The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) was created in 1974 following the explosion of a nuclear device by India, which demonstrated that nuclear technology transferred for peaceful purposes could be misused. The goal of the NSG is to support the effective implementation of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) by establishing clear rules on nuclear transfers.
The NSG Guidelines were published in 1978 as International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Document INFCIRC/254 (PDF version, 243 KB) *, to apply to nuclear transfers for peaceful purposes to help ensure that such transfers would not be diverted to unsafeguarded nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear explosive activities. In 1992, the NSG decided to establish Guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, material and technology which could make a significant contribution to an unsafeguarded nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear explosive activity. The Dual-Use Guidelines were published as Part 2 (PDF version, 197 KB) * of INFCIRC/254. The endorsement of the NSG’s 1992 full-scope safeguards policy at the 1995 Review Conference of the NPT clearly reflects the conviction of the international community that this nuclear supply policy is a vital element to promote shared nuclear non-proliferation commitments and obligations.