Statement on the 25th Anniversary of APEC
11 November, 2014
Table of Contents
- Shaping the Future through Asia-Pacific Partnership
- The 22nd APEC Economic Leaders’ Declaration
- Annex A: The Beijing Roadmap for APEC’s Contribution to the Realization of the FTAAP
- Annex B: APEC Strategic Blueprint for Promoting Global Value Chains Development and Cooperation
- Annex C: APEC Accord on Innovative Development, Economic Reform and Growth
- Annex D: APEC Connectivity Blueprint for 2015-2025
Shaping the Future through Asia-Pacific Partnership
- We, the Leaders of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), having met by Yanqi Lake, Beijing, China for the 22nd APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting, jointly issue this statement today to commemorate the 25th anniversary of APEC.
- We recall the establishment of APEC in 1989, which opened up a new historic chapter for economic cooperation in the Asia-Pacific. Over the course of the past 25 years, in pursuit of economic growth, better wellbeing of people, and common prosperity of the region, APEC has propelled progress through "two wheels" - trade and investment liberalization and facilitation and economic and technical cooperation. Having contributed to global efforts in meeting the grave challenges of the Asian Financial Crisis and the International Financial Crisis, APEC member economies have been the main engine of global growth.
- We are pleased to note that APEC has become the premier, and most extensive and influential regional economic cooperation forum in the Asia-Pacific, unified in a common drive to build a dynamic and prosperous Asia-Pacific community.
Progress and Achievements
- We acknowledge the historical achievements and the remarkable results APEC has delivered since its establishment in 1989. In the course of the past 25 years, the average applied tariffs of APEC economies have fallen by more than 10 percentage points, contributing to a seven-fold increase in both intra-APEC merchandise trade and APEC’s total trade, as well as higher economic growth compared to the rest of the world.
- We recognize with appreciation that many successful experiences can be drawn from the 25 years of APEC:
- APEC has upheld the spirit of equality, mutual benefit, mutual respect, openness, inclusiveness, flexibility, pragmatism, and win-win cooperation; and followed the principles of cooperation, voluntarism, and consensus building.
- APEC has established the Bogor Goals, putting forward two timelines calling for the realization of free and open trade and investment by 2010 for industrialized economies and by 2020 for developing economies.
- APEC recognizes the importance of trade as a key to job creation, economic growth and sustainable development, and reiterates the value, centrality and primacy of the multilateral trading system as embodied in the WTO. Historically, APEC has been consistently supporting the rules-based multilateral trading system, and played a leading role in facilitating the conclusion of the Uruguay Round in 1994, launching the Doha Development Agenda (DDA) in 2001, and achieving a successful conclusion of the Information Technology Agreement (ITA) in 1996, launching the Information Technology Agreement (ITA) Expansion negotiations in 2012 and Environmental Goods Agreement (EGA) negotiations in 2014, as well as achieving Bali Package in 2013. In support of "free and open trade and investment", APEC economies committed to refraining from raising new trade and investment barriers and combating protectionism in all its forms.
- APEC has been a pioneer, pacesetter and pathfinder in regional and global economic cooperation, advancing the process towards the eventual realization of the Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific (FTAAP), promoting trade facilitation, including expedited business travel through the APEC Business Travel Card, supporting the development of Global Value Chains (GVCs), launching the APEC Growth Strategy, promoting trade in environmental goods and services, improving supply chain performance, promoting connectivity, strengthening the implementation of good regulatory practices, and addressing the next generation trade and investment issues.
- APEC has carried out practical cooperation in a wide range of areas, including structural reform; standards and conformance; women and the economy; health, education and labor; climate change; food security and food safety; energy security and sustainable energy development; green economy; blue economy; small and medium enterprises; information and communications technology; transport; infrastructure development and investment; forestry; mining; counter-terrorism; emergency preparedness; and, anti-corruption.
- APEC has established a mechanism through the APEC Business Advisory Council to receive valuable inputs from the business sector in its policy deliberations. APEC fully appreciates the active role played by business communities in advancing the APEC agenda. APEC industry dialogues and partnerships in a range of business sectors play a unique role in enhancing the economic cooperation and integration among the member economies. We reaffirm the significant value that public-private activities have contributed to APEC work.
New Opportunities and Challenges
- We recognize that today, 25 years on, APEC and the Asia-Pacific economies are at a new historical starting point, and are facing unprecedented opportunities and challenges.
- We are pleased to note that the overall development of the Asia-Pacific region has been sound and steady. With multiple efforts to reform and promote innovative development, the Asia-Pacific region is consolidating its leading role as an engine of global economic growth. We are full of confidence in the bright future of the Asia-Pacific region.
- At the same time, we are facing grave challenges in various aspects. We also realize that in a world of burgeoning global and regional economic cooperation institutions, APEC must constantly pursue new and innovative ways to achieve its objectives and continue to keep up with the global economic trends to play its leading and coordinating role. APEC is expected to consolidate and advance regional economic integration, support the multilateral trading system, resist protectionism in all its forms, and guard against the risks of fragmentation.
- It is therefore imperative for member economies to find new areas and driving forces for growth in the post-crisis era. To this end, APEC economies are committed to redoubling efforts to achieve breakthroughs on bottlenecks and work to ensure that enhanced connectivity and infrastructure development will meet the growing needs of the member economies.
Shaping the Future through Asia-Pacific Partnership
- Today, we gather to celebrate our successes and also look ahead, envisioning the future prospect and direction of the long-term development of the Asia-Pacific. We are fully committed to maintaining APEC's profile as the premier forum for supporting sustainable economic growth and prosperity and advancing free and open trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific.
- We commit ourselves to building upon APEC's historical achievements, carrying forward the spirit of cooperation, and shaping the future through an Asia-Pacific partnership that is built on mutual respect and trust, inclusiveness, and win-win cooperation.
- We are committed to jointly building an open economy in the Asia-Pacific that is based on innovative development, interconnected growth, and shared interests.
- Building on its proud tradition of leadership in advancing WTO process, we shall continue to work together to safeguard and strengthen the strong and vibrant multilateral trading system, so as to enhance the leading role of WTO in the global economic governance.
- We are determined to promote macroeconomic policy coordination, and enhance information sharing and policy dialogues, with a view to forging policy synergy, and creating a sound policy environment for the economic growth of the region.
- We reaffirm our commitment to realizing the Bogor Goals by 2020, and will reinforce our efforts based on the progress already achieved. Developed APEC members are willing to provide support and assistance to developing members to help them realize the Bogor Goals.
- We strongly believe that the decisions we take at this Economic Leaders’ Meeting will lay the foundation for a dynamic and prosperous Asia-Pacific in the years to come. To this end, we reaffirm the decisions taken:
- To implement the Beijing Roadmap for APEC's Contribution to the Realization of the FTAAP, and launch a collective strategic study on issues related to the realization of the FTAAP, with the goal of establishing the FTAAP as early as possible by building on ongoing regional undertakings;
- To jointly create an enabling environment for GVC development and cooperation through the implementation of the APEC Strategic Blueprint for Promoting GVC Development and Cooperation.
- To implement the APEC Accord on Promoting Innovative Development, Economic Reform and Growth; and
- To implement the APEC Connectivity Blueprint for 2015-2025 and achieve the overarching goal of strengthening physical, institutional and people-to-people connectivity by taking agreed actions and meeting agreed targets by 2025, with the objective of achieving a seamless and comprehensively connected and integrated Asia-Pacific.
- We are determined to jointly explore the development path and model suitable for each member's specific circumstances. We will enhance policy coordination, experience exchange and mutual learning, and foster an enabling environment for diverse and common development of all member economies.
- We are committed to green and sustainable growth, and addressing environmental challenges through closer practical cooperation.
- We are committed to narrowing the development gaps and achieving common development through practical cooperation and mutual assistance.
- We reaffirm our support for the reform of APEC in an effort to achieve organizational and institutional improvement. We will strengthen APEC's synergy and complementarity with other regional and international fora and processes to enable a more effective approach in seizing opportunities and solving complex cross-border challenges, through three work streams, namely institutional, thematic and, trade and investment. Such efforts will make way for a greater contribution to regional economic cooperation and global economic governance.
- We support the participation of relevant stakeholders in APEC cooperation so that cooperation achievements can benefit a larger population across the Asia-Pacific. We welcome the active participation of ABAC and other private sector representatives in the process, and are committed to building a closer and broader interactive relationship with the business community.
- We believe that through these efforts, the Asia-Pacific will embrace a brighter future. The region will enjoy a higher level of economic integration, more effective policy coordination, stronger ties in economic and technical cooperation, enhanced regional connectivity, and closer links with the rest of the world. Our enduring commitment will underwrite the peace, stability and prosperity of Asia Pacific. We are committed to making relentless efforts for the next 25 years of APEC cooperation, with the goal of fulfilling the Asia-Pacific dream of common development, prosperity, and progress.
The 22nd APEC Economic Leaders’ Declaration
Beijing Agenda for an Integrated, Innovative and Interconnected Asia-Pacific
- We, the APEC Leaders, gathered by Yanqi Lake in Beijing for the 22nd APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting. Under the theme of “Shaping the Future through Asia-Pacific Partnership”, we held substantial discussions on the priorities of advancing regional economic integration, promoting innovative development, economic reform and growth, and strengthening comprehensive connectivity and infrastructure development with a view to expanding and deepening Asia-Pacific regional economic cooperation, and attaining peace, stability, development and common prosperity of the Asia-Pacific.
- The Asia-Pacific region has experienced a quarter of a century’s growth and development. APEC has not only made significant contributions to the region’s economic development, social progress and improvement of people’s livelihoods, but has also epitomized the great changes and rising strategic position of the Asia-Pacific. Through its unique approach featuring voluntary action, consensus, flexibility and pragmatism, APEC has successfully established a sound regional economic cooperation framework among member economies with remarkable diversity and at different stages of development. Adhering to the spirit of unity, mutual respect and trust, mutual assistance and win-win cooperation, we have been working to narrow the development gap among ourselves and have consistently promoted the robust, sustainable, balanced, inclusive and secure growth in the Asia-Pacific region and beyond.
- After years of rapid development, the Asia-Pacific has become the most dynamic region of the world, and has never been as important as it is today in the global landscape. At present, the Asia-Pacific maintains a strong momentum of growth; it possesses an enormous potential and has a bright future. Yet it is also faced with risks and challenges.
- We are at an important historical moment of building on past achievements and striving for new progress. We are committed to working together to shape the future through Asia-Pacific partnership, building an open economy in the Asia-Pacific featuring innovative development, interconnected growth, and shared interests, and consolidating the leading role of the Asia-Pacific in the world economy, with a goal of opening up new prospects for future cooperation and achieving common prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region.
- To achieve the above-mentioned goals, we pledge to take the following actions:
I. Advancing Regional Economic Integration
Pursuing Free and Open Trade and Investment
- We reiterate the value, centrality and primacy of the multilateral trading system in promoting trade expansion, economic growth, job creation and sustainable development. We stand firmly together to strengthen therules-based, transparent, non-discriminatory, open and inclusive multilateral trading system as embodied in the WTO.
- We express our grave concern regarding the impasse in the implementation of the Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) which has resulted in stalemate and uncertainties over other Bali decisions. These developments have affected the credibility of the WTO negotiating function. In finding solutions to the implementation of the Bali decisions, APEC will exert creative leadership and energy together with all WTO members in unlocking this impasse, putting all Bali decisions back on track, and proceeding with the formulation of Post-Bali Work Program, as a key stepping stone to concluding the Doha Round.
- We reaffirm our pledges against all forms of protectionism. We extend our standstill commitment through the end of 2018 and reaffirm our commitment to roll back protectionist and trade-distorting measures. We remain committed to exercise maximum restraint in implementing measures that may be consistent with WTO provisions but have a significant protectionist effect and to promptly rectifying such measures, where implemented.
- We acknowledge that bilateral, regional and plurilateral trade agreements can play an important role in complementing global trade liberalization initiatives. We will continue to work together to ensure that they contribute to strengthening the multilateral trading system. We underscore the importance of the negotiations to expand the product coverage of the Information Technology Agreement (ITA). A final ITA expansion outcome should be commercially significant, credible, pragmatic, balanced, and reflective of the dynamic technological developments in the information technology sector over the last 17 years, and contribute to the multilateral trading system. We welcome APEC’s leadership in advancing the negotiations and call for swift resumption and conclusion of plurilateral negotiations in Geneva. We welcome the launch of negotiations on Environmental Goods Agreement (EGA) in July 2014 in Geneva. We encourage participants of the above initiatives to seek expanded memberships.
- We welcome the significant progress made toward achieving the Bogor Goals. We will make every effort to achieve the Bogor Goals by 2020. We also welcome the biennial Bogor Goals review this year. We urge all economies, particularly developed ones to deeply consider the conclusions of the Report on APEC's 2010 Economies' Progress towards the Bogor Goals and the 2012 and 2014 Bogor Goals Progress Report, and to take more concrete actions towards attaining the Bogor Goals.
- Recognizing APEC has a critical role to play in shaping and nurturing regional economic integration, we agree that APEC shouldmake more important and meaningful contributions as an incubator to translate the Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific (FTAAP) from a vision to reality. We reaffirm our commitment to the eventual FTAAP as a major instrument to further APEC's regional economic integration agenda.
- In this regard, we decide to kick off and advance the process in a comprehensive and systematic manner towards the eventual realization of the FTAAP, and endorse the Beijing Roadmap for APEC’s Contribution to the Realization of the FTAAP (Annex A). Through the implementation of this Roadmap, we decide to accelerate our efforts on realizing the FTAAP on the basis of the conclusion of the ongoing pathways, and affirm our commitment to the eventual realization of the FTAAP as early as possible by building on ongoing regional undertakings, which will contribute significantly to regional economic integration, sustained growth and common prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region. We instruct Ministers and officials to undertake the specific actions and report the outcomes to track the achievements.
- We welcome the establishment of a Committee on Trade and Investment (CTI) Friends of the Chair Group on Strengthening Regional Economic Integration (REI) and Advancing FTAAP, and urge the Friends of the Chair Group to continue its work. We agree to launch a collective strategic study on issues related to the realization of the FTAAP, and instruct officials to undertake the study, consult stakeholders and report the result by the end of 2016.
- We endorse the establishment of an APEC Information Sharing Mechanism on RTAs/FTAs. We highly commend the work on the implementation of the Action Plan Framework on Capacity Building Needs Initiatives (CBNI), and endorse the Action Plan Framework of the 2nd CBNI. We instruct officials to design targeted and tailor-made capacity building activities to narrow the gap of the capacities of APEC economies to facilitate the eventual realization of the FTAAP.
- In addition to the above, we reaffirm the role of APEC in addressing next generation trade and investment issues and sectoral initiatives, and agree to accelerate “at the border” trade liberalization and facilitation efforts, improve the business environment “behind the border”, and enhance regional connectivity “across the border” to accumulate more building blocks for the realization of the FTAAP. Therefore, we:
- reaffirm our commitment to reduce applied tariffs to five percent or less by the end of 2015 on the list of environmental goods that we endorsed in 2012 in Vladivostok. We call upon all economies to redouble their efforts in order to realize the economic and environmental benefits. We will instruct officials to report progress in achieving this ground-breaking commitment at our meeting next year in the Philippines. We welcome the work on capacity building on Environmental Goods (EGs) commitment implementation;
- welcome the inaugural meeting of the APEC Public Private Partnership on Environmental Goods and Services (PPEGS) on renewable and clean energy trade and investment, and endorse the APEC Statement on Promoting Renewable and Clean Energy (RCE) Trade and Investment;
- welcome the progress onexploring products which could contribute to sustainable and inclusive growth as part of our concrete commitment to rural development and poverty alleviation;
- endorse the Action Agenda on Promoting Infrastructure Investment through Public-Private Partnership (PPP) and instruct officials to take concrete actions to strengthen cooperation on PPP to promote more robust and sustainable infrastructure investment and development in the APEC region;
- welcome the Case Studies on Sustainable Investment in the APEC Region and encourage officials to consider and draw experience and good practices from the nominated cases to promote sustainable cross-border investment;
- endorse the APEC Cross Border E-Commerce Innovation and Development Initiative and encourage economies to designate or establish Research Centers of Cross-border E-commerce Innovation and Development on a voluntary basis;
- recognize that the effective protection and enforcement of IPR including trade secrets incentivizes and facilitates innovation and foreign direct investment and the dissemination of technology through licensing and partnerships;
- endorse the APEC Action Agenda on Advertising Standards and Practice Development to promote alignment of advertising standards and reduce the cost of doing business across the region;
- endorse the Asia-Pacific Region Automotive Industry Sustainable Development Declaration and welcome the outcomes of the 2014 APEC Regulatory Cooperation Advancement Mechanism (ARCAM) Dialogue on Electric Vehicle Standards. We welcome the APEC Actions to Promote the Widespread Usage of Electric Vehicles.
Advancing Global Value Chain Development and Supply Chain Connectivity
- Recognizing that Global Value Chains (GVCs) have become a dominant feature of the global economy and offer new prospects for growth, competitiveness and job creation for APEC economies at all levels of development, we endorse the APEC Strategic Blueprint for Promoting Global Value Chain Development and Cooperation (Annex B). We welcome the progress made in the measurement of Trade in Value Added (TiVA), services, SMEs and GVCs resilience, etc., and instruct officials to advance the work through the CTI Friends of the Chair Group on GVC to put forward new initiatives under the Strategic Blueprint in 2015 and beyond.
- We endorse the Strategic Framework on Measurement of APEC TiVA under GVCs and the Action Plan on this Strategic Framework. We instruct the newly-formed technical group to work closely with the WTO, OECD, the World Bank, UNCTAD and other related international organizations, with an aim to complete the construction of the APEC TiVA Database by 2018.
- We endorse the Terms of Reference of Promoting SME’s Integration into GVCs, and welcome the launch of the related activities. We instruct officials to make efforts in advancing this work.
- We welcome the commitment of APEC economies to move forward with the implementation of the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement, including the notification by many APEC developing economies of their category A TFA obligations. We welcome, as well, the progress this year in improving the performance of APEC supply chains through targeted, focused capacity building and technical assistance. In this regard, we applaud the establishment of the APEC Alliance for Supply Chain Connectivity, which will contribute to our goal in achieving a ten percent improvement of supply chain performance by the end of 2015 and our broader supply chain connectivity objectives. We encourage economies to increase the resources of the APEC Supply Chain Connectivity Sub-Fund to ensure that our capacity building and technical assistance projects succeed to meet our ten percent performance improvement goal and to further our trade facilitation objectives.
- We agree to establish the Asia-Pacific Model E-port Network (APMEN) and welcome the first batch of APEC Model E-ports nominated by the APEC economies. We endorse the Terms of Reference of the APMEN and agree to set up the APMEN operational center in the Shanghai Model E-port, and instruct officials to make further efforts to contribute to regional trade facilitation and supply chain connectivity.
- We positively value the APEC High-level Roundtable on Green Development and its declaration, and agree to establish the APEC Cooperation Network on Green Supply Chain. We endorse the establishment of the first pilot center of APEC Cooperation Network on Green Supply Chain in Tianjin, China, and encourage other economics to establish the pilot centers and advance related work actively.
- We endorse the APEC Customs 3M (Mutual Recognition of Control, Mutual Assistance of Enforcement and Mutual Sharing of Information) Strategic Framework. We instruct officials to further simplify and coordinate APEC customs procedures based on the 3M Framework to facilitate the development of regional trade. We encourage APEC members’ customs authorities to continue strengthening cooperation and coordination in pursuit of the 3M vision, to push forward comprehensive connectivity and make greater contributions to the sustainable development of trade and regional economic integration in the Asia-Pacific region.
- We recognize that the use of standardized codes will enable information about traded goods to be easily understood and shared by all parties. We therefore encourage APEC economies to work with the private sector to promote further cooperation on global data standards and their wider use by developing pilot projects.
- We welcome the initiative on manufacturing related services in supply chains/value chains as a next generation trade and investment issue, and instruct officials to develop a plan of action in 2015.
Strengthening Economic and Technical Cooperation
- We endorse the APEC Strategic Plan on Capacity Building to Promote Trade and Investment Agenda which adopts a strategic, goal-oriented and multi-year approach. We instruct officials to take the Strategic Plan as a guide to develop and implement more tailor-made capacity building programs that contribute to the core trade and investment liberalization and facilitation agenda of APEC.
- We encourage economies, particularly developed economies, to provide more contributions to ECOTECH and capacity building, to achieve our goal of bridging development gaps, and help member economies to meet their APEC commitments and their economic growth objectives.
- We welcome the initiative to upgrade the Asia Pacific Finance and Development Center (AFDC) to the Asia Pacific Finance and Development Institute (AFDI).
II. Promoting Innovative Development, Economic Reform and Growth
- We realize that the prospects for the shared prosperity of APEC will depend on innovative development, economic reform and growth in the region, which are complementary and mutually reinforcing. We recognize that the Asia-Pacific region is at a crucial stage of economic transformation. We are committed to accelerating the pace of reform and innovation, and exploring new growth areas with the goal of bolstering the position of the Asia-Pacific as an engine for world economic growth. We agree to strengthen macroeconomic policy coordination with a view to forging policy synergy, and creating a sound policy environment for the robust, sustainable, balanced and inclusive economic growth in the region.
- We endorse the APEC Accord on Innovative Development, Economic Reform and Growth (Annex C) which identifies Economic Reform, New Economy, Innovative Growth, Inclusive Support and Urbanization as the five pillars for promoting experience sharing, policy dialogue, capacity building and practical cooperation.
- To advance APEC’s economic reform agenda, we agree to hold the 2nd Ministerial Meeting on Structural Reform in 2015. Recognizing that many APEC developing economies are facing the challenge of the Middle-Income Trap (MIT), we agree to incorporate the issue of overcoming the MIT into the work program of the APEC Economic Committee.
- To meet our objective of strengthening the implementation of good regulatory practices, we will further enhance communication, exchanges, and sharing of experiences, and foster anopen and transparentregulatory environment in our economies, according to individual economies’ needs and circumstances. We will endeavor to take new actions through the use of information technology and the Internet to improve our conduct of public consultations on proposed regulations.
- We recognize the role of internationally recognized private international law instruments such as the Hague Conventions in facilitating cross-border trade and investment, enhancing ease of doing business, and fostering effective enforcement of contracts and efficient settlement of business disputes. We encourage wider use of these instruments which would contribute to APEC’s regional integration, connectivity and structural reform agenda.
- We recognize that New Economy represents the trend of economic growth and sustainable development in the Asia-Pacific region and beyond. We support the efforts to promote economic restructuring and upgrading in traditional industries, explore new and promising economic growth areas such as the Green Economy, the Blue Economy, and the Internet Economy, and promote green, circular, low-carbon and energy-efficient development.
- We are encouraged by the progress of APEC's ocean-related cooperation and welcome the Xiamen Declaration issued at the 4th APEC Oceans Ministerial Meeting this year, and instruct our Ministers and officials to fully implement the Declaration. We acknowledge the Xiamen Declaration’s statement on the Blue Economy. We welcome the APEC Marine Sustainable Development Report. We encourage the Ocean and Fisheries Working Group to work with APEC fora to advance Blue Economy cooperation.
- We recognize the role of the Internet Economy in promoting innovative development and empowering economic participation. We endorse the APEC Initiative of Cooperation to Promote the Internet Economy and instruct Ministers and officials to discuss the Internet Economy further, put forward proposals for actions, promote member economies’ cooperation on developing the Internet Economy and facilitate technological and policy exchanges among member economies, taking into account the need to bridge the digital divide.
- We welcome the Beijing Declaration ofthe 2014 APEC Energy Ministerial Meeting. We welcome the establishment of the APEC Sustainable Energy Center in China. We recognize the importance of promoting diversified energy supplies, and market-based competition and pricing mechanisms that reflect demand and supply fundamentals as appropriate to each economy. We encourage member economies to take actions to eliminate trade protection and restrictive measures that may impede progress in renewable energy technologies and development of this sector, and we endorse the Energy Ministers’ aspirational goal to double the share of renewables including in power generation by 2030 in APEC’s energy mix. We affirm our commitment to rationalize and phase out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption while still providing essential energy services. We acknowledge Peru and New Zealand for initiatingvoluntary peer reviews in 2014 of inefficient fossil fuel subsidies that cause wasteful consumption and sharing their best practices, and welcome the commitment from the Philippines to undergo a peer review in 2015. We encourage innovation, competition and cooperation to promote a sound and sustainable energy sector in the Asia-Pacific and to ensure its energy security, economic growth, poverty eradication and an appropriate response to climate change.
- We emphasize the importance of efforts to ensure sustainable development in mining, including the development, processing, utilization, investment and trade in minerals, metals and related products and welcome Ministers' views recognizing the important role of the Minamata Convention on Mercury.
- We will continue our efforts to protect forest resources, combat illegal logging and associated trade, promote sustainable forest management, and work with relevant organizations, including the Asia-Pacific Network on Sustainable Forest Management and Rehabilitation (APFNet), to ensure the achievement of the aspirational goal on forests in the Sydney Declaration.
- We commit to continue our efforts in combating wildlife trafficking. We will take steps to combat wildlife trafficking by enhancing international cooperation through Wildlife Enforcement Networks (WENs) and other existing mechanisms, reducing the supply of and demand for illegally traded wildlife, increasing public awareness and education related to wildlife trafficking and its impacts, and treating wildlife trafficking crimes seriously.
- We recognize innovation as an important lever for economic growth and structural reform. We endorse the initiative on Toward Innovation-Driven Development. We commit to foster a pragmatic, efficient and vigorous partnership on science, technology and innovation. We agree to strengthen collaboration amongst government, academia, and private sector stakeholders to build science capacity, to promote an enabling environment for innovation andincluding by establishing training centers for the commercialization of research, and to enhance regional science and technology connectivity, with respect for intellectual property rights and trade secrets.
- We welcome the Nanjing Declaration on Promoting SMEs Innovative Development. We commit to strengthen our support, and provide an enabling environment for SMEs in innovation activities. We welcome efforts to strengthenSMEs' cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region, involve SMEs in APEC production and supply chains, promote ethical business practices, as well as to empowertheir capacity to operate in an international market. We welcome member economies’ joint efforts and contribution to promote the APEC Accelerator Network and to invest in the early stage development of innovative SMEs.
- We recognize that inclusive support is essential to maintain growth and to deal with risks and potential fallout of reform, with an aim to provide a solid foundation for economic growth and to address the needs of vulnerable groups. We welcome the outcomes of the 6th Human Resources Development Ministerial Meeting and theAction Plan (2015-2018) on Promoting Quality Employment and Strengthening People-to-People Connectivity through Human Resources Development. We encourage APEC economies to give priority to stabilizing and expanding employment, implementing macroeconomic policies in favor of job creation, and strengthening capacity building for human resources development, vocational skills development and skill training for youth. We commend the 10-year achievement of the APEC Digital Opportunity Center initiative through our joint efforts and cooperation in bridging digital divides, strengthening human resource development and creating digital opportunities throughout the APEC region.
- We recognize the pivotal role of women in the development and prosperity of the Asia-Pacific, and are committed to taking concrete policies and innovative measures to further enhance women’s economic empowerment and their access to markets and ICT technology, eliminate all barriers that hinder women’s economic participation, and ensure women’s equal opportunities, participation and benefit in innovative development, economic reform and growth. We welcome the recommendations from the Women and the Economy Forum, and commit to promote women entrepreneurship. We recognize the importance of data to measure progress in reducing barriers to women’s economic participation, and we welcome the establishment of the APEC Women and the Economy Dashboard as a tool to inform policy discussions. We support women's leadership and recognize the importance of women’s entrepreneurship support services and networks. We encourage the formal development of an APEC-wide women’s entrepreneurship network to empower women entrepreneurs to start and grow businesses and increase their access to domestic and international markets.
- We welcome recommendations from the 4th High Level Meeting on Health and the Economy and endorse the “Healthy Asia-Pacific 2020” initiative, which aims to achieve sustainable and high-performing health systems that will ensure people's health, including physical and mental well-being, through the whole life-course by means of a whole-of-government, and whole-of-society approach with the collaboration of the entire Asia-Pacific region.
- We commit to jointly tackle pandemic diseases, terrorism, natural disasters, climate change and other global challenges. In confronting the currentEbola Virus Disease epidemic, we are determined to intensify our cooperation and work shoulder to shoulder with African nations to help them effectively end this epidemic and prevent, detect, manage and respond to future outbreaks. We will continue to assistpeople in affected areas to overcome this crisis and build back their economiesso we can win the battle against the disease.
- We endorse the Beijing Declaration on APEC Food Security issued at the Third APEC Ministerial Meeting on Food Security. We welcome APEC Action Plan for Reducing Food Loss and Waste, the APEC Food Security Business Plan (2014-2020), and the APEC Food Security Roadmap toward 2020 (2014 version) and the Action Plan to Enhance Connectivity of APEC Food Standards and Safety Assurance.We note the G20’s work on food security in 2014. We call on APEC economies to seek common ground to build an open, inclusive, mutually-beneficial and all-win partnership for the long-term food security of the Asia-Pacific region. We will strengthen APEC agricultural science and technology innovation and cooperation to advance sustainable agricultural development and support sustainable fisheries.
- We commend the ongoing efforts of the APEC Food Safety Cooperation Forum (FSCF) and its Partnership Training Institute Network (PTIN), which will help ensure the safety of food produced and traded in the APEC region by improving food safety regulatory systems, encouraging harmonization with international science-based standards, building capacity in areas that will facilitate trade, and enhancing communication and collaboration between industry and regulators to address emerging food safety issues. We welcome the APEC Food Safety Beijing Statement of the 2014 APEC High-Level Regulator Industry Dialogue on Food Safety.
- We commend the strong resolve shown in fighting corruption,including through effectiveanti-corruption measures. We support the Beijing Declaration on Fighting Corruption and welcome the APEC Principles on the Prevention of Bribery and Enforcement of Anti-Bribery Laws, and APEC General Elements of Effective Voluntary Corporate Compliance Programs. We commit to work together against corruption and deny safe haven for corrupt officials and their illicitly-acquired assets. We are committed to strengthening cooperation and coordination on repatriation or extradition of corrupt officials as well as confiscation and recovery of corruption proceeds, and where appropriate, through the use of anti-corruption mechanisms and platforms such as the APEC Network of Anti-Corruption and Law Enforcement Agencies (ACT-NET).
- We encourage further cooperation of member economies in disaster preparedness, risk reduction, response and post-disaster recovery, and cooperation in search and rescue, including through more robust networking among disaster management departments; following the APEC Guidelines on Appropriate Donations; improving supply chain resiliency; operationalizing the Trade Recovery Programme, reducing barriers to the movement of emergency responders and humanitarian relief across borders; increased data sharing; and application of science and technologies.
- We reiterate our resolve to create a secure and resilient environment for economic activities and connectivity in the APEC region and continue concerted efforts to implement the APEC Consolidated Counter-Terrorism and Secure Trade Strategy.
- We recognize that the Asia-Pacific is currently experiencing booming urbanization. We realize that sustained and healthy development of urbanization is conducive to promoting innovative growth and realizing robust, inclusive and sustainable development in the Asia-Pacific.
- We commend the constructive work undertaken by APEC this year in promoting urbanization cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region, and endorse the APEC Cooperation Initiative for Jointly Establishing an Asia-Pacific Urbanization Partnership.
- Recognizing the range of urbanization challenges and opportunities across APEC economies, we commit to collectively promote cooperation projects, and to further explore pathways to a new-type of urbanization and sustainable city development, featuring green,energy efficient, low-carbon and people-orientation.
III. Strengthening Comprehensive Connectivity and Infrastructure Development
- We recognize that strengthening comprehensive connectivity and infrastructure development will help open up new sources of economic growth, promote cooperation and mutual assistance, and advance prosperity and the spirit of community in the Asia-Pacific region. We commend the achievements already made by APEC in connectivity and infrastructure development cooperation.
- We endorse the APEC Connectivity Blueprint for 2015-2025 (Annex D). We are committed to implementing the APEC Connectivity Blueprint and achieving the overarching goal of strengthening physical, institutional and people-to-people connectivity by taking agreed actions and meeting agreed targets by 2025, with the objective of achieving a seamless and comprehensively connected and integrated Asia Pacific.
- We commit to solve the financing bottleneck of infrastructure development. We commend the work and progress accomplished under the APEC Finance Ministers' Process (FMP) in infrastructure investment and financing cooperation. We recognize, in particular, efforts in promoting PPP on Infrastructure, such as compiling demonstrative infrastructure PPP projects, advancing the work of the PPP Experts Advisory Panel, strengthening capacity building of Indonesia’s Pilot PPP Center, and carrying on capacity building project of PPP pilot demonstration and standard contract making. We welcome the Implementation Roadmap to Develop Successful Infrastructure PPP Projects in the APEC Region to guide APEC’s future work in this aspect. We welcome the establishment of the PPP Center in China as a center of excellence.
- We encourage member economies to strengthenenergy infrastructural development and connectivity, such as oil and natural gas pipelines and transmission networks, LNG terminals, smart grids and distributed energy systems on the basis of shared interest and mutual benefit.
- We encourage all member economies to take effective measures to promote the mobility of business personnel, tourists, researchers, students and labor in the region.
- We support initiatives and activities that further enhance the three dimensions of cross-border education cooperation found in the 2012 LeadersDeclaration-- mobility of students, researchers, and providers. We applaud the work that has been accomplishedthis year, including the establishment of the APEC Higher Education Research Center (AHERC); contributions to the APEC scholarships and internships initiative, which will encourage people-to-people exchange in our region; and promotion of virtualacademic mobility by leveraging internet-based resources and innovative learning practices.
- We support the target set at the 8th APEC Tourism Ministers’ Meeting of making efforts to receive 800 million international tourist arrivals in APEC economies by 2025.
- We appreciatethe initiatives which will greatly improve connectivity and infrastructure in the Asia-Pacific region, help resolve the bottleneck of financing in this field, and promote regional economic integration and the common development of the Asia-Pacific.
IV. Looking Forward
- With joint efforts of member economies, the Asia-Pacific has become the most dynamic region of the world with enormous growth potential. Never before has the world been more in need of a harmonious, stable and prosperous Asia-Pacific. We commit to working together to shape the future through Asia-Pacific partnership in the spirit of mutual respect and trust, inclusiveness, and win-win cooperation, and making a contribution to the long-term development and common prosperity of the region.
- We commit to carry forward APEC reform, improve its cooperation mechanisms, and implement ambitious goals and blueprints, with the aim of enabling APEC to play a more active coordinating and leading role in the Asia-Pacific.
- We commend the constructive role of the APEC Business Advisory Council (ABAC) in strengthening public-private partnership and promoting APEC cooperation in various fields.
- We are committed to enhancing APEC synergy with other relevant international and regional cooperation organizations and fora through coordination and cooperation, as well asenabling APEC to play an increasingly important role in the global governance system.
- We are satisfied with the positive, meaningful and fruitful achievements of this meeting and appreciate China’s tremendous and fruitful efforts to successfully host this meeting.
- We are committed to supporting future hosts of APEC, including Peru, Viet Nam, Papua New Guinea, Chile, Malaysia, New Zealand and Thailand who are to host APEC in the years of 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 and 2022 respectively.
- We look forward to convening again during the Philippines’ hosting of APEC in 2015.
Annex A: The Beijing Roadmap for APEC’s Contribution to the Realization of the FTAAP
Over the past 25 years, APEC economies have made great strides in the pursuit of free and open trade and investment. APEC’s role in facilitating regional economic growth and cooperation has proven essential in efforts to achieve greater common prosperity and stability, and has greatly contributed to the region’s reputation as an engine of world economic growth. As the global economic landscape has evolved, global supply chains and value chains have emerged, and enterprises have taken advantage of distributed and more efficient production of goods and services and global networks of investors and exporters.
Economic integration efforts in the Asia-Pacific region have entered a critical stage, and are now facing both opportunities and challenges. The proliferation of regional RTAs/FTAs has created favorable liberalizing momentum that complements the multilateral trading system as embodied in the WTO; however it has also resulted in a “spaghetti bowl” effect, posing complex new challenges to regional economic integration and to business.
In 2006, APEC economies agreed to examine the long-term prospect of a Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific (FTAAP). In 2010, APEC Leaders issued “Pathways to FTAAP”, and instructed APEC to take concrete steps toward realization of the FTAAP, as a major instrument to further APEC’s regional economic integration agenda, which should be pursued as a comprehensive free trade agreement by developing and building on ongoing regional undertakings such as ASEAN+3, ASEAN+6, and the Trans-Pacific Partnership. In this regard, APEC is expected to make an important and meaningful contribution as an incubator of the FTAAP. By providing leadership and intellectual input into the development process of regional economic integration, APEC could play a strong role in driving the FTAAP vision forward.
Over the past several years, APEC has discussed a broad range of issues relevant to the prospect of the FTAAP, conducted analytical work related to the FTAAP, addressed a number of next generation trade and investment issues, and undertaken sectoral initiatives. APEC has also carried out capacity building programs to assist economies in engaging in FTA negotiations on particular topics, has exchanged information on status of FTA/RTA negotiations in the region in Senior Officials Meetings, and led other work that could be used to contribute to the eventual realization of the FTAAP.
Today, we have reached a critical point in global economic evolution, and APEC economies are committed to making a contribution by translating the vision of the FTAAP into concrete steps, and to kicking off and advancing the process in a comprehensive and systematic manner towards the eventual realization of the FTAAP. Establishment of this Roadmap for APEC’s Contribution to the Realization of the FTAAP represents an important concrete step towards greater regional economic integration.
In this regard, we, the APEC Leaders, share the following common views:
- The rules-based multilateral trading system will remain a key tenet of APEC. The FTAAP should be pursued on the basis of supporting and complementing the multilateral trading system.
- The FTAAP should do more than achieve liberalization in its narrow sense; it should be comprehensive, high quality and incorporate and address “next generation” trade and investment issues.
- Attaining the Bogor Goals by 2020 will continue to be APEC’s core objective, and progress towards the Bogor Goals will substantially advance and help determine APEC’s contribution to the eventual realization of the FTAAP. This work will not supersede the Bogor Goals but will serve as an important driving force to consolidate and accelerate progress toward trade and investment liberalization.
- The FTAAP will be realized outside of APEC, parallel with the APEC process. APEC should maintain its non-binding, voluntary cooperation principles in its contributions to the realization of the FTAAP. APEC will encourage more unilateral trade and investment liberalization and reform, continue to play a role as incubator of the FTAAP and provide leadership and intellectual input to its realization.
- The FTAAP should aim to minimize any negative effects resulting from the proliferation of regional and bilateral RTAs/FTAs, and will be pursued by building on current and developing regional architectures. Greater efforts should be made to concluding the possible pathways to the FTAAP, including the TPP and RCEP.
- To assist interested APEC economies with participating in ongoing regional undertakings and preparation for the realization of the FTAAP, APEC should continue to provide effective economic and technical cooperation activities that help developing economies, including in structural reform, human resource, SME development and integration.
Bearing in mind the above, we agree to undertake the following actions while pursuing the conclusion of initiatives considered as potential building blocks of the FTAAP:
- Launch a collective strategic study on issues related to the realization of the FTAAP by building on and updating existing studies and past work, providing an analysis of potential economic and social benefits and costs, performing a stocktake of RTAs/FTAs in force in the region, analyzing the various pathways towards the FTAAP, assessing impacts of the “spaghetti bowl” phenomenon on economies, identifying trade and investment barriers, identifying challenges economies may face in realizing the FTAAP, and considering any recommendations based on the study’s findings. The CTI Friends of the Chair Group on Strengthening REI and Advancing FTAAP, led by member economies, will organize and lead a task force to undertake the study and will seek contributions from interested APEC economies, the APEC Policy Support Unit, ABAC, PECC and APEC Study Centers. The linkage with the second term review of Bogor Goals will be strengthened while carrying out this study. The CTI and SOM will review progress annually, finalize the report, along with any recommendations, arrived at by consensus, and submit them to Ministers and Leaders by the end of 2016.
- Increase transparency of existing and recently concluded RTAs/FTAs by advancing work under the APEC Information Sharing Mechanism on RTAs/FTAs. This will support cooperation on the realization of the FTAAP, and encourage economies to organize supporting policy dialogues and other information sharing activities under this mechanism. Increased transparency of existing RTAs/FTAs and better understanding among our economies of possible pathways will contribute to building stakeholder support and lead to the eventual realization of a truly beneficial FTAAP. This mechanism would complement the WTO Transparency Mechanism for Regional Trade Agreements; economies will continue to participate to the fullest extent possible in the WTO Transparency Mechanism. The CTI will review the effectiveness of this mechanism biennially and submit any outcomes to MRT, AMM and AELM.
- Continue the capacity building activities in pursuit of the FTAAP under the Action Plan Framework of the 2nd Capacity Building Needs Initiative (CBNI). We highly commend the successful implementation of the 1st CBNI in 2012-2014 and encourage more economies to design and conduct capacity building programs for specific sectors as lead economies. The results of the capacity building programs conducted under the 2nd CBNI will be periodically reviewed with the goal of building up economies’ capacity to participate in ongoing regional undertakings and realize the FTAAP.
- Accelerate “at the border” trade liberalization and facilitation efforts, improve the business environment “behind the border”, and enhance regional connectivity “across the border”. This includes advancing initiatives in areas such as investment, services, e-commerce, rules of origin, global value chain, supply chain connectivity, customs cooperation, environmental goods and services, good regulatory practices, as well as next generation trade and investment issues that the FTAAP should contain. APEC will continue to support and foster cooperation in these areas to ensure that member economies can effectively benefit from such initiatives in its continuing contribution to realizing the FTAAP.
- Strengthen engagement with the business sector via the APEC Business Advisory Council (ABAC) and other direct routes. We will intensify efforts to strengthen APEC public-private sector dialogues on the promotion of regional economic growth, integration and an improved business environment. ABAC input on issues expected to impact the region’s economic growth and development over the longer term will be used to advance work towards the realization of the FTAAP.
We will pursue the FTAAP with a step-by-step, consensus-based approach, and affirm our commitment to the eventual realization of the FTAAP as early as possible by building on ongoing regional undertakings, which will contribute significantly to sustained growth and overall prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region. We are steadfast in supporting regional economic integration and increasing global trade and investment, including through this Roadmap. We are determined to demonstrate APEC’s leadership and commitment to shaping the future of the region with a strong Asia-Pacific Partnership.
Annex B: APEC Strategic Blueprint for Promoting Global Value Chains Development and Cooperation
Global Value Chains (GVCs) have become a dominant feature of the global economy. Better understanding and supporting the “trading tasks” involved in adding value to the final products that cross borders has become paramount to realizing a more effective policy and regulatory infrastructure for global trade. Efficient and workable GVCs within and between each of APEC economies has accordingly become a key focus for economies at all levels of development.
Given the diverse needs and situations of APEC economies participating in global trade networks today, an overall policy direction guiding improved cooperation and a more focused GVC evolution is essential to facilitating sustainable, inclusive and balanced growth in the Asia-Pacific region. Consistent overall policy based on input from each economy is essential for moving APEC’s trade and investment agenda forward, and facilitating APEC’s push for regional economic integration.
In 2013, APEC Leaders agreed to promote GVC development and cooperation in the APEC region on the basis of previous work on connectivity. This agreement highlights the need for APEC economies to work strategically and take action in creating an enabling environment for GVC development and cooperation. In response to Leaders’ instruction, APEC economies agree to develop a Strategic Blueprint for promoting global value chains development and cooperation, and agree to:
1. Addressing trade and investment issues that impact GVCs
Reducing trade and investment barriers will improve economies’ access to global production networks and allow firms to source less expensive inputs globally, which in turn would lower costs, increase efficiency and enhance competitiveness. For 2015, APEC could launch initiatives in the areas of importance to enhancing GVCs, and study the impact of measures on the growth of GVCs, the participation of economies and businesses in GVCs, and our regional economy. These initiatives could address areas of importance ranging from well-known issues to next generation issues. APEC could then explore best practices to help economies adopt more trade and investment friendly approaches in these areas, while achieving their domestic economic or regulatory objectives, lowering trade costs, and enhancing GVCs.
2. Cooperate on improving statistics related to GVCs
In light the principles of “from easy to hard” and “moving from technical proficiencies to policy”, we will take a step-by-step approach in compiling domestic account and foreign trade statistics, and developing categories harmonized to realize effective correlation of data among APEC economies that can contribute to the WTO-OECD Trade in Value-Added (TiVA) database. Without duplicating existing work at the WTO and OECD, the CTI will undertake further efforts in 2015 and future years on policy research, information exchange, developing shared approaches on statistics collection, and offering focused capacity building programs. In order to support and facilitate the work on this area, APEC should explore the establishment of an experts group on value added trade to help its member economies undertake trade policy capacity research, exchange information, develop approaches on statistics collection, and conduct focused capacity building efforts.
3. Realize the critical role of trade in service within GVCs
We shall continue ongoing work to promote open, efficient, and internationally-competitive service sectors, and maximize the contribution that services can make to strong, resilient and reliable supply chains in this region. We need to conduct targeted capacity building to help economies better understand and stimulate the development of innovative services within GVCs, build on shared information among economies. We shall work with economies at all stages of development to create an open and competitive environment for services development.
4. Enable developing economies to better participate in GVCs
In light of the diversity of APEC member economies, we recognize that comprehensive economic and technical cooperation will play a key role in ensuring greater participation of developing economies in GVCs, and help them achieve their domestic economic objectives. We shall integrate economic and technical cooperation into the paths identified for future development, and further leverage cooperation activities, including targeted capacity-building programs for helping developing economies enter and move up GVCs, for example through public-private GVC collaboration partnerships, programs on human resources development, and further work in APEC on technology dissemination and commercializing creative content. We will emphasize and adopt a multi-year strategic plan based on the core agenda of APEC and employ goal-oriented, focused approaches.
5. Assist SMEs to benefit from GVCs
We shall develop and implement initiatives to assist our SMEs in the areas that matter most to GVCs: infrastructure, supply chain connectivity, innovation, skills, and adoption of international standards. We will take steps to enhance capacity building activities and raise their understanding of how to participate in GVCs. APEC shall achieve this by facilitating SME access to trade and investment related information via increased utilization of information and communication technologies (ICTs),enhancing intellectual property protection, and providing further information on tools and processes that would help them enter and move up GVCs. APEC should also foster linkages between SMEs and MNEs by helping our economies build an open and transparent regulatory and investment climates.
6. Improve the investment climate for GVCs Development
We recognize the importance of adopting and maintaining laws, regulations, and practices that facilitate investment. We reaffirm the importance of continued efforts to improve the investment climate in the APEC region, including through taking concrete steps to facilitate investment as per existing APEC investment documents, such as the APEC Non-Binding Investment Principles, the APEC Investment Strategy and the APEC Investment Facilitation Action Plan (IFAP). APEC will help economies 1) implement sound investment strategies which deal with investment applications expeditiously, fairly, and equitably; and 2) facilitate investment through creating and maintaining transparent and sound administration procedures that apply for the lifetime of the investment.
7. Adopt effective trade facilitation measures
We reaffirm our commitment to achieving an APEC-wide target of a ten percent improvement in supply-chain performance by 2015, in terms of reductions in the time, cost, and uncertainty of moving goods and services throughout the region. Accordingly we will further advance a capacity building program to address the identified supply chain connectivity (SCC) chokepoints and improve the performance of supply chains. To this end, we will carry out additional concrete actions, including the establishment of an APEC Supply Chain Alliance and promoting cooperation on green supply chains. We welcome the framework for advancing supply chain connectivity through mutual recognition of control, mutual assistance of enforcement and mutual sharing of information (SCC-3M) among customs agencies and other government agencies related to trade, and will advance the Model E-port Initiative. We will also share best practices of ICT infrastructure development and efficient trade facilitation measures. We also reaffirm our commitment to implement the WTO Agreement on Trade Facilitation and encourage greater contribution by APEC.
8. Enhance resiliency of GVCs
APEC shall make a collaborative effort to enhance cross-border value chain resilience in the region, establish more secure value chains, and conduct quantitative value chain research and analysis in the region. APEC may also carry out discussions of potential cooperation in the development of practical policy, and capacity building projects based on these analyses.
9. Encourage public-private partnerships for GVCs
APEC shall continue to make good use of the Public-Private Partnership Guidebook as a tool to encourage sector level partnerships for investment in regional value chains infrastructure and capacity within a high-quality institutional and regulatory framework. APEC shall also enhance trust and shared understanding between participants to foster interaction between private and public sectors across APEC economies.
10. Strengthen collaboration with other stakeholders on GVCs
APEC shall promote collaboration with international organizations and partner institutions, such as the WTO, UNCTAD, OECD, G20, the World Bank, IMF and ADB to enhance synergies in policy making with regard to GVCs through technical assistance and capacity-building. Further, inter-governmental cooperation and NGO promotion of activities in GVCs are also encouraged.
Conducting activities contained within this strategic blueprint will be essential to strengthening our mutual economic ties in the global network, and to ensuring our regional economy is resilient, our growth is inclusive, and our economies become ever more connected. We believe that our people should secure equitable benefit from GVC development and that this is key to shaping a sound future through our Asia-Pacific partnership. We are determined to demonstrate APEC’s leadership in fostering further GVC development and will immediately begin with concerted efforts upon the approval of this Blue print that is being proposed.
Annex C: APEC Accord on Innovative Development, Economic Reform and Growth
- The world economy is growing at a moderate pace, with uneven recovery, weak demand and the balance of risks on the downside. Some of the legacies of the international financial crisis are still with us, and trade and investment protectionism is on the rise. To achieve strong, sustainable, balanced and inclusive growth over the longer term, we need to boost demand and identify new sources of growth through innovative development and structural reform.
- For the Asia-Pacific region to steer the world economy, member economies should remain innovation driven and maintain strong momentum for economic growth by pressing forward with innovations and identifying new sources of growth.
- Reform is an important factor in promoting economic growth and innovative development. Deepening reform eliminates barriers to sustainable economic growth, allows the market to play a decisive role in allocating resources, improves the role of government, creates a conducive growth environment, and unleashes the full potential of productivity.
- To this end, we believe that the Asia-Pacific region should continue to deepen structural reform, strengthen innovative growth, and promote closer cooperation in five pillars: Economic Reform, New Economy, Innovative Growth, Inclusive Support, and Urbanization. In this regard, we have reached consensus as follows:
- Under the pillar of Economic Reform, we agree to convene a Ministerial Meeting on Structural Reform in 2015, with the objective of advancing APEC’s economic reform agenda, including the review of the implementation of the APEC New Strategy on Structural Reform (ANSSR), setting the future direction of APEC structural reform work post-ANSSR, discussing how to overcome the Middle-Income Trap, and considering continuation of the Ease of Doing Business Program until 2020.
- We resolve to encourage communication, information exchanges, and capacity building on economic policy, regulatory coherence, and good regulatory practices, and we support members’ efforts to share experiences and best practices in innovation, reform, and fostering growth. We agree to incorporate the topic of overcoming the Middle-Income Trap in the work program of the Economic Committee (EC) for in-depth discussion and cooperation.
- Under the New Economy pillar, we will promote economic transformation, and tap into the growth potential of emerging sectors, such as the Internet Economy, the Blue Economy, and the Green Economy.
- We support cooperation in promoting the Internet Economy and welcome an Ad Hoc Steering Group to discuss issues arising from the Internet Economy, propose actions, and encourage collaboration across APEC fora. We agree to facilitate capacity building and encourage entrepreneurship and innovation.
- We will leverage the Internet Economy to foster an enabling environment for empowering vulnerable and disadvantaged groups especially women, youth, people with disabilities, and the poor. We support the healthy development of internet finance and we will work together to develop the necessary framework for it to become a tool of growth. We commit to promote secure, efficient, low-cost and inclusive financial services to enable SMEs and individuals to share the benefits of economic development, with a view to building an open and cooperative environment for the Internet Economy. We are committed to promoting the potential benefits of the Internet of Things (IOT) to our economies.
- We will work towards a more integrated, sustainable, inclusive and mutually favorable partnership through ocean-related cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region. We support cooperation on: coastal and marine ecosystem conservation, disaster resilience; ocean-related food security and associated trade; marine science, technology and innovation, and the Blue Economy. We acknowledge the Xiamen Declaration’s statement on the Blue Economy, which is, for the purposes of APEC, an approach to advance sustainable management and conservation of ocean and coastal resources and ecosystems and sustainable development, in order to foster economic growth. We call for cooperation on the Blue Economy and encourage the implementation of related initiatives in the Asia-Pacific region.
- In response to important energy and environmental issues, we will work to strengthen conservation efforts, and commit to cooperate on renewable energy, energy saving, green building standards, sustainable development of mining, and circular economy, among others, in pursuit of green, energy efficient, low-carbon development and of new economic growth sources. To protect our forestry resources, we will pay special attention to fighting illegal logging and associated trade, while promoting trade in legally harvested forest products. We welcome the statement of the APEC High-level Roundtable on Green Development.
- We welcome the joint statement of the 2014 APEC Ministers Responsible for Mining. We note the establishment of a mining sub-fund to take forward the 10 APEC Mining Policy Principles with an emphasis on supporting capacity building projects involving collaboration between the public and private sectors.
- We are committed to championing an Asia-Pacific concept of energy security featuring openness, inclusiveness, cooperation and sustainability. We share the importance of improving energy efficiency and promoting clean and renewable energy in the APEC region. We aspire to the goal of doubling the share of renewables in the APEC energy mix, including in power generation, from 2010 levels by 2030. We encourage member economies to create favorable conditions for natural gas and LNG trade and investment in the region, including by relaxing destination clauses.
- Since fossil fuel will continue to play significant role in the energy mix of this region in the medium to long term, we reaffirm the importance of clean and efficient use of fossil fuel. We encourage member economies, where there are difficulties to quickly deploying alternatives to coal, to enhance cooperation in developing and applying clean coal technologies such as highly efficient coal-fired power plants and Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage (CCUS). We support the safe and efficient development of nuclear power, which functions as a base load power source, in interested economies.
- We reaffirm our commitments to reduce energy intensity by 45 percent from 2005 levels by 2035 and to rationalize and phase out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption, while recognizing the importance of providing those in need with essential energy services. We welcome the establishment of the APEC Sustainable Energy Center, to promote advanced ideas and models of sustainable energy development across the region.
- Under the Innovative Growth pillar, we will promote cooperation in science and innovation; facilitate voluntary transfer, dissemination and commercialization of technology on mutually agreed terms; promote the use and commercialization of intellectual property and ensure IPR protection and enforcement, while reiterating the importance of comprehensive and balanced intellectual property systems; share experience and knowledge; cultivate talents for innovation; strengthen innovation capacity; improve the environment for innovation; and pursue sustainable development.
- We welcome the APEC Cross-Border e-Commerce Innovation and Development Initiative. We welcome efforts to create a policy environment that enables new and emerging e-Commerce technologies that drive trade, economic growth and societal benefit.
- We support members’ efforts to promote entrepreneurial innovation through fiscal and financial policy measures and other means.
- We encourage members to strengthen support for innovative activities by SMEs, and support the establishment of an APEC SMEs database on innovative best practices. We encourage members to improve the financing environment for SME innovation. We welcome China exploring the possibility of setting up an APEC SME Center for IT Promotion. We encourage the supportive role of APEC service platforms, such as the APEC SME Service Alliance (ASSA), the APEC SME Innovation Center, and the APEC Accelerator Network (AAN), to improve the competitiveness of SMEs.
- We support members’ cooperation in deepening innovation in e-vehicles and in promoting green growth through environmentally-friendly automobile technologies.
- Under the pillar of Inclusive Support, we commit to strengthen cooperation on entrepreneurship and employment, health, food security, food safety, sustainable agricultural development, women’s economic participation, youth, people with disabilities, disaster prevention and mitigation, social responsibility，business ethics, anti-corruption and secure trade. We recognize that promoting quality employment and developing human resources is of significance for innovative development. We support the APEC Action Plan for Promoting Quality Employment and Strengthening People–to-People Connectivity through Human Resources (2015 - 2018).
- We encourage member economies to take measures to implement the “Healthy Asia-Pacific 2020” initiative. We commit to continue to: work on the unfinished health-related Millennium Development Goals in a manner that complements the activities of the post-2015 agenda; strengthen the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases, including injuries； strengthen health systems to support Universal Health Coverage；and improve health emergency preparedness, surveillance, response and recovery systems for public health events and disasters in the APEC region.
- We recognize that unleashing the potential of women as economic drivers is vital to growth, both in terms of the magnitude and inclusiveness of that growth. We welcome the statement of 2014 APEC Women and the Economy Forum and encourage all economies to take relevant effective actions. We encourage and commit to build the capacity of women to make use of ICT to start and grow their businesses, and to engage in regional trade cooperation.
- We support member economies’ efforts to: boost agricultural productivity and food production and availability based on sustainable development, innovation, science and technology and an enabling economic environment; improve post-harvest management to reduce food loss; and, strengthen regional cooperation to promote food security and safety.
- We support the establishment of the APEC Higher Education Research Center and welcome the APEC Scholarship Initiative. We encourage officials to elaborate various academic mobility schemes and mechanisms, including voluntary implementation of the APEC Virtual Academic Mobility Card Initiative.
- Under the pillar of Urbanization, we seek to identify new drivers of economic growth by pursuing urbanization and sustainable city development. We support APEC partnership initiatives on urbanization and undertake to establish a cooperative network of sustainable cities in APEC economies. We will organize forums, hold policy dialogues, and utilize international sister-cities programs to promote cooperation and share experiences on urbanization and sustainable city development.
- We will facilitate the use of existing resources for research and capacity building on urbanization. We encourage member economies to support urbanization cooperation and urbanization-related projects, including by making voluntary contributions to establish a sub-fund within the APEC framework.
- We applaud progress made in the APEC Low Carbon Model Town Project and the promotion activities under it. We underscore the importance of eco-city and smart city cooperation programs, and undertake to explore pathways to green urbanization and sustainable city development.
- We encourage further consideration of urbanization-related topics in the Senior Officials’ Meetings (SOM), the EC, the Committee on Trade and Investment (CTI), the SOM Steering Committee on Economic and Technical Cooperation (SCE) and APEC sub-fora.
Annex D: APEC Connectivity Blueprint for 2015-2025
- In the APEC Leaders’ 2013 Declaration, we shared our aspiration to reach a seamlessly and comprehensively connected and integrated Asia-Pacific through the pillars of Physical Connectivity, Institutional Connectivity and People-to-People Connectivity.
- Connectivity represents an ambitious target for a diverse regional organization such as APEC, but it is precisely that ambition that will drive strong and tangible achievement.
- Connectivity will be important not only for governments and business, but also for APEC as a community. By connecting APEC’s developed and emerging growth centers, the region’s quality of growth will improve, contributing to the Asia-Pacific’s economic prosperity and resilience.
- In this regard, we note with appreciation that significant work has already been done by various APEC fora and working groups in advancing connectivity in the region. APEC economies have also undertaken substantial amounts of work to improve connectivity, both at the domestic and regional levels.
- However, despite the many achievements and successes of APEC in promoting connectivity in previous years, many challenges still remain. On physical connectivity, there is still a disparity in access to and quality of physical and Information and Communications Technology (ICT) infrastructure throughout the region.
- On institutional connectivity, there is also a significant gap in the ability of existing institutions to promote connectivity due to various regulatory constraints or lack of capacity.
- On people-to-people connectivity, much work needs to be done to ease existing barriers to interaction and mobility, and to develop joint endeavors that will support seamless flows of people.
- We have therefore developed this Blueprint as a strategic guide for current and future initiatives that will bring the APEC region closer together, and as a high-level framework towards which many APEC work streams will focus their efforts.
The Vision of APEC Connectivity in 2025
- Through the Blueprint, we commit to strengthen physical, institutional, and people-to-people connectivity by taking agreed actions and meeting agreed targets by 2025, with the objective of achieving a seamless and comprehensively connected and integrated Asia Pacific.
- In order to attain this overarching goal, APEC member economies will undertake specific tangible actions at the physical, institutional, and people-to-people pillar levels.
- This Blueprint contains existing connectivity-related initiatives; encourages reviving those initiatives that require further progress; and, proposes future initiatives for more efficient flows of goods, services, capital and people to drive APEC progress. It is also broad in scope and adaptable to the ever-changing conditions in the Asia-Pacific.
- We envision this Blueprint accelerating and encouraging balanced, secure, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as connecting growth poles in the region and bringing APEC closer together as a community.
- Under Physical Connectivity, with regard to cross-sectoral issues, we will focus on improving the investment climate, enhancing infrastructure financing through public private partnerships (PPP) and other means in APEC economies; adopting comprehensive assessment methods that considers key quality elements in evaluation of infrastructure project proposals; and, enhancing the application of good practices and people-centered investment for planning and implementing infrastructure projects.
- We welcome the substantial work that has been done under the Finance Ministers' Process (FMP) to promote knowledge sharing and capacity building in the area of infrastructure PPPs.
- We are pleased to note that the APEC PPP Experts Advisory Panel has launched work under the FMP, which supports, on a voluntary basis, a Pilot PPP Center based in Indonesia. We note with appreciation the role of the Panel in helping APEC economies tap into private sector sources of funding for infrastructure development, particularly through promoting PPPs, by acting as a repository of skills that will bring to life good practices in the APEC region and that will help channel technical assistance to developing economies seeking such assistance.
- We commit to further establish dedicated PPP centers in APEC economies, with a view to developing a regional network of PPP centers to share good practices. In the longer term, these centers can play an important role in supporting the establishment of an APEC-wide market for infrastructure financing. We also welcome the Implementation Roadmap to Develop Successful Infrastructure PPP Projects in the APEC Region and the Action Agenda on Promoting Infrastructure Investment through PPP.
- We will develop, maintain and renew quality infrastructure, including energy, ICT and transport infrastructure and seek to increase the quality and sustainability of APEC transport networks; increase broadband internet access; promote sustainable energy security; and build resiliency into the energy infrastructure.
- We will help facilitate the efficient and effective operation of maritime transportation and shipments, especially considering that a majority of maritime infrastructure development projects happen on a unilateral basis. We take note of several pathfinder initiatives where future cooperation could produce tangible results.
- We will strengthen air transportation cooperation to boost robust trade and people-to-people connections, share experiences and good practices to promote efficiency and security of air connectivity
- We note that ICT development has been a focus of APEC’s work since its inception in 1989, as increased information sharing and improved communication technology allow for faster and reliable connections between people and organizations throughout the Asia-Pacific, facilitating trade and economic growth. We resolve to continue our efforts jointly in enhancing the access to ICT resources by using available technologies to reduce digital divide and increase greater connectivity in the region.
- We resolve to tap into APEC’s considerable potential in fostering future energy cooperation initiatives, especially in the areas of energy-related trade and environmental sustainability. APEC represents an ideal forum to explore this concept of expanded cross-border energy trade and renewable energy in a non-binding manner. We will further aspire to ensure quality electricity supply for all member economies.
- Under Institutional Connectivity, we will strive to make progress in jointly addressing issues of trade facilitation, structural and regulatory reforms as well as transport and logistics facilitation, which are of critical importance to APEC as a regional forum.
- We aim to modernize customs and border agencies and enable a whole-of-government approach in the development of regulations, including coordination across regulatory, standards, and trade agencies.
- We support APEC’s work to encourage each member economy to develop its own Single Window system by 2020 and we encourage efforts to promote international interoperability between Single Window systems and paperless trading.
- We will further strengthen the initiatives under the APEC Supply-Chain Connectivity Framework Action Plan (SCFAP) by systematically improving supply chain performance through implementing a capacity building plan to assist economies in overcoming specific obstacles within the eight chokepoints of the SCFAP.
- On regulatory coherence, we will implement initiatives that focus on regulatory cooperation through the sharing of best practices on regulatory issues. We note that industry dialogues are already well advanced in this process. The internet is a good and effective tool to help economies strengthen their implementation of good regulatory practices (e.g. ensuring internal coordination of regulatory work, assessing the impact of regulations, and conducting public consultations). Economies will further explore using internet-based tools to strengthen the implementation of good regulatory practices, including through the initiative on new actions APEC economies could take to strengthen the conduct of public consultations on proposed regulations in the Internet era.
- Under structural reform, the APEC Ease of Doing Business (EoDB) Multi-Year Project (MYP) facilitates tailored capacity building activities to support economies in achieving the aspirational target of making it 25% cheaper, faster, and easier to do business. We aim to achieve these goals by harmonizing local policies with existing international agreements, and agree to consider the continuation of our work on the EoDB until 2020.
- We commit to fostering transparency, safety, competition and better functioning markets, including e-commerce, in the Asia Pacific and aim to expand the application of secure and trusted ICT and e-commerce environment by 2025.
- APEC needs to build a strategy to tackle the policy challenges raised by the Middle-Income Trap (MIT). Improving an economy’s competitiveness, productivity levels and its regulatory environment for the ease of doing business can contribute to overcoming some of the issues that underpin the MIT.
- Under People-to-People Connectivity, we will strive to facilitate the movement of people across borders, and to facilitate the exchange of innovative ideas. As such, issues of business travel mobility, cross-border education, tourism facilitation, and skilled labor mobility will be addressed under this pillar.
- We commit to continue expanding the number of holders of the APEC Business Travel Card (ABTC) and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of ABTC scheme.
- We undertake to improve cross-border education (CBE) cooperation, in recognition that student, academic and provider mobility helps to strengthen regional ties, facilitate people-to-people exchanges and promote economic development through knowledge and skills transfer. We resolve to achieve one million intra-APEC student exchanges per year by 2020, and to increase the number of student exchanges to developing economies.
- Tourism is an important part of APEC economic growth strategies, and this is reflected in the many tourism facilitation and promotion initiatives that have been implemented within the APEC region. In this regard, we welcome domestic efforts by several economies to implement measures to ease visa restrictions for tourists as well as initiate programs to facilitate immigration processing.
- We will make efforts to achieve 800 million APEC tourist arrivals by 2025, and commit to establishing an APEC-wide Code of Conduct for Travel Providers in order to reduce travelers’ costs and uncertainties relating to tourism.
- We will intensify cooperation within APEC in promoting cultural exchanges, by aiming to hold at least one cultural awareness event by each APEC economy in every other APEC economy per year by 2017.
- We resolve to advance work on cross-border science, technology, and innovation exchanges. We note with appreciation the annual APEC Science Prize for Innovation, Research and Education (ASPIRE) which recognizes young scientists who have demonstrated cooperation with scientists from other APEC member economies, as well as a commitment to excellence in scientific research.
- On professional and skilled labor mobility, we welcome initiatives to benchmark qualifications in the transport and logistics industry, allowing businesses within the region to have more certainty over the skill sets of workers from other economies. There are various bilateral Mutual Recognition Agreements (MRAs), and going forward, APEC can undertake work to help expand the number of bilateral and multilateral MRAs in the region. Mutual recognition of skills and credentials can play an important role in facilitating skilled labor mobility. Timely and accurate information on skills gaps and labor market imbalances will also need to be gathered and analyzed to ensure responsive policymaking in this area.
- We commit to strengthen people-to-people connectivity through human resources development and welcome the APEC Action Plan for Promoting Quality Employment and Strengthening People-to-People Connectivity through Human Resources Development.
Strategies for Implementation: Capacity Building and Private Sector Cooperation
- Economic and technical cooperation (ECOTECH) is one of the key pillars of APEC, focusing on narrowing the gap between developed and developing APEC economies. To help implement the connectivity agenda, we direct ECOTECH activities at upgrading skills and institutions by providing relevant capacity building activities for APEC economies and adhering to key ECOTECH objectives. In this regard, ECOTECH is an important tool for implementing the Blueprint.
- The development and implementation of connectivity initiatives will require a significant amount of information on economies’ needs, expectations, gaps, and on market direction and imbalances. Information on what infrastructure projects are needed, what gaps exist in institutional frameworks, and where skills imbalances lay in the labor market will be crucial to support economies in achieving connectivity targets.
- To gather this information, economies should work with the private sector. In this regard, the APEC Business Advisory Council (ABAC) and APEC’s policy partnerships and industry dialogues can contribute significantly by providing private sector feedback or insight on market needs, trends and expectations.
- We urge the private sector, with coordination from ABAC, to provide direct support for many of the more bankable connectivity initiatives being undertaken in the region. In addition to PPP for infrastructure projects, the private sector could help support capacity building programs as well as educational and cultural exchanges. The private sector could also help in proposing and producing connectivity-enhancing innovations in the region.
- International organizations have taken initiatives and launched projects on physical, institutional and people-to-people connectivity in the Asia-Pacific. These efforts could help advance the implementation of this Blueprint, and where possible and appropriate APEC should look to coordinate and collaborate with these organizations to ensure we avoid duplication of efforts.
Monitoring, Evaluation and Review
- In order to reach the overarching goal of strengthening physical, institutional, and people-to-people connectivity by taking agreed actions and meeting agreed targets by 2025, with the objective of achieving a seamless and comprehensively connected and integrated Asia Pacific, we instruct Ministers and Senior Officials to oversee the implementation of the Blueprint on a yearly basis, particularly in reviewing the targets and objectives.
- We direct Ministers and Senior Officials to develop a dedicated arrangement to monitor, review and evaluate the implementation of the Blueprint, and to conduct a mid-term review of the Blueprint in 2020. We further direct Ministers and Senior Officials to work with APEC fora to develop additional ambitious and measurable actions and targets under each of the connectivity pillars. These actions and targets need to be forward-looking and directed towards the vision of APEC Connectivity in 2025.
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