nations, First Thoughts that will be held on May5 and 6, 2005 at the Centre of Canadian Studies of the University of Edinburgh. Participants will explore the significance of Aboriginal peoples in the development of cultural and intellectual thought in Canada. The conference is designed to bring Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal scholars together to consider the development and transmission of Indigenous thought and the impact of Aboriginal perspectives on cultural, political, environmental, historical, legal, philosophical and anthropological thought in Canada.

Another example of the role Canadianists play in the projection of Canadian practices and values is taken from an April 2004 Embassy report on the Bifrost Seminar that was organized by the Nordic Association for Canadian Studies, on "Popular Sovereignty and Democracy in Multi-National and Poly-Ethnic Entities, Constitutional Processes in Canada and the EU Compared." The report indicated "speakers at this seminar included Mary Dawson, Associate Deputy Minister of Justice, as well as Andrew Bennet, Privy Council, Ottawa, for whom the seminar provided an excellent platform to directly explain Canadian politics, values and experiences to local opinion-formers and academics on issues that lie right in the centre of current Danish public and political debate."

These two examples illustrate the role that Canadianists in different countries play in facilitating discussions and events that help project unique Canadian values.

Finding 5: Canadian Studies Programs and Scholarship Programs support the promotion of Canadian institutions of higher education to foreign students and encourage the mobility of Canadian students through exchange programs that provide opportunities to develop a global perspective and to build networks of the decision-makers of tomorrow.

In a recent Alumni Tracer Study conducted by ICCS many scholarship recipients provided testimonial evidence regarding the development of a deeper understanding of Canadian policies and practices in relation to the international community, an example from a 2003/04 Canadian Fulbright Scholar follows:

"My experience of cultural exchange while at Yale has been profound. One of the foremost issues for Canadian identity, as I see it, is our relationship to the United States. In recent years, many of the points of intersection on these issues have been points of law and political relations. ...One of the most profound instances of political difference between Canada and the United States in recent memory has been the decision to join institutions of international criminal justice.

As a Canadian law student, much of the debate about the American refusal to participate focused on how the United States was a 'rogue nation' in this respect and that its decisions were irresponsible to the world community. My appreciation for the subtleties of this issue has deepened substantially while studying at Yale. I have a far richer understanding of the various strands of debate- both supportive and dissenting- in the United States, and have a much better sense of the forces of legal and popular culture that makes the United States a rather unique player in world affairs- a player that must make decisions sometimes otherwise inexplicable to those of us on the 'outside'.

Although I remain hopeful for international criminal justice, my own views on the matter have moderated some in the engaged exchange of ideas that I have had while a Fulbright scholar. I have, I hope, made some contribution to Americans' understanding of the Canadian position, but have also gathered a more nuanced understanding of U.S. legal culture myself."

Many similar testimonials from scholarship recipients could be included in this report but the following mission report provides an illustration of the broader role that Canadianists play in the community.

A note in The International Canadianist of October 2004 reported on the presentation of the annual Ireland-Canada University Foundation (ICUF) scholarships at the Canadian Embassy in Dublin on July8, 2004, which was attended by significant number of leaders from the academic, business, and government communities.

The Canadian Embassy in Berlin reports that scholarly conferences have been organized in cooperation with institutions outside the universities, e.g., Canadianists from the John F. Kennedy-Institute of Free University Berlin co-organized a conference at the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Auswärtige Politik in Berlin (German Council on Foreign Affairs), a think tank in Berlin. The conference "Canada, Germany and the United States: Challenges and Options for the Transatlantic Partnership at the Beginning of the 21st Century" brought together academics, students, politicians and government representatives. Film weeks have been jointly organized by Canadian Studies centres, in their cities in commercial or community run cinemas. The Public Diplomacy Speakers program sends experts across the country and often uses the local Canadian Studies contacts to organize lectures.

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Finding 6: Canadian Studies Programs often highlight the cultural achievements of Canadians, which contributes significantly to cultural exchanges and dialogue. This creates a logical link between the program and Canadian Foreign Policy objectives.

A report from the Canadian Consulate in Detroit on Canadian Studies Roundtables conducted in Michigan, Ohio, and Indiana observed that:

"Mission participation in roundtables is highly valuable... Roundtables are unparalleled opportunities to disseminate grant, partnership, and other information to the core of the state's committed Canadianists. They are ideal showcases for the promotion of Canadian culture. Finally, roundtables provide an ideal forum for discussion and distribution of information on priority issues such as trade, border security, energy, softwood lumber, and environment."

A recent report from the Canadian Embassy in Greece provides further insights about the relevance and contributions of even relatively new Canadian Studies programs. An inaugural event marking the new location of Greece's first Canadian Studies Centre at the University of Athens was held at the downtown campus of the University of Athens on February19, 2004. The report noted that:

"Establishing a permanent base serves not only as a location for reference materials of Canadian content, but also as a meeting point for students and faculty to organize activities that focus on Canada. The Centre has been actively operating since 2000 and has organized a variety of activities including book presentations, conferences, exchanges, workshops, and publications. In fact, one of the Centre's most visible projects will be a collaboration with Greece's most distinguished and prominent literary journal, DIAVAZO, which will dedicate its spring issue entirely to Canadian literature and authors."

In a similar way, the Canadian Mission in Italy reported that "a substantial first-time interview with Alice Munro, by journalist Livia Manera, was published in the cultural page of the major national newspaper Corriere della Sera on November 26." Livia Manera, thanks to Embassy support, was in Canada a few years ago and successively published several excellent articles on Canadian literature by women. Another important national paper, La Republica, ran a whole-page article on Munro. Munro's last collection of short stories, Runaway, has just been published by Einaudi, one of Italy's most prestigious publishing houses. Before that, her stories had been published by smaller presses and by feminist presses, gaining limited exposure; Munro was appreciated in academic and women circles in Italy but was practically unknown by the wide readership.

Finding 7: Canadianists and Scholarship Alumni are seen as relevant for attaining Public Diplomacy objectives.

A report from the Canadian Embassy in Vienna on the International Conference on Cultural Knowledge Transfer between Austria and Canada 1990-2000 commented on the role of Canadianists in promoting public diplomacy objectives in the following manner:

"The work of the Canadian Studies Centre in Innsbruck can be described as very dynamic, outward-oriented, and multi-disciplinary, producing a pro-Canadian effect far beyond academic circles. The money invested from the part of the Canadian government (ACE, ACA, and indirectly through the GKS) was only a fraction of the total conference budget... and can justly be regarded as an excellent investment."

A recent Canadian Mission staff report from Copenhagen, Denmark, described how Canadianists promote important foreign policy objectives.

"The Canadian Visiting Chair in Arctic and Northern Studies is a prime example on how Canadian Studies (and cross-departmental cooperation) may function as direct support of foreign policy objectives- in this case the Northern Dimension of Canada's Foreign Policy, as well as other, related northern initiatives.

We have established this project with the generous support of several Canadian federal departments and agencies (INAC, NRCAN, ACE, AGA, and the Mission), and the collaboration of the two host institutions, the Greenland Institute of Natural Resources with research facilities in Nuuk, and the Faculty of Science at the University of Copenhagen with research facilities in Disko Bay. The partner institutions are contributing through the provision of office accommodation and support, housing, per diem expenses, and complete access to research facilities/data."

In the ICCS Alumni Tracer Study, scholarship recipients specifically mentioned that their studies in Canada enhanced their understanding and promotion of Canada. Two examples of such quotes follow:

"The program was extremely helpful in the completion of my Ph.D. I still have strong academic ties to the University of Alberta. Through these contacts, I have recently established links between the Canadian National Institute and the New Zealand McDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology. These links will benefit researchers and students from both countries and may lead to substantial economic benefits for both countries." (New Zealand, graduated 1995)

"The program was beneficial to me since I gained invaluable knowledge and skills that I have continued to impart to other Kenyans. As a graduate of a Canadian institution, I have played a key role in making others aware of the high quality of education in Canadian universities." (Kenya, graduated 1987).

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Finding 8: Academic networks are seen as a vital force in advocating Canadian interests. This is part of the discourse and reality of the "New Public Diplomacy" logic.

Recent discussions and publications contain several observations about the need to view Canadian Foreign policy initiatives from different perspectives. For example, Michael Ignatieff, Carr Professor of Human Rights at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, in a recent address entitled Peace, Order and good Government: A Foreign Policy Agenda for Canada (2004) stated:

"The focus of our foreign policy should be to consolidate peace, order and good government as the sine qua non for stable states, enduring democracy and equitable development. Other countries will always have larger development budgets than we do, but few countries know as much as we do about the intimate causal relation between good government and good development... I prefer peace, order and good government to 'governance' as an organizing framework for Canadian activities simply because it articulates a specifically Canadian expression of what good governance ought to be about: democratic institutions, federalism, minority rights guarantees, linguistic pluralism, aboriginal self-government and a positive, enabling role for government in economic and social development."

In a recent paper entitled: From Middle to Model Power: Recharging Canada's Role in the World, members of the Canada25 Association take a somewhat similar view by underscoring the value of viewing foreign policy initiatives from a networking rather than an hierarchical perspective:

"We submit that Canada should cease assessing its influence on the basis of its size or position within an obsolete global hierarchy. Instead, Canada 25 calls on Canadians to look at the world as a network, where influence is based on the capacity of an individual, company, non-governmental organization (NGO) or country to innovate and collaborate. Building on this perspective, we propose Canada become a Model Power- a country whose influence is linked to its ability to innovate, experiment, and partner; a country that, by presenting itself as a model, invites the world to assess, challenge, borrow from, and contribute to, its efforts."

In a similar manner, Jennifer Welsh in her thoughtful book, At Home in the World: Canada's Global Vision for the 21st Century (2004), discusses a variety of foreign policy models that merit consideration; however, most importantly for our purposes, she concludes her book by stating:

"What I am suggesting is that foreign policy is not something others do 'out there.' It is the responsibility of all of us, as part of the global commons. And it is something many of us, in our day-to-day activities are already engaged in, if only we would reorient our minds to recognize it. In the twenty-first century, it is real intelligence- not just the random and raw data that spits out of a computer- that will allow individuals, organizations and countries to thrive. Developing real intelligence requires moving beyond the information collected at the government-to-government level and digging deeper to gather knowledge about how our societies actually work.

As concerned and globally engaged citizens, Canadians are contributing to this intelligence gathering in myriad ways. We are- already- at home in the world. Let's acknowledge and build upon that reality (p.240)."

Finding 9: Canadianists and scholarship alumni are seen to have potential influence on "opinion leaders" in all areas of "Canadian interests" - social, political, economic, multicultural, multilateral etc.

Canadian Mission staff in Mexico noted the role that Canadianists play in promoting Canadian interests as follows: "We involve high level Mexican decision makers and the media in our conferences, seminars and include them in our discussions when high profile Canadians visit Mexico. So we can safely say that there is always a certain level of influence that the Canadian Studies program exerts upon the business, government and parliamentary elites in Mexico."

High Commission staff in London report that the emerging dialogue on cities among the governments of Canada and the United Kingdom (UK) and academics, Canadian municipal governments, UK local governments, and the London Assembly demonstrates the role that Canadianists play in facilitating discussion of civil society issues. This dialogue was initiated by a grant under the Sustained Studies Programme in 2001. It led to a conference in London on Sustainable Cities and Lessons from Canada in Nov 2003. Subsequent to this, the newly formed Cities Secretariat has participated in two events in London, one providing UK decision-makers in central and local government with information on Canada's New Deal for Cities, the other providing an opportunity for the Chair of Prime Minister Martin's External Advisory Committee on Cities and Communities to learn about UK initiatives.

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Finding 10: Capacity and resource issues reduce the ongoing impact and relevance of the Canadian Studies program.

The Canadian Mission staff in Mexico made it clear that they appreciate the funding that they receive from ACE-FAC; however, as the following comments demonstrate, resource constraints are very real and Canadian Studies programs would be enhanced if more funding were available.

"I have already stated some of the challenges that are faced in Mexico by the academics. (Competitiveness, topics of research imposed by universities, library support). Some of these factors are outside of the realm of influence of FAC and Embassy. In fact, FAC-ACE and the Embassy of Canada have been shown to be quite flexible to meet new challenges. Of particular help to the Embassy has been the 'public diplomacy' fund, which has complemented and helped develop to a large extent the development of new Canadian Studies scholarship that fall outside the normal program activities funded by FAC-ACE. In fact, we have grown quite dependent at the mission on the public diplomacy funding for several activities, including many of the activities related to 'scholarship' (seminars, publications, etc.)."

In a similar way, the Canadian Mission staff in Australia made the following comments regarding resource constraints.

"The Canadian Studies program, and its related activities, does successfully meet its established objectives and the objectives of the mission. There is no doubt all three of the sub-objectives of the International Academic Relations (ACE) program are being met in Australia... There are more things we could do with additional staffing resources, however. For example, we would like to develop a more comprehensive database on the research interests of Canadianists in Australia. To date, we have relied on corporate knowledge for this kind of information but when staff depart this knowledge goes with them. We also need to better integrate Canadian Studies into the Public Diplomacy Program of the Mission and, in particular, involve other High Commission Programs such as Commercial, Defense and Immigration in the outreach to Australian universities."

A respondent in Brazil spoke of the various programmes and scholarships administered by the ICCS. She was most enthusiastic about the Programme for International Research Linkages. However, she noted that only a limited number of projects can be funded under this program, especially when there are so many Canadian Studies organizations around the world. She also observed that the funding for professorial visits under the Academic Internship Programme could not assist with the living costs of visiting professors to Brazil pointing out that the host universities could only afford to keep them for about two weeks whereas professors visiting Canada from Brazil could often stay for six months because the host Canadian University had adequate funding. She claimed that the visits to Brazil were highly appreciated by faculty and staff and that the exchanges were highly beneficial to building relations between the two academic communities. She felt that if the Canadian profs could stay longer there would be time to attract media coverage through encounters with journalists, that there is much public interest in Canada which could be satisfied by better use of visiting experts. She mentioned the current same-sex marriage and health care debates as examples of subjects where the Canadian example could be usefully shared with Brazilians.

This respondent felt that Canadian Studies funding in general is too fragmented into the various and small sub-categories of programmes and that too much time and effort was spent merely researching the options and applying for assistance to build understanding and share academic research.

An ACE-FAC Fact Sheet (2004) on the Republic of Korea describes two major challenges faced by the Canadian Studies Program in that country:

  1. Lack of funding- Given the modest size of the scholarship program and due to lack of financial resources, it is difficult to reach out to the academic and student community to actively promote and expand the program, The perception of Canada being a middle power in Korea where the influence of the four super powers (namely, China, Japan, Russia and the US) is dominant, does not help attract students and academics into Canadian Studies. As a result, Canadian Studies programs often remain a marginal part of the greater North American studies.
  2. Lack of continuity/human resources- Because there is no full time local Academic Relations Officer in Seoul, there is a lack of continuity in running the program. Canada-based officers only stay for two or three years and oftentimes, academic contacts or records get lost in transition.

Conclusion

From the data presented there is a logical link between the various education and scholarship programs and the desire by Canada to inform the world about its particular foreign policy interests. From our data, ACE has developed an expansive network of individuals who have the potential of influencing and or supporting Canadian interests. The effectiveness and effects of this network is the subject of the next section.

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3. Program Effectiveness of Canadian Studies and Scholarship Programs

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3.1 Introduction

The above section of this report considered questions related to the relevance and rationale of the Canadian Studies program and the Scholarship program. This section examines their effectiveness and in doing so, will explore the various outputs of the programs--the goods and services provided as well as the program outcomes. The program outcomes will be assessed based on the extent to which they (outcomes) are contributing to the attainment of the program objectives namely:

  1. Canadian Studies: develop a greater knowledge and understanding of Canada, its values and its culture among scholars and other influential groups abroad. Provide support to academics outside Canada for teaching, research and publication about Canada in a variety of disciplines.
  2. Scholarship Programs: Support the development of outstanding scholars from selected countries.

3.2 Exploring the Program Outputs

Finding 11: Canadianists provide a variety of relevant programs and services in support of Canada's foreign policy objectives in over 50 countries including those in the strategically important, G-8 plus5.

In considering the outreach and potential outcomes of the work of these Canadianists, it is important to remember that the 789 members of the Association for Canadian Studies in the United States (ACSUS) include faculty members, researchers, and graduate students in 71 universities, colleges, and institutions in 33 states. During 2002-2003,in that one national association, there were more than 100 projects funded on a wide range of topics and in many disciplines.

In a similar way, an ACE-FAC Fact Sheet (2004) on the United Kingdom estimates the outreach of the 440 Canadianists in the British Association for Canadian Studies includes those teaching 221 courses on Canada that are taught at 93 universities to over 6,000 students. In other words, many Canadianists are involved in academic settings, which enhances their potential output significantly.

Finally, many individuals are directly influenced by the information and ideas that are discussed and generated by Canadianists in these associations. For example, over 6,900 people regularly receive The International Canadianist, published by the ICCS, which carries information on conferences, seminars, and recent publications. Again, the information that is published in the International Canadianist is often included in local and national newsletters and journals. In addition, more than 1,900 individuals interested in Canadian Studies receive Contact, the electronic newsletter published weekly by the ICCS. In other words, the Canadian Studies network of over 7,000 Canadianists has a worldwide outreach that facilitates communication, discussion, research and the spread of ideas and information about Canada.

Finding 12: Thousands of publications including theses, books, articles, audiovisual presentations as well as website information are distributed to Canadianists and others interested in Canada.

The number of outputs supported by the Canadian Studies program is impressive. Recent bibliographies as well as the International Council on Canadian Studies (ICCS) Internet site document the extensive scholarly output of Canadianists in many countries around the world. One of the most impressive examples is the recent bibliography published by the Canadian Studies Association in German-speaking countries that contains no less than 467 pages of bibliographic references.

One example of many websites supported by Canadian Studies Associations is the Canadian Literature Website in China. This Web site (in Chinese only) is the first site in China on the studies of Canadian literature. Produced by the Canadian Studies Centre at Ningbo University, Zhejiang Province,it was created to increase the influence and prestige of Canadian literature in China and help students learn more about Canadian literature. In addition, it serves as a platform for Canadianists engaged in Canadian literature to publicize academic essays, book reviews and translations, and to exchange views on Canadian writers and novels.

Similar to other national associations of Canadian Studies, the Brazilian Association for Canadian Studies reports that it has published many works on topics related to Canadian Studies. The Publications page on the ABECAN's site.

Finding 13: Outputs and effects of Canadian Studies Programs vary by the stage of development of Canadian Studies within different countries.

In reviewing the outputs and effects of the Canadian Studies Program the evaluation team noticed a pattern in the behaviour of the various country programs. Specifically, the age and resources attached to the program in part seemed associated with the level of outputs and the effects they had on key informants. Based on interviews with and documentation from Canadianists as well as ACE-FAC, Missions, and ICCS staff, the following categories of new, evolving, established, and mature stages of development in Canadian Studies was generated as well as the categorization of the countries involved:

Mature: Canadian Studies are well established and they do not require as much monitoring by ACE-FAC staff as they have considerable operational experience. Countries that are at this stage in the development of Canadian Studies programs include:

  • Argentina, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States.

Established: Canadian Studies facilitate a national or multinational association, centres and programs are in operation, but ongoing monitoring and support is required as there is still room for further development. Countries that are at this stage in the development of Canadian Studies programs include:

  • Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, China, Hungary, India, Ireland, New Zealand, Poland, Russia, South Korea.

Evolving: Canadian Studies programs have started with the granting of a few FEP or FRP to provide support to selected scholars. Support may also have been provided for library acquisitions or for the initial stages of developing an association. Countries that are at this stage in the development of Canadian Studies programs include:

  • Bulgaria, Colombia, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Estonia, Greece, Latvia, Lithuania, Paraguay, Uruguay, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Taiwan, Ukraine, Venezuela, Yugoslavia.

New: Very early stage of organizational development; however, interest in Canadian Studies has been manifest and there are some people interested in pursuing the establishment of Canadian Studies initiatives in the country. Countries that are at this stage in the development of Canadian Studies programs include:

  • Algeria, Chile, Malaysia, Morocco, Pakistan, Senegal, Turkey, Palestine, the Philippines, Portugal, South Africa, and Tunisia.

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Finding 14: Conferences, seminars, public lectures attract thousands of international people, including politicians, policy makers, business leaders, civil society.

An increasingly common practice, especially in countries with established and mature Canadian Studies Associations, is the use of Canadianists in a variety of programs that are of interest to people in the local community. In fact, as noted below, even some of the newly established Canadian Studies Associations are contributing to Canadian foreign policy objectives in this manner.

The Canadian High Commission staff in London reported on the ongoing efforts of Canadianists to facilitate the sharing of information about Canada in the following excerpt from a report in 2004:

"The model of Canada as a successful multicultural welfare state was offered to an audience of key UK opinion-formers in a Canada House lecture entitled Diversity, Social Solidarity and the Welfare State: International Experience and the British Debate, given last week by Professor Keith Banting, Queen's University. While differences between Canada and the UK were acknowledged, Banting argued that the underlying similarities between the two countries are powerful and make Canada's experience relevant for the UK. His lecture encapsulated the Canadian riposte to UK/Continental assumptions that social diversity must undermine cohesion and support for redistributive policies."

The report went on to note:

"Professor Banting's lecture was the 73rd in the Canada House Lecture series, which have been given by distinguished Canadian academics. The lectures, which have a high reputation for quality and interest, are published by the Academic Relations Unit and distributed to university libraries and key targets in the UK. Over the years, the lectures have presented a range of leading Canadian academics, and in recent years special efforts have been made to present topics that appeal to a wider range of policy makers, think tanks and opinion-formers, as well as the academic community."

An example of an initiative of a new Canadian Studies Association that attracted and involved local people was the International colloquium organized by the Centre d'études canadiennes of the Université Mohamed 1er d'Oujda (CECO) with the support of FAC that was held from November25 to 27, 2004. It is interesting to note that the Centre is the first of its kind in Africa. The goals of CECO are to:

"Develop research in economics, law, literature, politics, etc. on Canada in Morocco; develop comparative studies in all disciplines; promote university and administrative exchanges of researchers, professors and students; organize joint colloquia, study days, round tables, etc.; participate in joint research projects; informing teachers, researchers and students on opportunities (grants, fellowships, etc.) available to them in Canada; and disseminate documents, resources, films, journals, etc. on Canada."

3.3 Program Results and Effects on Foreign and Canadian Audiences

Finding 15: Eminent Canadianists and their students have won prestigious awards. This is an important symbol of the credibility of the program.

At the 25th Annual Conference and Anniversary Celebration of the GKS in Grainau, 20-23February 2004, many of the younger scholars and students were awarded prizes for their research in progress or completed. A report from the Canadian Mission noted that the applications for the Prix d'Excellence du Quebec, established by FAC and the Canadian Embassy in Germany, "were so numerous and of so high quality that the jury not only decided to split the prize into three but also was able to raise additional donations for a fourth prize."

Dirk Hoerder, the President of GKS, was awarded the 2004 Sharlin Prize, for the best book on social history in the United States, in recognition of his book entitled: Cultures in Contact.

In November 2003, Prof. Nancy Burke, who recently published a book of poetry entitled: Scorched Earth (Wypalona ziemia), was awarded the Medal Komisji Edukacji Narodowej, on behalf of the Republic of Poland. The Polish Ministry of Education grants the Medal.

Prof. Haim Genizi of Bar-Ilan University, a member of the Israel Association for Canadian Studies member, recently received the Montreal Jewish Public Library's prestigious "J.I. Segal Award for 2004" in the category of Canadian Jewish Studies, for his book: The Holocaust, Israel, and Canadian Protestant Churches (Montreal-Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2002).

Finding 16: A large number of articles are published by Canadianists in respected journals.

A review of the academic qualifications of those serving on Editorial Boards of The American Review of Canadian Studies, Interfaces Brazil/Canada, and the International Journal of Canadian Studies indicates that the peer-review process established by these journals is designed and monitored to meet the highest academic standards.

Most of the mature and established Canadian Studies Associations publish several issues of their journal each year. For example, the following articles presented in Exhibit3.1 demonstrate the range of topics published in three issues during 2003-2004 of Canadian-Australian Studies, the official journal of the Association for Canadian Studies in Australia and New Zealand.

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Exhibit 3.1. Articles Addressing Canadian Issues
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2004: The Status of Women in Canada and Australia
Kathryn CarterThe Circulating of Self: Frances Simpson's 1830 "Journal of a Voyage from Montreal..."
A. R. BuckWomen, Dower, and the Courts of Equitable Jurisdiction: Comparing Upper Canada and New South Wales in the Nineteenth Century
Hilary Golder and Diane KirkbySettler Colonies Embrace Married Women's Property Reform
Marian SawerSuffrage Centenaries in Comparative Perspective
Vol. 21, No. 2, 2003: A Multidisciplinary Journal
Geoffrey SimpsonThe Canadian Identity: An Idea in Search of a Reality
David StainesCulture is Our Business
Greg DonaghyA Terrible Responsibility: Canada, the United States, and the Vietnam War
Linda Duxbury and A Chris HigginsWork-Life Conflict in Canada in the New Millenium: Status Report
Roy Jones and Christina Birdsall-JonesNative or Manufactured? A Comparison of Indigenous-Industrial Heritage Conflicts in Perth and Ottawa
Donald Ross and A John MundyEnabling Australian-Canadian Business Alliances Research Agenda
Vol. 21, No. 1, 2003: Indigenous Issues
Rosemary NeillWhite-Out/ Black-Out
Mark FrancisThe Theoretical Implications of a National Identity for Canadian Indigenous Peoples
Peter JullReconciliation Constitutions: Canadian & Australian Northern Territories
Paul KauffmannA Social Indicator Comparison Between Indigenous People in Australian and Canada and the Approaches to Redress the Balance
Garth NettheimConstitutional Comparisons: Canadian Dimensions on Australia's Experience with Native Title
Will SandersFrom Unorganized Interests to Nations Within: Changing Conceptions of Indigenous Issues in Australia and Canada

A recent report from the Canadian Mission in Mexico provides an estimate of the number of publications related to Canadian Studies that were published in Mexico during the past five years. The report noted that the Embassy of Canada in Mexico has awarded an average of 9 FRP grants per year to Mexican academics. Given that the objective of the FRP program "is to stimulate the production of publishable quality academic articles in Mexico. This gives a total of 45 articles for the past 5 years. There is a further 25 articles in the past 5 years that were produced not as a result of the FRP and that were published in several learned journals, including the Mexican Association of Canadian Studies journal which is published 4 times a year." The report went on to note "moreover, there have been 40 books with Canadian content published in Spanish in Mexico as a direct result of the Canadian Studies programs."

There are more examples since many Canadianists and their students publish regularly in peer-reviewed journals that are referenced in academic and professional bibliographic reference systems. The Canadian Studies program supports and encourages these academic practices, which increases the credibility and the potential influence of the worldwide network of Canadianists.

Finding 17: Bibliographic references and websites indicate widespread use of information generated and organized by Canadianists; furthermore, the state-of-the-art bibliographic work by Canadianists facilitates the sharing of referenced electronic information internationally.

As noted above, Canadianists generate a considerable amount of scholarly literature. Interviews with ICCS staff indicate that the price of books and especially out-of-print books continue to increase in price. Canadianists and the librarians who work with them are aware of the importance of readily accessing current and past research as well as related documents. In this regard, the British Association for Canadian Studies recently announced the launch of its Web site. Designed for use by those with an interest in Canadian Studies, the website includes the following subject areas: Aboriginal Peoples, Francophone Canada, Genealogy and Family History, Government, Law and Politics.

The report noted "the project, which reflects the expertise and remarkable enthusiasm of a number of individuals, was developed by the Library & Resources Group of the British Association for Canadian Studies- a group of librarians and information managers throughout the UK who identify and advertise resources to support Canadian Studies." It was developed as part of a Sustained Studies Program project supported by Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada and the Foundation for Canadian Studies in the UK, to consider and assess the past achievements and future prospects for the Canadian Studies Program in the UK.

Finally, the following report from the GKS on the development of a Virtual Canadian Reference Library (VCRL) demonstrates that Canadianists are involved in state-of-the-art bibliographic work. The report notes:

"Access to research resources is increasingly difficult. Archives and libraries developed by specialized and qualified personnel are unevenly distributed between institutions, regions, and countries; the fast growing number of websites, while facilitating access, often has no quality control. It is high time to expand the traditional concept of 'reference library' staffed by qualified librarians to include web-based resources selected by qualified scholars and catalogued by qualified librarians. It is also high time to end the duality between printed and virtual resources."

The report concludes by noting "the philosophy behind the VCRL is that reference tools in the age of the internet, like a classical print reference library, need knowledgeable scholars and librarians to provide access through structured portals that help the scholarly and the lay public to find high-quality information suited to their needs. Once established, the VCRL will be made available to all ICCS member associations."

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Finding 18: Data suggests an increase in interest, study and research on Canada in institutions of higher learning around the world.

An excellent example of the commitment of Canadianists to the growth of Canadian Studies was included in the Association for Canadian Studies in the United States Annual Report for 2003-2004. The ACSUS will be "coordinating the research and production of a textbook suitable for an introductory Canadian Studies course offered at a U.S. college or university." Moreover, the ACSUS has launched a Canadian Studies curriculum development initiative designed to offer a comprehensive web based Curriculum Development Resource Centre on the ACSUS website. The Centre will serve as a portal for individuals and institutions seeking to access a comprehensive database of Canadian studies development resources.

The centre will feature a wide set of tools designed to facilitate efforts at integrating Canadian studies course content into the curriculum. A major component will be the Canadian studies course syllabi bank, encompassing a broad range of disciplines and levels. An annotated bibliography linked to the syllabi bank will provide further support and guidance in course and program development initiatives.

A note in the December3, 2004 issue of Contact demonstrates the continued multinational growth of interest in Canadian Studies. The report indicated that a Latino-American Network for Canadian Studies was officially created on 14November 2004 in Caracas Venezuela, with nine participating countries and three elected officers: Gilberto Lacerda (Brazil); Josefina Castro (Cuba) and Sergio Stange (Chile). Furthermore, a constitution and a declaration have been adopted and will shortly be translated into English and in French.

Finding 19: Missions report increased use of Canadianists as well as scholarship alumni in fostering Canadian objectives abroad; as noted in Finding20, the influence of Canadianists is often used strategically to influence selected groups such as policy makers and politicians.

A Canadian Consulate staff report (2004) from Seattle, Washington, described the benefits of the 5th Annual Canada Gala as follows.

"The Canada Gala in Seattle has evolved into a major public relations event of the Seattle Consulate that has a number of objectives including: creating a public diplomacy stage that attracts players from both sides of the border to 'Celebrate the Relationship;' providing network opportunities for government officials and businessmen; promoting Canadian products; promoting Canadian tourism, raising the profile and membership of the Canada America Society (CAS); promoting Canadian Studies; raising funds for the CAS Scholarship Fund; attracting Canadian university alumni to branch events; and generating goodwill for Canada.. . The Gala attracted 760 guests. Government officials, military leaders, businessmen, cultural representatives, academics, and social organizations were all represented."

The impact of the networking opportunities provided by such events is difficult to document; however, the opportunity for people from the academic, business, and political spheres to interact with each other and, more importantly, share ideas, concerns, and strategies surely enhances the scope of the dialogue on public policy issues that are relevant to Canada and the host countries.

The Canadian Mission staff in Mexico recently reported that on November23, 24 and 25, 2004, the Atwood/Roy Chair in Canadian Studies at Mexico's National University (UNAM) organized a series of conferences with Canadian and Mexican First Nation writers. The report noted that the event was part of the Canadian Indigenous Fall, which was inaugurated with the Valerie Burton photo exhibit at the Anthropology Museum and closed with the visit of the Honorable Paul Okalik, Premier of Nunavut. The delegation of Canadian writers consisted of Buffy Sainte-Marie (Cree), Rita Mestokosho (Innu) and Patricia Monture (Mohawk). Mexican participants, led by the Association of Indigenous writers of Mexico, included indigenous writers from several of the 62 different language groups in Mexico.

The report specifically noted:

"Although there was an average of only 50 people per conference, the people who attended were those who had a defined interest in the event which was covered in Mexico's national newspapers. A total of 5 articles so far have appeared, including a full three-page article in La Jornada and a one half-page article in La Reforma. El Universal is due to carry an important article in its Sunday cultural supplement (date yet to be determined). These are the top 3 national newspapers in Mexico."

A report received from the Canadian Embassy in Croatia provided the following information on the inaugural meeting of the Croatian Chapter of the Central European Association for Canadian Studies, which was held on February10, 2004 at the University of Zagreb.

"Prof. Dr. Ivo Josipovic of the Law Faculty was unanimously elected President. Prof. Josipovic has a long-standing interest in Canadian Studies and played a significant role in the CIDA-funded Judges' Training Project run by Justice Rivet of the Quebec Bench. In that context he researched the Canadian Charter of Human Rights and introduced it into course work in the Faculty of Law. He founded a law library based on donations from Canada, which he offered as the Centre for the Canadian Studies Croatian Chapter."

A recent Canadian Mission staff report from Germany indicated that:

"A speaking tour in Germany by Queen's University Economics Professor Thomas D. Courchene provided the opportunity to link the story of Canada's successful fiscal reform process to current German interest in structural reform, and to market Canada as a highly interesting investment destination and trade partner. Courchene gave three well-received and highly substantive speeches in each of Munich, Frankfurt and Berlin. In each location Courchene gave a detailed account of how then Finance Minister Paul Martin instituted the reforms that allowed Canada to take full advantage of the concurrent upswing in the US economy to move from the second-worst budgetary performance in the G-7 (after Italy) to the unique position of running the only continuing budget surplus within the group."

The report went on to comment that the speaking tour demonstrated the value of: "a) choosing a topic of domestic interest to Germans that also allows Canada to be shown in a favourable light; and b) working with local partners, who contributed greatly to the success of the events by reaching out to a broader audience than the Embassy would normally reach."

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Finding 20: Canadianists are quoted in the public media on issues related to Canadian Foreign Policy. In this way, civil society is exposed to informed comments by arms-length Canadianists on key issues. The direct effects are hard to document but they are perceived positively by missions.

A report from the Canadian Mission in Australia commented on the role Canadianists play in the public media with regard to Canadian foreign policy issues in the following way:

"The University of Wollongong's Centre for Canadian-Australian Studies, which is funded by the Canadian Studies Program, provides information to Australians in regard to their understanding of Canada, primarily through the media, which often invites the Centre to give speeches and interviews. Media staff and the general public often turn to the Centre seeking expert advice to explain the Canadian political state, especially during recent times of international turmoil."

The report went on to state:

"The Nortel Networks sponsors an annual public lecture through the Centre for Canadian-Australian Studies. These events have served to inform the Australian public about a range of topics that relate to modern Canadian society including multiculturalism, Indigenous issues and Canadian literature. The speakers to date have been: Professor Leroy Little Bear, Peter Bregg, Roch Carrier, Margaret Atwood, and Senator Vivienne Poy."

An example of the value of the relationships established by Canadianists with journalists abroad was reported after the 25th Anniversary Grainau Conference of the GKS. The President of the GKS, Dirk Hoerder invited the freelance journalist Gerd Braune to participate in the conference. The report noted:

"Gerd Braune is one of the very few German journalists who writes regularly on Canadian issues in German newspapers and other media. His visit to Stuttgart, where he met with journalists, scholars and students at the Deutsch-Amerikanisches Zentrum, was well attended and stimulating, as were his contacts at the Amerika Haus in Munich and his presentation at the annual meeting of the GKS at Grainau."

Finding 21: Interviews with Canadianists and documentation in their annual reports, conference proceedings, and letters to ACE-FAC and ICCS staff indicate a high level of satisfaction with the Canadian Studies program.

A review of the addresses given by Canadianists attending the 25th Anniversary of Canadian Studies in Ottawa attests to the deep appreciation and gratitude of Canadianists to ACE-FAC staff.

The concluding section of a letter to H.E. Marie Bernard-Meunier, Ambassador of Canada, Berlin, dated January 31, 2001 is a typical example of the gratitude expressed by many Canadianists over the years. "Finally, I would like very much to express my gratitude to you personally and also to your highly competent and committed staff for the immense support of GKS and Canadian Studies in German-speaking countries. The cooperation between the Embassy and GKS is characterized by confidence and is embedded in an atmosphere of friendship."

In addition to expressing appreciation to ACE-FAC program managers, Canadianists in Germany recently recognized the contributions of ICCS staff in Ottawa, by naming Gaëtan Vallières, an Honorary Member of the GKS at its Members' Meeting in Grainau, 21February 2004.

Finding 22: Survey data from scholarship recipient alumni of the Canadian Commonwealth Scholarship and Fellowship Program and the Government of Canada Scholarship Program found the programs useful and are satisfied. These figures vary between ODA and non-ODA countries.

Scholarship alumni indicated considerable satisfaction with the degree to which their studies in Canada aided the development of their careers. As the Alumni Tracer Study Report notes, "overall, 93.1% of respondents found the program to have been extremely useful or very useful in furthering their career aspirations, and only 1% found the program unsuccessful. General comments from alumni revealed that their study opportunity in Canada enabled them to go beyond their initial career expectations thus supporting the above data."

When asked to assess the benefits of the award in contributing to the economic, social and cultural needs of the nominating country, 89.4% of the respondents found it useful. However, there were significant differences in the responses provided by scholarship recipients from ODA, developing, and Non-ODA, developed, countries. As the Alumni Tracer Study notes, "81.5% of alumni from ODA countries considered the utility of the scholarship to the overall development of their home country as extremely or very useful, this figure dropped to 51.7% for alumni from Non-ODA countries."

The Alumni Tracer Study requested respondents to evaluate the quality of their Canadian experience from an educational, socio-cultural and resources perspective, 99.1% of alumni rated the calibre of their education in Canada as being as very satisfactory or satisfactory. Again, the home country category of the students had an effect on the response as 84.9% of respondents from ODA, developing countries assessed the quality of Canadian education as very satisfactory while 75.1% of respondents from non-ODA, developed, countries did so. The Alumni tracer Study also noted "additional remarks from alumni indicated that they would recommend Canada as a study destination to their children, and scholars at their home universities, including future students."

Questions examining the degree to which scholarship alumni gained an understanding of Canadian society and culture, individual Canadians, and the Canadian education system showed that "73.9% of respondents considered that they had substantially improved their understanding of Canadian society and culture, individual Canadians, and the Canadian education system, while another 20.4% said they had somewhat improved their understanding."

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Finding 23: The extensive network of Canadianists, scholarship alumni and Canadians who have studied or worked abroad has not been strategically used to further the objectives of the Department.

Interviews with ACE-FAC and ICCS staff as well as information documented in reports from Canadian Missions abroad indicates that scholarship recipients and Canadianists have been used to varying degrees in support of Canada's foreign policy objectives. The multicultural experience and expertise acquired by these individuals could play a significant role at the community, national and international level, especially on issues involving international cooperation and understanding. However, the full strategic potential of this network of committed people and the Canadians who often work with them has not been fully tapped. To some extent this is due to resource constraints; however, greater appreciation of the strategic value of this network, within and outside Canada, and an increased focus on how it can contribute to the promotion of Canadian foreign policy objectives are clearly needed.

In a similar way, the results of the Alumni Tracer Study of scholarship recipients demonstrates the influential roles that many of these individuals play in their own countries as well as internationally. Follow-up strategies need to be generated to utilize more fully the interest and goodwill of this large pool of talented people.

3.3.1 Meeting Expectations of FAC and FAC Partners

The Canadian Studies and Scholarship programs are supported through a complex set of partnerships. Face-to-face interviews, telephone conversations, and reviews of relevant documents indicated that in most cases the expectations of FAC and FAC partners were being met in a very positive manner, although certain partners indicated that they would appreciate even more collaboration and others noted that resource constraints at times affected their relations. Exhibit3.2 presents a summary of the targeted partners, the expectations that had and comments on the degree to which those expectations were fulfilled.

Exhibit 3.2 Meeting Expectations of FAC and FAC Partners
TargetExpectationComment
FACLinks to Departments objectivesMore effective collaboration
ACE-FACPromote Canadian culture and valuesViewed realistically and positively; resource constraints a concern
ICCSUpdated programs and policy supportStrong, viable, partnership
MissionsAttractive programs, ongoing supportGenerally very positive; resource constraints
HRSDCProgram cooperation and visa supportVery appreciative, want partnerships
FulbrightOngoing partnershipVery appreciative

3.4 Unintended Consequences

Finding 24: Emergence of Canadian Studies networks in Europe, Eastern Europe, Baltic Countries, and Latin America have extended the program reach and have fostered multinational discussions of Canadian culture and issues.

An example of an unintended consequence emerging from the support of the Canadian Studies program is the development of regional networks of countries sharing information and practices related to issues about Canada. Although ACE-FAC program managers are pleased with this development, much of the impetus for such multinational sharing has actually stemmed from the national associations themselves. The recent establishment of the Central European Association for Canadian Studies/ Association d'Etudes Canadiennes en Europe Centrale illustrates this phenomenon strategic. Founded in 2003, this Association brings together university teachers, researchers and students from the Central European region who are doing work related to Canada. As noted in a recent report:

"It traces its roots to the first meeting of Canadianists from this part of Europe in Budmerice, Slovakia, in May 1995 and the organization of the 1st International Conference of Central European Canadianists in Brno, the Czech Republic, three years later. Much help in its subsequent development came from the European Network for Canadian Studies (ENCS) and the GKS. At the present time the association has members, organized in 'national chapters', from Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia and Slovenia."

A report dated September24, 2001, written by a Canadian Mission staff member in Riga, noted the initial stages of growth of the Baltic Association for Canadian Studies in the following way:

"After about 50 years of isolation under the Soviet regime, Lithuania has opened itself to the World. In that sense, learning foreign languages was since the very beginning of new independence, so important in the sense of allowing Lithuanians to communicate with the rest of the world. It is a main reason why philology, quite a sophisticated and specialized domain, means something particular in such a context... Canadian Studies, inaugurated at Vilnius University in 1998, has generated considerable interest in Lithuania (not only among philologists). The Canada Room, initiated by the Department of English Philology (DEP) with the financial support of Canadian Government and private investors, is universally admired and serves as a high profile project. Student interest in Canadian Studies is growing steadily... Last year's Conference (Re) Discovering Canada, organized jointly by the Nordic Association for Canadian Studies and the DEP was a great success (over 100 people attended conference) and therefore, it was decided to continue in a similar way this year too. One of the Ambassadors who attended the first conference, was able "to witness first hand both the great enthusiasm for Canadian topics which exists within the faculty and student body at Vilnius and the ability of the organizers to produce a solid academic event."

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Finding 25: Canadian Studies Networks and Foundations have leveraged a significant amount of program support based on a relatively modest amount of funding from ACE-FAC sources. This is especially true in countries with established and mature Canadian Studies Associations.

A careful review of the 2004 Canadian Studies Budget for Germany shows the contributions that universities and other institutions provided in support of visiting professorships, documentation centres, as well as doctoral research and outreach activities. Other examples of the leveraging of ACE-FAC funding are presented below:

A report from the Canadian High Commission staff in London indicates:

"Since 1974 the Foundation has provided private-sector funding to complement Government of Canada funding for Canadian Studies, mainly at UK universities. These funding sources together are able to lever significant extra spending from UK universities and elsewhere. This leverage factor is calculated at about 9 times the combined input from the Government of Canada and the Foundation. The Board of the Foundation is comprised of senior British and Canadian businesspersons based in the UK, UK-based British and Canadian academics, and the Head of the CBC London Bureau."

The Centre for Canadian-Australian Studies at the University of Wollongong was established on Canada Day, July1st 2000. The Centre has established a variety of industry, community and government partnerships and has been involved with a diverse array of events and publications. Nortel Networks, which has a research centre at the University, is a significant supporter of the Centre and its activities. The Nortel Networks sponsors an annual public lecture through the Centre for Canadian-Australian Studies. These events have served to inform the Australian public about a range of topics that relate to modern Canadian society including multiculturalism, Indigenous issues and Canadian literature.

Finding 26: Missions report that Canadianists provide political support and influence on sensitive foreign policy issues. While unplanned, it has not been unexpected.

A Canadian Mission staff report from Mexico indicated that Canadianists provided clear guidance to Mexican decision makers during "the 'Turbot war' of the early 1990s (incident between Canada and Spain regarding the embargo of a fishing vessel)", moreover, key Mexican legislation was influenced by Canadian and Mexican academics related to "the Election reform (late 1990s) and Privacy legislation (2002)." In addition, Canadianist in Mexico have also provided guidance related to "key international issues: responsibility to protect, human security, and peacekeeping operations."

Canadian Mission staff in Australia reported that "Dr Paul Kaufmann, a past recipient of Canadian Studies grants, in consultation with staff at the High Commission in Canberra, arranged for a group of Australian government officials from the federal Department of Employment and Work Place Relations to undertake a study tour of Canada to look at aboriginal employment programs."

Finding 27: Canadianists have facilitated the creation of bilateral and global study groups on important international issues.

The Canadian Embassy in Germany reported an excellent example of bilateral cooperation among Canadianists that gained the support of a broader array of academics as well as the financial support of major institutions. The report noted that:

"Based on his experience as a member of the German-French schoolbook commission, which had investigated the content of French and German schoolbooks and had led to amendments and improvements in these books in order to overcome prejudices and false images, Marburg University geographer Alfred Pletsch, together with Wilfrid Laurier University geographer Alfred Hecht, started to do research on the Canada content of German schoolbooks and the Germany content of Canadian textbooks."

They did so in close cooperation with and with substantive financial support by the Georg-Eckert-Institute for International Schoolbook Research in Braunschweigo, an institution that is financed by the German Bundesldnder (provinces). Pletsch and Hecht also studied curricula of schools and school boards in Canada and Germany and finally came up with recommendations for teachers, for authors as well as producers of schoolbooks, and for Government institutions, which set the guidelines for schoolbooks. In order to promote the improvement of schoolbook contents, the scholars met with cultural ministry bureaucrats and schoolbook publishers. They then developed the 'VGT,' a trilingual Virtual Geography Textbook on Canada and Germany.

What started as an entertainment by two academics has now become a project in which some twenty scholars and teachers and their staff are involved. Although the VGT is still being tested, it is fully operational. The carefully thought out 'units' included in the virtual textbook reach far beyond proper geography. It is a useful tool for university students, school kids, and the general public. It is highly regarded by experts and, in fact, now being translated into Chinese (financed by Chinese sources). The Embassy and ACE supported the VGT project with modest amounts as it developed. German sources financed most of the costs of meanwhile several hundred thousand dollars.

Conclusion

The amount of outputs provided by the wide network of Canadianists though hard to quantify exactly, is still very impressive. ACE has developed a large cadre of academics around the world who are studying Canada, teaching about Canada and writing about Canada. In comparisons to countries like Australia, New Zealand, Finland and so forth Canada is way ahead in having interest generated about itself. An issue for the program is how to translate the interest and outputs into influence. As is seen throughout this section, the program has had positive effects. However, we have also heard and witnessed the problems of obtaining effects when dealing with very modest resources widely disbursed. Managing resources for better results is the subject of the next section.

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4. Efficiency of the Canadian Studies and Scholarship Programs

4.1 Introduction

The relationship between resources and results is the subject of this section. How does ACE translate its resources into results? To explore this question, we first looked at the environment within which ACE works. As Peter Drucker said "Context is not a thing for managers-it is the thing managers need to address". In particular we explored the stakeholder environment. Next, we examined the Management Model and the Program Model. In both instances we explored best practices and areas for improvement.

Finding 28: The ACE program operates in a complex stakeholder environment.

As the diagram in Exhibit4.1 illustrates, ACE operates in a complex series of relationships that require ongoing cooperation and support from a variety of stakeholders. The Heads of Missions, Canadian-based mission staff, locally-engaged mission staff as well as local Canadianists and scholars play a major role in relating to with each other as well as with relevant stakeholders within each country. Moreover, within Canada, the relationships among FAC and ACE-FAC staff as well as ICCS and Fulbright Scholarship staff are also complex; but they also involve relationships with key stakeholders abroad. Interviews with the above players in this network, as well as, a review of relevant documents and reports, indicates that in the vast majority of cases these relationships have been collaborative, respectful, and productive, especially given the recognized resource constraints within which the programs are operating.

Exhibit 4.1 Stakeholder Relationships

Stakeholder Relationships

In such an environment there are a large number of transactions, which can add substantially to the costs of a program. In the case of ACE, we noticed that transaction cost is mitigated by the positive relationships they have with the stakeholders.

Finding 29: The complex stakeholder environment of the Canadian Studies and Scholarship programs uses a management style of cooperation and good will.

Interviews with ACE-FAC program managers and ICCS staff as well as the responses of Canadian Mission staff to survey questions indicate that the outputs and outcomes from the programs are managed at many levels and ongoing cooperation routinely takes place among those who are involved. In fact, funding cuts have increased reliance on cooperative rather than contractual relationships in several countries.

Those interviewed described the following factors as being responsible for the success of the ACE-FAC program managers in facilitating the interactions among key stakeholders:

  1. Understanding of the goals and objectives of the Academic Relations Program and the ability to relate them to the ongoing and emerging educational and cultural contexts of the countries in which they are working.
  2. The ability to initiate and maintain ongoing communication with Canadian-based mission staff as well as with the locally engaged staff who are supporting them.
  3. The ability to recognize the stages of development that Canadian Studies has reached within the countries for which they are responsible and the strategic use of the instruments or the modification of existing ones to meet the specific needs that arise within a given situation, including:
    • Identifying academics interested in Canadian Studies and encouraging them to pursue this interest by applying for FEP, FRP, travel grants, etc.
    • Encouraging interested academics to teach courses in Canadian Studies by informing them about library support grants, encouraging them to attend conferences, or to establish seminars focused on Canadian Studies topics.
    • Encouraging interested academics to either form an association of Canadian Studies or to establish a Canadian Studies program within their university.
    • Encouraging the development of a Canadian Studies Centre with at least four disciplines by ensuring that interested academics follow the funding guidelines that have been established for the creation of such centres.
    • Facilitating the organization of discussion groups, seminars, and conferences by of Canadian Studies Associations or Centres.
    • Also encouraging local Canadianists to include in their conferences and meetings cultural activities, scholarship presentations and awards, along with opportunities to meet business, civic and media leaders in their community, country or region.

In a face-to-face interview in Brazil with the President of ABECAN she mentioned that she is in the process of up-dating the constitution of the ABECAN. She noted that two key changes will be to lengthen the mandate of the president from 2 to 4 years, and to arrange for at least partial payment for his/her services to the organisation. She said it will be difficult to find a replacement president because it takes so much time to run the organisation without adequate support staff infrastructure. She considers the organisation fragile because of the funding issue. These candid comments underscore the value of the many hours of voluntary time contributed by Canadianists to develop, maintain and strengthen Canadian Studies Associations.

Finding 30: The Management Model used by ACE, incorporating the ideas of strategy, orientation, leadership, functional activities and relationships has been relatively successful but improvements can be made.

Exhibit 4.2 explores the strengths and weaknesses of the Management Model and Practices used by ACE. In general, we found that the model used was relatively successful. Strategic Orientation, Leadership, functional activities and relationships, all were positively perceived by staff and stakeholders. However, there are some important issues that interviewees indicated reduced ACE's efficiency. First, is a clearer, strategy and strategic focus. While this is a criticism of ACE's Management Model it is not something ACE can solve. In general FAC and the Government of Canada to clarify its perspective on the "third Pillar" or Public Diplomacy. It is in this context that ACE can than build a better strategic framework. We have also identified weaknesses in ACE's links to other departments, its RBM work etc. These are all summarized in Exhibit 4.2.

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Exhibit 4.2 Management Model and Practices used by ACE
StrengthsAreas for Improvement
Strategic Orientation
  • ACE reviews mission scans and responds to inputs from missions
  • Differing priorities established across countries
  • Use of ICCS and Fulbright as effective program instruments
  • Regional and national approaches used
  • Use of leveraging and synergy
  • Canadian leadership in international settings
  • Strategic framework and resource focus are not sufficiently linked to other FAC and GoC units-strategic coordination needed
  • Issue of Parliamentary accountability
  • Program instruments need to target the role of Canadian participants
  • Identifying a champion learning, knowledge, and educational issues internationally?
Leadership
  • Program oriented
  • Sensitive to missions and ICCS needs
  • Governance model
  • Need more formal result based orientation at many leadership points
Functional Activities
  • Program operations
  • Beginning to use RMAF
  • Systematic allocation of funding
  • Improving corporate memory
  • Procedures to facilitate collaborative monitoring and reporting of results
  • Organizational learning
  • Communication strategies
Relationships
  • Interpersonal relationships and trust
  • Mission relationships
  • Inter department collaborative action-Operational coordination

The Programming Model used by FAC is seen as relatively efficient and in some instances using best practices. In this area we explored planning and focus, applications, selection, implementation, monitoring and reporting, and follow-up and use.

The Program Model refers to how Canadian Studies and Scholarship Programs are operationalised. Both programs have regular planning, implementation and monitoring processes. We explored these processes. In general we found program management to be very good and continuing to improve.

Exhibit 4.3 summarizes the strengths and areas for suggested improvement for six important aspects of the program model. As the exhibit shows, there are clear strengths in each area; however, there were also several areas that needed improvement. The strategic targeting of countries needs to be addressed by both programs to ensure that program resources are being optimally used. Given the increased emphasis on the monitoring and reporting of program effects, efforts are being made to implement the RMAF framework; however, as noted in Exhibit4.3, the effectiveness of using it varies with the program. User-friendly tools and more training are needed if the benefits of using the Results-based management and accountability framework (RMAF) are to be fully realized.

Exhibit 4.3 Program Model and Practices
StrengthsAreas for Improvement
Planning and Focus
  • Responds to mission strategies and needs
  • Clear operational plans
  • Increased use of strategic framework to guide programming decisions
  • Strategic targeting of countries
  • Focus is a concern
Applications
  • Transparent, systematic, widely distributed, generate good pools
  • Applications should include results orientation
Selection
  • Transparent, systematic, reviewed at multiple levels
 
Implementation
  • Administered effectively
  • Need to explain balance between independence and strategic interests
Monitoring and Reporting
  • Interested in doing it right
  • Varies with program
  • User friendly tools are missing
  • Simplified report forms and summary report forms are needed
  • Operational plan for monitoring and reporting is needed
Follow-up and Use
  • New Scholarship Alumni data base
  • Mission lists
  • More links to key Canadian issues are needed
  • Resources and capacity development need to be enhanced

Finding 31: The Programming Model used by FAC is seen as relatively efficient and in some instances using best practices. In this area we explored planning and focus, applications, selection, implementation, monitoring and reporting, and follow-up and use.

Finding 32: Both programs are viewed as operationally well managed. In fact, the following seven areas of best practice can be identified from a program management perspective.

At the Program level we found a number of best practices. Exhibit4.4 is a summary of these practices.

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Exhibit 4.4 Best Practices
Best PracticeData in Support of Best Practice
1. The application processes used in both programs are transparent and increasingly linked to major stakeholders.Canadianists feel that they have input into the selection of those who receive funding through the peer-review process for FEP and FRP and other grants.
2. Systematic selection processes are used in both programs and involve multiple stakeholders.Evaluation of the peer-review process used in both the grant review and scholarship selection process shows that it is rigorously followed.
3. The use of information technology to manage both programs is becoming a best practice.Evaluation of grant application and scholarship procedures and communications as well as the use of information sharing on the Internet supports this finding.
4. The beneficiaries of both programs are satisfied and appreciate the relational management practices that are used.Responses from Canadianists and mission staff as well as the results of the Alumni Tracer s Study support this conclusion.
5. Some posts link Canadianists to local mission strategy in an effective manner.Many of the posts, especially in countries with mature and established Canadian Studies programs, report that they appreciate such support.
6. Peer review procedures are a best practice in both programs.Interviews with Canadianists, ACE-FAC, and ICCS staff indicate that academic peer-review is of fundamental importance in both programs.
7. Documentation and dissemination to Canadianists through print and increasingly electronic means is certainly a best practice.The widespread use of websites and the development of sophisticated portals such as the Access Canada website in the United Kingdom and the Virtual Library initiative in Germany are notable examples.

Finding 33: The scholarship programs use best practice standards and procedures for applying, selecting, and managing scholars who express high satisfaction with them.

The new Alumni Tracer Study Data Base provides an opportunity for outcome measurement and reporting, although it is at the early stage of development.

ACE-FAC program managers and ICCS staff expressed concerns that there are insufficient program funds to follow up with scholars and involve them in dynamic ways to multiply program outcomes and impacts.

All of those interviewed, both within Canada and abroad, indicated that ICCS was an excellent operational manager of both programs. Due to the following factors:

  1. ICCS staff understand the academic community
  2. ICCS staff provide economy of scale and add value to ACE initiatives
  3. ICCS provides significant multipliers

Finding 34: While the programs have been found relatively effective, they remain somewhat weak in targeting and focus.

After completing a wide range of interviews, reviewing an extensive amount of electronic and written documents, and placing the findings that were generated in relation to the emerging dialogue on the importance of networking and the interest and willingness of Canadians abroad and within Canada to promote Canadian foreign policy objectives, it is fair to conclude that the Canadian Studies and Scholarship Programs need to be linked more effectively to a broader, more inclusive, strategic framework within FAC.

There are a number of issues that are beyond the scope of ACE and this study; however, it would be most appropriate for those involved in the current foreign policy review to consider more fully the strategic value of the network of Canadianists and Scholarship Alumni in promoting both Canadian and international interests.

At the same time, there are some issues such as the question of targeted countries, individual versus institutional arrangements, and support of elite scholars versus a broad base of students that can and should be addressed by the Academic Relations Division and its partners.

There is also a definite need to address more fully the role of Canadians and Canadian institutions in both programs.

Finally, it must be recognized that the availability of resources is associated with vehicle effectiveness. Enhanced strategic use of these programs so that they can contribute in an optimal manner to Canadian foreign policy will depend on accessing sufficient resources to do so.

Finding 35: The Terms and Conditions for Grants in Aid of Academic Relations are managed appropriately, except for two areas.

One area that seemed to concern ACE Management in both the formal and informal discussions was its contractual relationship with ICCS and its relationship to ACE's Terms and Conditions. Specifically, we were asked to explore the following question.

"To what extent are the Terms and Conditions for the grants appropriate given the program mandate? Is there an appropriate balance between accountability to the public and flexibility, which is required for strategic grant-making?"

In general, we found the Terms and Conditions of ACE to be appropriate. Furthermore we found that they seemed to be in general, appropriately applied. ICCS as a Canadian Contracting Agent, works cooperatively with ACE, seems to comply with its contractual obligations, and is seen by various stakeholders as a positive influence on the program.

However, there are 2 areas within our review that should be addressed. First, we noticed that awards and scholarships are both awarded and potentially taken away from applicants through letters signed by ICCS. A review of Treasury Board (TB) guidelines indicates that ACE-FAC cannot delegate grant-making authority to ICCS, unless authorized to do so by TB. It appears that this authorization has not been granted. We see this as a breach of the Ministerial accountability chain and needs to be rectified.

ACE should sign official letters as the Government of Canada is providing the funds. Secondly, under new TB guidelines, there is a renewed emphasis on designing and using results based systems. ACE along with the other FAC groups have moved to a more explicit system of results, and this should be applied to the contractual relationship with ICCS. In our opinion, ACE has been moving in a more results oriented-reporting manner, although more progress is needed.

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Finding 36: Canadian Missions abroad are critical to the management of both programs. They are especially important in identifying potential Canadianists encouraging applications, making selections, providing support, and the use of both Canadianists and scholarship recipients to enhance relevant foreign policy objectives.

The following report documents the role of the Canadian Embassy staff in Germany and Canadianists from West Germany in fostering the development of Canadian Studies in East Germany:

"Canadian Studies existed at some of the GDR universities. Canadianists from these universities regularly attended the annual conference of the Gesellschaft fur Kanada-Studien (GKS), the Association for Canadian Studies in German speaking countries, in Grainau. While some research on Canada was done at a number of universities during GDR times, only members of Humboldt University in Berlin were allowed to offer courses with Canadian content. With the fall of the Wall, it became clear that Canadian Studies should and could be developed."

"The Embassy staff initiated several projects and programs in close co-operation with the GKS and with funding from ACE. GKS Board members and Embassy staff visited East German and Berlin (East) universities on a fact-finding mission. An interdisciplinary one-week seminar for academics and students from East Germany was held at Trier University in 199 1. In the same year, three East German universities were given extra funds by the Department of Foreign Affairs for the acquisition of books and teaching material. FEP grant applications by East Germans where favourably looked at by the pre-selection committee and the ICCS. Short-term research at the much better equipped West German libraries was supported. In 1999, three visiting professorships were offered to East German universities via the GKS on a contest basis. Working through the GKS allowed to closely monitor the results. All this happened in a university landscape that was considerably re-structured according to the FRG university system (not to speak of the overall political changes). A number of West German Canadianists went East and are still teaching (or at least taught there for some time). All this led to the establishment of Canadian Studies in the New Laender."

The following 2004 report from the Canadian Embassy in Budapest, Hungary provides details on the role of the Embassy and Canadianists in linking Canadian universities and the broader education sector with important government institutions abroad. The report noted that the Minister of Education in Hungary "is committed to modernizing and promoting all levels of education in Hungary. He champions education marketing and wants to catalyze bilateral and multilateral university linkages and exchanges."

His response to information about Canada's School Net sparked his request for a meeting of the Embassy with the Ministry's division, which handles a similar system to build a bridge for information sharing. The Youth Mobility Proposal was met with great interest, with the Minister himself suggesting that it might service the new Foreign Language Training Program instituted in September 2004 where 40% of a high school student's classes are dedicated to language learning. The Youth Mobility Program could readily provide native English and French language speakers to meet the growing demand for language teachers, and he would be prepared to endorse the program to his counterparts in the Ministries of Labour and Foreign Affairs.

The Canadian Studies Centres serve as unique bridges to link Canadian and Hungarian universities, and it was agreed that the links should be strengthened and expanded.

Finding 37: Canadian missions generally feel that the current programming relationships with ACE-FAC program managers and ICCS staff is effective.

Interviews with and documents from Canadian Mission staff as well as responses to survey questions indicate that the work of ACE-FAC program managers is greatly appreciated.

The following excerpt from a Canadianist in Lithuania is typical of the type of comments that ACE-FAC program managers receive from abroad. "None of this could have been accomplished without your active interest and help. Once again, many thanks from our Faculty and students to you and the Canadian Government for all the good done at the University of Vilnius."

A report of recent interviews with Canadian Mission staff and Canadianists in Germany noted that they feel that they can "get on the phone and call the Embassy or call Ottawa any time they have a problem or concern."

Finding 38: While minimal human and financial resources are available in some posts to utilize Canadianists and scholars in an effective manner, this is not the case in all and this raises issues of efficiency, use and focus. Moreover, the level of capacity of staff varies considerably across missions.

In 2002 the Cultural Bureau and the Europe Branch held information and training meetings across Europe. Regional meetings with HQ and mission staff took place in Munich, Stockholm and Madrid. A total of 55 officers working in 35 Canadian missions in Europe participated in the initiative. Some of the main issues and related recommendations included the following:

  1. There is a need to improve the pre-departure training provided to Heads of Mission to ensure a clear understanding of the role they play in support of specific programs, particularly with regard to Canadian Studies programs.
  2. There is a definite need to increase budgets for the training of Public Affairs officers and offer regular training programs which are Europe-focused and better targeted to specific needs, including on-line courses and crash course/guidelines/networks needed by officers arriving at the post with minimum pre-departure briefing.

Interviews with ACE-FAC program managers as well as ICCS staff indicate that the availability of resources and the capacity to facilitate and utilize Canadian Studies and Scholarship programs varies considerably across countries. The support and leadership of the Head of Mission is extremely important, as is the training of mission staff especially when they are new to a given mission. Hence, it would be fair to conclude the above recommendations are still relevant today.

A recent response to survey questions related to Canadian Studies in Colombia, a country where Canadian Studies is at the "evolving" stage of development documented the following initiatives that could be started by Mission staff if sufficient funding was available:

  1. Funding to invite at least one Canadian scholar per year to lecture at the local universities on a given subject.
  2. An annual prize for the most active or productiveCanadian Studies Centre of the country.
  3. More and better publications and materials to be distributed to the Canadian Studies Centres and universities at large (this includes magazines, periodicals, books, reference materials, maps, audiovisual pieces).
  4. An electronicpublication featuring the research pieces of the Canadianists in the country.
  5. A network or "virtual community" of Canadianists in the country.

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Finding 39: There is only a fledgling approach to results management.

Interviews with ACE-FAC staff, ICCS administrative staff, as well as a review of relevant documents indicates that the strategic orientation and a clear framework to guide performance measurement have not been clearly articulated. The Baastel Report provided some guidance on the operational use of the RMAF, but further experience and training with its specific application is still needed.

Up to this time, implementation of the RMAF has been minimally resourced and further training will be needed once strategic updating of the academic relations programs has been completed. Optimal implementation of the RMAF will require continued leadership and increased ownership of results at multiple levels of the stakeholder system.

Given the size and complexity of the data systems involved in ACE-FAC programs, an organized strategic analysis of the information and reporting needs of the various stakeholders will be required. At the present time, data collection procedures are at the early stages of development and use. There is a definite need for standardized tools at multiple levels.

Finding 40: Leveraging of resources is a positive practice in both programs and adds to the operational cost-effectiveness of the work of the Division.

Both programs leverage resources to enhance their effectiveness and efficiency. Building and maintaining positive relationships with academic, local, and mission partners is a key strategic leveraging tool; however, interviews with ACE-FAC, ICCS, and Mission staff indicates that considerable time and resources are required to support and sustain them.

For example, the volunteer time of Canadianists who serve on the executives of Canadian Studies Associations, review FEP and FRP grant applications, review papers for conferences or publication, and organize local, national and international conferences must be recognized. In a similar manner, the academics that serve on Scholarship review committees and the boards that revise the procedures that are followed must also be acknowledged.

In-kind program contributions from universities as well as from other institutions certainly enhance the value of the grants and funding provided by the Canadian Studies program. For example: a recent report from the High Commission in London, notes since 1974 the Foundation for Canadian Studies in the United Kingdom has provided private-sector funding to complement Government of Canada funding for Canadian Studies, mainly at UK universities. The report notes, "these funding sources together are able to lever significant extra spending from UK universities and elsewhere. This leverage factor is calculated at about 9 times the combined input from the Government of Canada and the Foundation. The Board of the Foundation is comprised of senior British and Canadian businesspersons based in the UK, UK-based British and Canadian academics, and the Head of the CBC London Bureau..." The cooperative relationship between the High Commission and the Foundation is such that they have come to function like a joint venture in certain areas.

Finally, ICCS staff noted that many Canadian universities provide a second year of support to students, especially those who receive limited term GOC Scholarships. Universities also provide academic and social support to international students by offering orientation programs and providing specific student services to meet their personal and family needs.

Finding 41: Although financial ratios to illustrate efficiency are difficult to calculate, there are many best practices indicating the efficient management of both programs.

One concern management has expressed to us is whether or not there are quantitative indicators to explore the relative efficiency of the various activities, practices and programs. As discussed earlier, there are many best program practices being used by ACE. To look at each of the practices as well as the program in cost-effectiveness terms, it would be necessary to have an activity based accounting system in place and able to be used. In such a system, costs would be associated with the specific work being done and thus could be compared with results. This is not the case and thus it is beyond the scope of this study to engage in re-engineering the financial data to do these calculations.

Below is a small list of the difficulties to calculate meaningful financial ratios to illustrate efficiency of practices:

  1. Budgets are completed on a line item basis and are not activity driven; hence, operating ratios are not very meaningful.
  2. Interviews with ICCS staff regarding the management of scholarship programs varies greatly according to the program. For example, Canadian Commonwealth Scholars, on average, required considerably more time and support than GOC Scholarship recipients. Moreover, there is a wide variation in the support required by different scholars depending on their academic, personal and, at times, family needs. Thus, cost comparisons could only be calculated on a broad basis rather than by activity and such calculations could be very misleading.
  3. In terms of the Canadian Studies program, there is no useful unit of analysis to make cost comparisons.
  4. Service standards and benchmarks are better tools to use for evaluating program efficiency in both programs.

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5. Conclusion and Recommendations

The purpose of this study was to assess the rationale, effectiveness and efficiency of two major programs of ACE namely, the Canadian Studies Program and the Scholarship programs. In general we found both programs to have a firm rationale. They both supported the foreign policy objectives of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada, especially those objectives related to the third pillar. With respect to their effectiveness we found that the two programs generated a significant number of outputs, which are documented (elaborated) in the study. In addition we found that there is a great deal of emerging and anecdotal evidence that would indicate that these programs have had important effects in influencing people and institutions in a wide variety of countries. Unfortunately, the programs do not systematically capture the data related to outcomes and impact. Finally, we found that the program management is built within a highly complex set of stakeholder relationships. The study highlighted a number of best practices with respect to program management. With respect to strategic management, we found that while relational and distributive leadership are definitely program strengths, more needs to be done in the areas of strategy development, monitoring and building a results-oriented culture. The specific recommendations for the study are as follows.

Recommendation 1: ACE Management should develop a strategic management framework that more clearly links its work to FAC. Such a link would clarify and make more explicit the relevance of the ACE program to FAC.

The Strategic Framework for ACE-FAC needs to be more clearly linked to FAC objectives. This can be done in many ways. One model, which we see as the preferable model is to view ACE as a component program of an overall FAC strategy. In this scenario, ACE would link more directly to FAC and its foreign policy objectives. ACE would be used as a programmatic tool for FAC. Alternatively; ACE can be more independent with FAC acting more as a coordinator. In this scenario ACE would link directly to a developed strategy and or operational plan of the "third pillar." In both scenarios, ACE needs to be more solidly linked to the objectives of FAC.

Recommendation 2: ACE management should further integrate and align existing networks (and future networks) of Canadians, Canadianists, and Scholarship Alumni with the objectives of Canadian foreign policy.

There is a great potential, for large numbers of people, linked to ACE to be involved in supporting Canadian interests internationally. For example there is an extensive network of committed Canadianists and many scholarship alumni who view Canada in an appreciative and positive manner. ACE requires a set of strategies and an implementation plan to involve them in key areas of Canadian foreign policy objectives.

Strategies need to be developed to encourage more scholarship recipients to register in the alumni database. More effective mechanisms need to be created to more fully involve alumni in mission initiatives as well as bilateral and multilateral activities to enhance Canadian interests both at home and abroad. More focused strategies need to be developed to build on the network of Canadianists that are currently active around the world. New mechanisms need to be designed to more optimally use this relatively untapped resource of highly informed, knowledgeable people to advise, participate in and lead initiatives of strategic interest to Canada.

Recommendation 3: ACE management should work alongside other FAC managers and develop an approach for better utilizing Canadians with international experience in their work.

An important untapped resource is Canadians with international experience and links to the ACE programs. ACE-FAC needs to place greater emphasis on the role that can be played internationally by Canadians who have international experience as well as those who are currently living abroad can play internationally. For example, many Canadian Academics with links to ACE engage in a wide assortment of international activity. In a world in which Public Diplomacy is playing an increasingly important role in international affairs, all Canadians need to view themselves as Diplomats and those involved in ACE already can play a key role. Many interviewees indicated Canada needs to do more with regards to helping Canadians understand Canadian Foreign Policy and be able to discus this with others. Within ACE, the academic community is an important area to try out new approaches.

Recommendation 4: ACE-FAC senior management should assume a greater leadership role in the coordinating activities related to international "learning" agendas.

Canada is a unique country as far as issues related to education and learning are concerned. In general, because of the split between Federal and Provincial jurisdiction, the Federal role in education is carefully reviewed. Nevertheless, the world has a wide assortment of needs and requirements, which suggests the need for a more coordinated approach to education and learning in Canada. Many of our interviewees suggested the importance of the Federal Government becoming more engaged in Canada's international "learning" agenda. They also suggested that at the Federal level, ACE-FAC was an important grouping of people who can horizontally coordinate and explore this area within the Federal Government. For example, there are clear partnership opportunities and needs for ACE-FAC leadership in international initiatives that are of interest to HRSDC, CIDA, Heritage Canada, as well as the newly formed Canadian Council on Learning, not to mention other non-governmental agencies that would benefit from and be willing to contribute to increased initiatives in this important area such as the Association of Universities and Colleges in Canada. Coordination across boundaries is critical.

Recommendation 5: Senior Management needs to identify what the minimum levels of resources required are to support program work at the level of Country Missions. If these resources are unavailable, support to these countries should be terminated.

Presently, for example, ACE's Canadian Studies programs operate in over 50 countries. As we discussed,these programs are at various stages of evolution. At the first level, FAC strategic priorities should be linked to the level of human and financial resources available to obtain suitable outcomes. These funds need to be further associated with the stage of evolution of ACE's work in the country. Linking priorities, stage of development and funding into a results-oriented plan should help improve the outcomes of ACE's work.

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Recommendation 6: ACE Management should develop a communication strategy for its work.

External communications is a critical area in order for ACE to obtain support for its work. Presently there is no comprehensive communication strategy. Today, there is a definite need to focus on communicating to Canadians at home and abroad the relevance, role, and value of ACE-FAC programs in attaining Canada's foreign policy objectives. At the same time, a more coherent strategy should be designed and promoted to encourage Canadians to become involved in international exchanges, projects, and programs need to be enhanced and promoted.

Recommendation 7: ACE management need to place more emphasis and importance on the implementation RMAF Framework. This would include a strategy and an operational plan to enhance monitoring, reporting and learning.

Results-based management is increasingly becoming a foundational concern for the Federal Government. We found tremendous curiosity and interest in this management approach. Many people have a cursory understanding of the concepts. What remains is integrating this approach into the activities and procedures of ACE. In part there is inadequate funding to encourage people at all levels to take increased ownership for the use of the RMAF Framework. At the present time, ACE-FAC program managers appreciate the value of the front-end aspects of the RMAF however, user-friendly guidelines and tools need to be developed to encourage people at the mission and program level to take ownership and responsibility for efficiently measuring the results and impact of their programs and/ or activities.

In order to build a results-based culture within ACE-FAC, ICCS, Canadian missions and ACE-FAC programs; there needs to be a multi-year strategy with adequate funds for the development of program-specific instruments, staff and volunteer training, as well as the establishment of a realistic implementation timeline.

With regard to Canadian Studies programs, ACE-FAC should continue to align and adjust its expectations based on feedback from those in the field. At the same time, given current resource limitations, more focused program expectations and more clearly defined outcomes should be developed and/ or expected based on the stage of development that Canadian Studies has reached within a country and Canada's foreign policy objectives in it.

In regard to scholarship programs, expectations regarding maintaining contact with alumni, involving them in mission initiatives, and using them to enhance specific Canadian foreign policy objectives, may require that scholarship programs be more strategically targeted than they are at the present time.

Finally, there is a need to define program-specific qualitative and quantitative measures that are easily collected, analyzed, and understood. Program reports should include a mix of both types of measures so that the impact of a program can be more fully appreciated. Individuals reporting on program outcomes need to be trained in the development, implementation, and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative measures if they are to fully understand the value of using them to enhance program accountability and development.

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6. Management Response

RecommendationCommitments/ ActionsExpected ResultsResponsibility CentreKey Dates and DeadlinesStatus
1) PCE Management should develop a strategic framework that clearly links its work to FAC.This has happened. A new organizational structure has underscored the role of PD within the department and the role of PCE within a Public Diplomacy strategy. Furthermore, PCE has undertaken a detailed results-based management examination of its existing programs, with the development of logic models for each program and for the Division as a whole, in order to ensure that PCE programs are aligned in support of FAC's emerging objectives, and that it will be possible, for example, to develop more focused expectations and more clearly defined outcomes in the domain of Canadian Studies, and to target scholarship programs more strategically. PFM  
2) PCE Management should develop a communication strategy for its work.In process: within the newly-established Public Diplomacy Strategy and Services division, a communications strategy for the whole Public Diplomacy Bureau is being developed. PCDFiscal year
2006-2007
 
Within PCE, once a complete Results-Based Management logic model has been established for the division, a divisional communications strategy will be developed to allow better communication of the relevance, role and value of PCE programs in attaining foreign policy objective, and to encourage Canadians to become involved in international education initiatives. PCEFiscal year
2006-2007
 
3) PCE Management should further integrate and align both current and future networks comprising Canadians, Canadianists and Scholarship Alumni with Canadian foreign policy objectives.Within the new Public Diplomacy strategy, and based on a results-based analysis of PCE program activities and their link to foreign policy objectives, PCE will develop more effective mechanisms (i.e. scholarships tied to institutional linkages) and more focused strategies to fully involve and maximize the use of alumni, bilateral and multilateral activities, and the network of Canadianists around the world.Fully developed logic models for all PCE program.PCEBy end of fiscal year 2005-2006Under way
More focused strategies for scholarship programs.Pilot-project Jan-April 2006)Under way
More focused strategy for Canadian Studies.Implementation in fiscal year 2006-2007Under discussion
4) PCE Management should work hand in hand with FAC managers in developing an approach for better utilization of Canadians with international experience into their work.PCE will build on the new Public Diplomacy Strategy, with its increased emphasis on the development of country strategies in the area of public diplomacy, based on improved communication and coordination between cultural, academic and geographic divisions at headquarters and missions abroad, to ensure greater inclusion of Canadians with international experience and links to PCE programs in promoting Canada and meeting foreign policy objectives.PCE will participate in providing training and training materials for public diplomacy officers, will actively promote outreach into the academic community, and will put in place a results-based approach to management of PCE programs in the context of public diplomacy.PCD/PCE Ongoing
5) PCE Senior Management should identify the necessary minimum level of resources required to support Program work at the Country Mission level and terminate support to countries where these resources are unavailable.PCE will undertake a complete results-based analysis of its programs, and will identify, on that basis, program priorities (including in the area of international education) and resource implications. PCE will also expand policy capacity to guide this process.Logic models for all programs.PCD/PCELogic models and analysis by end fiscal year 2005-2006Under way
Results-based analysis of programs.End 2006-2007
Identification of program priorities (including and resource implications).

Staffing exercises.
End 2006-2007
6) PCE Management needs to place more emphasis and importance on the implementation of the RMAF.Following organizational restructuring, a new bureau RMAF and RBAF will be prepared. In preparation for this, PCE is undertaking a complete results-based analysis of its programs, including an analysis of resource implications and performance indicators. At the same time, PCE is continuing to develop user-friendly guidelines and tools, to encourage use of a results-based management approach at missions at at HQ.Bureau RMAF and RBAF.PCD/PCEFiscal year 2007-2008PCE preparation under way
Logic models for PCE programs.PCEEnd fiscal year 2005-2006Under way
User-friendly RBM guidelines and tools.PCEFiscal year 2006-2007
7) PCE-FAC Senior Management should assume a greater leadership role in the coordination of activities related to international "learning" agendas.PFM, PCD and PCE are already working closely with other federal departments (HRSDC, CIDA, CIC, Heritage) to provide leadership and engage more deeply with them and with the provinces in the area of international post-secondary education. PFM/PCD/PCE Ongoing
To this end, PCE is establishing new positions to increase policy capacity, integrate outreach to post-secondary institutions and the provinces as well as better coordinate Canadian participation in multilateral education-related activities.New positions established.PCD/ PCEFiscal year 2006-2007Under review

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Appendix I - List of Findings

Finding 1: Canadian values and culture are projected through Canadian Studies and Scholarship Programs. Literally, tens of thousands of overseas people are positively affected by these programs and learn about Canada and its values-a goal of the Foreign Policy.

Finding 2: Canadian values and interests are disseminated by international academics through books, journals, articles, lectures, courses, and websites. This represents a "local voice" in explaining Canada and Canadian values to the world.

Finding 3: Some Canadian Missions report that their interests have been well served by local Canadianists. In other words, Canadian Missions see these Programs as relevant to their goals and interests.

Finding 4: Canadian Studies Programs generally support an image of Canada, which is bilingual, multicultural, and deeply influenced by its Aboriginal roots, the North, the oceans, and its own vastness. This third party imagery supports Canadian interests.

Finding 5: Canadian Studies Programs and Scholarship Programs support the promotion of Canadian institutions of higher education to foreign students and encourage the mobility of Canadian students through exchange programs that provide opportunities to develop a global perspective and to build networks of the decision-makers of tomorrow.

Finding 6: Canadian Studies Programs often highlight the cultural achievements of Canadians, which contributes significantly to cultural exchanges and dialogue. This creates a logical link between the program and Canadian Foreign Policy objectives.

Finding 7: Canadianists and Scholarship Alumni are seen as relevant for attaining Public Diplomacy objectives.

Finding 8: Academic networks are seen as a vital force in advocating Canadian interests. This is part of the discourse and reality of the "New Public Diplomacy" logic.

Finding 9: Canadianists and scholarship alumni are seen to have potential influence on "opinion leaders" in all areas of "Canadian interests"- social, political, economic, multicultural, multilateral etc.

Finding 10: Capacity and resource issues reduce the ongoing impact and relevance of the Canadian Studies program.

Finding 11: Canadianists provide a variety of relevant programs and services in support of Canada's foreign policy objectives in over 50 countries including those in the strategically important, G-8 plus 5.

Finding 12: Thousands of publications including theses, books, articles, audiovisual presentations as well as website information are distributed to Canadianists and others interested in Canada.

Finding 13: Outputs and effects of Canadian Studies Programs vary by the stage of development of Canadian Studies within different countries.

Finding 14: Conferences, seminars, public lectures attract thousands of international people, including politicians, policy makers, business leaders, civil society.

Finding 15: Eminent Canadianists and their students have won prestigious awards. This is an important symbol of the credibility of the program.

Finding 16: A large number of articles are published by Canadianists in respected journals.

Finding 17: Bibliographic references and websites indicate widespread use of information generated and organized by Canadianists; furthermore, the state-of-the-art bibliographic work by Canadianists facilitates the sharing of referenced electronic information internationally.

Finding 18: Data suggests an increase in interest, study and research on Canada in institutions of higher learning around the world.

Finding 19: Missions report increased use of Canadianists as well as scholarship alumni in fostering Canadian objectives abroad; as noted in Finding20, the influence of Canadianists is often used strategically to influence selected groups such as policy makers and politicians.

Finding 20: Canadianists are quoted in the public media on issues related to Canadian Foreign Policy. In this way, civil society is exposed to informed comments by arms-length Canadianists on key issues. The direct effects are hard to document but they are perceived positively by missions.

Finding 21: Interviews with Canadianists and documentation in their annual reports, conference proceedings, and letters to ACE-FAC and ICCS staff indicate a high level of satisfaction with the Canadian Studies program.

Finding 22: Survey data from scholarship recipient alumni of the Canadian Commonwealth Scholarship and Fellowship Program and the Government of Canada Scholarship Program found the programs useful and are satisfied. These figures vary between ODA and non-ODA countries.

Finding 23: The extensive network of Canadianists, scholarship alumni and Canadians who have studied or worked abroad has not been strategically used to further the objectives of the Department.

Finding 24: Emergence of Canadian Studies networks in Europe, Eastern Europe, Baltic Countries, and Latin America have extended the program reach and have fostered multinational discussions of Canadian culture and issues.

Finding 25: Canadian Studies Networks and Foundations have leveraged a significant amount of program support based on a relatively modest amount of funding from ACE-FAC sources. This is especially true in countries with established and mature Canadian Studies Associations.

Finding 26: Missions report that Canadianists provide political support and influence on sensitive foreign policy issues. While unplanned, it has not been unexpected.

Finding 27: Canadianists have facilitated the creation of bilateral and global study groups on important international issues.

Finding 28: The ACE program operates in a complex stakeholder environment.

Finding 29: The complex stakeholder environment of the Canadian Studies and Scholarship programs uses a management style of cooperation and good will.

Finding 30: The Management Model used by ACE, incorporating the ideas of strategy, orientation, leadership, functional activities and relationships has been relatively successful but improvements can be made.

Finding 31: The Programming Model used by FAC is seen as relatively efficient and in some instances using best practices. In this area we explored planning and focus, applications, selection, implementation, monitoring and reporting, and follow-up and use.

Finding 32: Both programs are viewed as operationally well managed. In fact, the following seven areas of best practice can be identified from a program management perspective.

Finding 33: The scholarship programs use best practice standards and procedures for applying, selecting, and managing scholars who express high satisfaction with them.

Finding 34: While the programs have been found relatively effective, they remain somewhat weak in targeting and focus.

Finding 35: The Terms and Conditions for Grants in Aid of Academic Relations are managed appropriately, except for two areas.

Finding 36: Canadian Missions abroad are critical to the management of both programs. They are especially important in identifying potential Canadianists encouraging applications, making selections, providing support, and the use of both Canadianists and scholarship recipients to enhance relevant foreign policy objectives.

Finding 37: Canadian missions generally feel that the current programming relationships with ACE-FAC program managers and ICCS staff is effective.

Finding 38: While minimal human and financial resources are available in some posts to utilize Canadianists and scholars in an effective manner, this is not the case in all and this raises issues of efficiency, use and focus. Moreover, the level of capacity of staff varies considerably across missions.

Finding 39: There is only a fledgling approach to results management.

Finding 40: Leveraging of resources is a positive practice in both programs and adds to the operational cost-effectiveness of the work of the Division.

Finding 41: Although financial ratios to illustrate efficiency are difficult to calculate, there are many best practices indicating the efficient management of both programs.

Office of the Inspector General

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Date Modified:
2012-10-01