Canada ratified the CTBT on 3 December 1998 when Parliament passed the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Implementation Act (Bill C-52). The Act created the CTBT National Authority to implement the Treaty in Canada. The National Authority Steering Committee is comprised of representatives from the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada (DFAIT), Natural Resources Canada, Health Canada and Environment Canada. The National Authority Steering Committee meets regularly to discuss Canada's implementation of the Treaty, the Treaty's entry into force, issues that have arisen in the Preparatory Commission (PrepCom) in Vienna, and other political and technical topics.
As the Secretariat, DFAIT co-ordinates the activities of the National Authority and is responsible mainly for political aspects of implementation, such as attending meetings of the PrepCom, Working Group A (legal and administrative issues) of the PrepCom and Article XIV Entry into Force Conferences.
Natural Resources Canada, Health Canada and Environment Canada are responsible mainly for technical implementation, such as operating the 16 International Monitoring System (IMS) stations and laboratories hosted by Canada, transmitting the data gathered by these stations to the CTBTO's International Data Centre (IDC) and attending meetings of Working Group B (technical issues) of the PrepCom.
Canada's main objective is to achieve entry into force of the Treaty. Canada works closely with like-minded states and international organizations to encourage states that have yet to do so to ratify the CTBT. We especially encourage Annex 2 states, whose ratifications are needed for the Treaty's entry into force, to do so as soon as possible. Also, Canada works to ensure that bodies and instruments being established for the Treaty, especially the IMS, are staffed and run effectively and efficiently.
Canada will operate 16 stations and laboratories as part of the IMS network. The full network includes 337 stations and laboratories all over the world, which detect nuclear explosions using four complementary technologies.
Seismic stations detect nuclear tests conducted underground. Canada hosts 3 primary seismic stations in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories; Schefferville, Quebec; and Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba, and 6 auxiliary seismic stations in Iqaluit, Nunavut; Dease Lake, British Columbia; Sadowa, Ontario; Bella Bella, British Columbia; Mould Bay, Northwest Territories; and Inuvik, Northwest Territories.
Canada hosts one hydroacoustic station on the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, to detect underwater nuclear tests.
Radionuclide stations detect elements in the atmosphere that are produced by a nuclear explosion. Canada hosts four radionuclide stations in Sidney, British Columbia; Resolute, Nunavut; Yellowknife, Northwest Territories; and St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador. Canada also hosts a radionuclide laboratory in Ottawa, Ontario. In October 2006, the radionuclide station in Yellowknife detected elements in the atmosphere that were reliably traced back to the site in the DPRK to confirm that a nuclear test took place.
Finally, infrasound stations detect the very-low-frequency sound waves that are produced by atmospheric nuclear explosions. Canada hosts one infrasound station in Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba.
Canada sends the data gathered by these monitoring stations and laboratories to the IDC at the CTBTO's headquarters in Vienna. The IDC collects data from stations all over the world and provides the information to CTBT States Signatories.