Report on Exports of Military Goods from Canada - 2015

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I.          Introduction

The 2015 Report on the Export of Military Goods from Canada is a voluntary report tabled in the Parliament of Canada to increase the transparency of Canadian arms exports.  This Report has been produced since 1990.  The last edition covered 2014 and was tabled in Parliament alongside this report.  

Data for this Report is assembled following the end of the calendar year, and verified against information received from Canadian industry.   

Data covering Canadian exports of military goods is also captured in two other key reports: the Annual Report on the Administration of the Export and Import Permits Act which is tabled in Parliament (a legal requirement of the Act); and Canada’s submission to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms (UNCAR).  

Summary of Key Data

For the 2014 calendar year, Canada’s total exports permitted under the Export and Import Permits ActFootnote 1 of military goods and technology amounted to approximately $676 million.  

  • The major share ($503.6 million or 79.4%) went to member countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) or other countries included on Canada’s Automatic Firearms Country Control List (AFCCL). 
  • The United Kingdom was the largest export destination outside of the United States in 2015, receiving approximately $100 million in military exports (accounting for 14.8% of the total value of military exports). 
  • Saudi Arabia was the second largest destination of Canadian military exports in 2015, receiving $95.6 million in military exports (accounting for 14.1% of Canadian military exports).
  • Seven NATO countries were in the top twelve destinations for the same period: the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Spain and Italy.
  • Hong Kong and Algeria, the fourth and eighth-largest destinations for Canadian military exports respectively, were the only non-NATO and non-AFCCL countries in the top twelve. .

II.        Export Controls

Canada’s export controls are rigorous and in line with those of our principal allies and partners in the major export controls regimes. A key priority of Canada’s foreign policy is the maintenance of peace and security. To this end, the Government of Canada strives to ensure that, among other policy goals, Canadian exports are not prejudicial to peace, security or stability in any region of the world or within any country.

This policy is implemented primarily through Canada’s system of export controls, as authorized by the Export and Import Permits Act (EIPA). This law requires those who wish to export from Canada any items included on the Export Control List to obtain, prior to shipment, an export permit issued by Global Affairs Canada.Footnote 2 The Export Control List includes military, dual-use, and strategic goods and technology, all United States-origin goods and technology, and a limited number of items that are controlled for economic reasons or further to Canada’s international trade agreements.

Military Goods and Technology

The military goods and technology described in this report are those included in Group 2 (“Munitions List”) of the Export Control List. Items listed in Group 2 are “specially designed or modified for military use.”

The Group 2 (Munitions List) goods and technologies include such items as ground vehicles, firearms, ammunition, imaging equipment, etc. made specifically for military use  (a full list of these items is included in Table 5).  Other controlled items appearing elsewhere on the Export Control List (such as dual-use and strategic items) are not featured in this report as they are not specially designed for military use.

Canada prohibits the export of arms and related materiel to countries that are under United Nations Security Council arms embargos via the United Nations Act, and also has autonomous sanctions in place against specific countries under the Special Economic Measures ActFootnote 3, which prohibit the export of specific goods and technology to those countries and/or to listed individuals and entities within those countries.   

Canada also prohibits the sale of automatic firearms to countries that are not on Canada’s Automatic Firearms Country Control List as established under the authority of the EIPA. Furthermore, the EIPA also provides for an Area Control List, which is a list of countries to which the Governor-in-Council deems it necessary to control the export or transfer of any goods or technology.  Export permits are normally issued only for those goods and technology that respond to humanitarian needs or circumstances.  Currently, only two countries – Belarus and North Korea – are listed on the Area Control List

Under export control policy guidelines approved in 1986 by Cabinet, Canada closely controls the export of military goods and technology to countries:

  • that pose a threat to Canada and its allies;
  • that are involved in or under imminent threat of hostilities;
  • that are under United Nations Security Council sanctions; or
  • whose governments have a persistent record of serious violations of the human rights of their citizens, unless it can be demonstrated that there is no reasonable risk that the goods might be used against the civilian population.

Additional policy goals of Canada’s overall export controls regime include:

  • ensuring that exports do not contribute to the development of nuclear, biological or chemical weapons of mass destruction, or of their delivery systems; and
  • ensuring that exports are consistent with existing economic sanction provisions.

Once an application to export goods or technology has been received, it is reviewed against these criteria, which may include wide-ranging consultations among geographic, human rights, international security and defence-industry experts at Global Affairs Canada (including at Canada’s overseas diplomatic missions), the Department of National Defence and, as necessary, other government departments and agencies. Through such consultations, export permit applications are assessed for their consistency with Canada’s foreign and defence policies. Regional peace and stability, including civil conflict and human rights, as well as the possibility of unauthorized transfer or diversion of the exported goods and technology, are actively considered.

A key consideration in the review of each application is the end-use and end-user of the exported article.  Careful attention is paid to end-use documentation in an effort to ensure that the export is intended for a legitimate end-user and will not be diverted to ends that could threaten the security of Canada, its allies or civilians. 

Military goods and technology listed in Group 2 of the Export Control List generally are exported for one of the following purposes:

  • sales to military and, in some cases, police forces or other government agencies;
  • sales of parts and components for the production of new goods;
  • repairs of military equipment in Canada for foreign customers, and shipments of spare parts; and
  • sales to private individuals (sales of, non-restricted or restricted firearms).Footnote 4

Canada’s defence industry makes a valuable contribution to the nation’s prosperity and employs tens of thousands of Canadians. It develops high-technology products and is closely integrated with counterparts in allied countries.

Canada’s export controls are based on our participation in the four major export control multilateral regimes, as explained further in section III.  Canada’s export controls are not intended to hamper legitimate trade but seek to balance the economic and commercial interests of Canadian business with the national interest of Canada. Canada’s defence industry provides the Canadian Forces, as well as the armed forces of our allies and partners, with the equipment, munitions and spare parts necessary to meet operational needs.

Notes on the Export of Firearms

Most firearms exports from Canada are intended for sporting or other recreational use and are not for military use. Steps are taken to ensure that items are not diverted into the illegal arms trade or used to fuel local violence. Canadian diplomatic missions and other sources may provide information about destination countries’ firearms control laws, procedures and enforcement practices, and are often called upon to validate import permits and licenses, end-user assurances, and consignee information. Where concerns exist about a proposed export, the application may be referred to the Minister of Foreign Affairs for decision.

Certain prohibited firearms, weapons, devices, or components thereof that are included on the Export Control List may be exported only to countries listed on the Automatic Firearms Country Control List and then only to consignees that are government entities or are authorized by government entities.Footnote 5 

In order for a country to be added to the Automatic Firearms Country Control List, Canada must have concluded an inter-governmental defence, research, development and production arrangement with that country.  In 2014, three new countries were added to the Automatic Firearms Country Control List: Chile, Peru and the Republic of Korea (South Korea).  The full list of countries on the Automatic Firearms Country Control List may be found in Table 6.

III.       International Cooperation on Military Trade

Multilateral action is an important means of promoting international peace and security. Canada supports and participates in a range of arms control and non-proliferation activities, working closely with like-minded countries.Footnote 6

Wassenaar Arrangement

Most items have been included on the Export Control List because of Canada’s commitments to like-minded countries that participate in multilateral export control regimes or because of Canada’s obligations as a signatory to international agreements that seek to control and monitor the movement of sensitive goods and technology.

The control regime that deals with the military goods and technology covered in Group 2 of the Export Control List is the Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies,Footnote 7 founded in 1996. The “Initial Elements” define the objectives of the Arrangement as, inter alia:

“to contribute to regional and international security and stability, by promoting transparency and greater responsibility in transfers of conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies, thus preventing destabilising accumulations.”

Through national policies, the 41 Participating States seek to ensure that transfers of items covered by the common control lists do not contribute to the development or enhancement of military capabilities that have the potential to undermine regional and global security and stability.  Participating States also commit to take every precaution to ensure that such goods and technologies are not diverted to illegitimate end-uses.

United Nations Register of Conventional Arms

Canada continues to actively promote greater transparency in the trade of conventional arms. In 1991, Canada was a founding contributor to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms (UNCAR), to which governments voluntarily supply data on unit number of imports and exports of seven major categories of conventional weapon systems.Footnote 8 The annually updated Register makes a significant contribution to transparency, confidence-building and enhanced global security. Each year since the inception of the Register, more than 90 governments on average have made submissions to it; of these, about 70 have done so consistently, including Canada. As a result, the Register has become an important and authoritative source of information.

Canada is also one of a growing number of countries that voluntarily submit data to the Register on military holdings and on procurement through national production. This information goes beyond the minimum currently required by the United Nations.  Canada’s submission to UNCAR is available on the Internet.

Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons

Canada, in cooperation with like-minded partners, is looking at ways to address the problem of illicit small-arms proliferation, which can undermine security and development efforts and contribute to human suffering. Canada has adopted an integrated approach, addressing the arms-control, crime-prevention and peace-building dimensions of the issue at all levels. Such an approach targets supply and transit issues, and seeks to cope with post-conflict surplus stocks and reduce the demand for weapons.

Canada promotes measures designed to achieve transparency in legal transfers of small arms and light weapons. Aspects under review include codes of conduct and transparency initiatives. Canada’s own procedures are strict and seek to ensure a high level of control over exports of small arms.

IV.       Military Export Statistics

The statistics contained in this Report are obtained from utilization reports which must be provided to Global Affairs Canada as a condition of using export permits for military goods and technology.  These reports include the country of destination, a description of the goods exported, their quantity and their value in Canadian dollars.

Please note that further details related to export transactions (for example, names of exporting companies, financial values of individual contracts and transactions, and details of the specific technologies being exported) are protected due to the commercially confidential nature of such information.

Export controls apply to all foreign destinations. However, due to close and long-standing military cooperation with the United States, including the integrated nature of North America’s defence industry, permit exemptions apply to most Group 2 exports destined for final use in that country.  Statistics related to exports of military goods and technology to the United States therefore are not reported here.

Data on Canadian military exports may be available from other sources such as Statistics Canada. It should be noted that these figures are derived from data collected by the Canada Border Services Agency based on the Harmonized Commodity Description Coding System (HS), and may include non-military goods such as commercial computers, civil-certified aircraft, guns and ammunition designed exclusively for industrial uses, such as the lighting of gas flares at oil wells, or other civilian equipment. Since there is no direct correlation between the commodity codes used by Statistics Canada and the Export Control List numbers, and because each source uses different methods of data collection, a meaningful comparison of the information from these sources is extremely difficult.

An internationally accepted standard for statistics on worldwide military trade is UNCAR (described above).  However, the Register limits itself to the number of exported units of complete weapon systems and does not include parts, components or the wide assortment of non-lethal support systems (such as radar equipment, simulators and software designed for military use, etc.) that make up the majority of Canada’s military exports.

Global Affairs Canada also produces an Annual Report to Parliament on the “Administration of the Export and Import Permits Act,” which is a statutory requirement in the Act.  This Report provides an overview of permit data (including for Group 2 items) and service standards, which also includes Group 2 (Munitions List) permits.  Following tabling in Parliament, this Report is also available on the Global Affairs Canada website.

Data interpretation notes

The following data interpretation notes apply to Tables 3, 4, 6 and 7:

i)         Procurement contracts awarded by governments may have very high values and extended delivery schedules; a single contract may account for a large share of total military exports in a given year. Major changes in totals from one year to another may be explained by the beginning or end of a small number of large contracts.

ii)        The tables do not report exports of military goods to the United States, which are roughly estimated to account for over half of Canada’s exports of military goods and technology each year.

iii)       The Export Control List (ECL) item numbers used in Tables 6 and 7 are explained with illustrative examples in Table 5. The full ECL, which consists of detailed  descriptions of all goods and technology controlled  under the Export and Import Permits Act, can be found in “A Guide to Canada’s Export Controls”, which is available on the Internet at www.exportcontrols.gc.ca.

iv)       Table 4 reports annual values of total exports of military goods and technology by destination country.  Table 6 breaks down the value of exports to individual countries according to the ECL item number. However, the sum total of exports by ECL item number to an individual country calculated from Table 6 may not equal the total value of exports to that destination reported in Table 4: since goods or technology included in a single export permit may be classified under multiple ECL item numbers, Tables 6 and 7 contain some double-counting.

v)         Table 7 indicates a number of very low-value exports of “technology” controlled under item 2-22 of the ECL. Exports of this nature often cannot easily be quantified. For this reason, “lots” rather than unit quantities are commonly used where exports of technology may be transferred via different intangible means. For zero-value technology transactions, a nominal value (e.g., $1 to $50) is assigned.  The inclusion of such data within the Military Report is consistent with past practice.
Table 1: Summary Statistics - 2015
ExportsValuePercentage
Total exports of military goods and technologyFootnote 9$ 676,431,004100%
Exports to destinations categorized by Human Development Index (HDI) levelFootnote 10
Very High HDI countries$ 562,328,88283.1%
High HDI countries$ 82,400,84612.2%
Medium HDI countries$ 26,660,6093.9%
Low HDI countries$ 4,575,6470.7%
Not HDI ranked$ 465,0190.1%
Exports to destinations categorized by defence Relationship
NATOFootnote 11$ 299,935,14459.3%
Non-NATO AFCCLFootnote 12$ 203,652,69020.1%
Other$ 172,843,17020.6%
Table 2:  Summary of Export Permits by Export Control List Group - 2015Footnote 13
GroupIssuedReturned Without ActionWithdrawnDenied
Group 1
(Dual-Use List)
2,20286412
Group 2
(Munitions List)
3,391168804
Group 3
(Nuclear Non-Proliferation List)
128620
Group 4
(Nuclear-Related Dual-Use List)
113310
Group 5 (Miscellaneous Goods and Technology)18711402
Group 6
(Missile Technology Control Regime List)
98500
Group 7
(Chemical and Biological Weapons Non-Proliferation List)
43420
Others1251002180
Totals6,2873833848
Chart 1: Exports to destinations by Human Development Index (HDI) level - 2015Footnote 14
Chart 1 Text Alternative
Chart 1: Exports to destinations by Human Development Index (HDI) level - 2015
 2015
Not Ranked$465,019
Low HDI Countries$4,575,647
Medium HDI Countries$26,660,609
High HDI Countries$82,400,846
Very High HDI Countries$562,328,882
Chart 2: Exports to destinations categorized by Defence Relationship – 2015Footnote 15
Chart 2 Text Alternative
Chart 2: Exports to destinations categorized by Defence Relationship – 2015
 2015
NATO$299,935,144
Non-NATO AFCCL$203,652,690
Other Destinations$172,843,170
Table 3: Canada’s Top 12 Destinations for Military Goods and Technology - 2015Footnote 16
Export DestinationValue Exported
United Kingdom$100,092,212
Saudi Arabia$95,640,705
Hong Kong$48,041,540
Australia$45,904,639
Germany$45,868,372
France$30,153,761
Algeria$28,590,158
Belgium$26,663,805
Netherlands$22,070,879
Spain$19,879,107
Peru$19,585,265
Italy$15,337,638
Table 4: Exports of Military Goods and Technology by Destination - 2015Footnote 17
Export DestinationValue Exported ($)
Algeria$28,590,158
Argentina$52,922
Armenia$16,364
Australia$45,904,639
Austria$520,428
Azerbaijan$41,128
Bahrain$98,603
Bangladesh$241
Belgium$26,663,805
Belize$42,871
Botswana$568,832
Brazil$2,195,491
Brunei Darussalam$450,082
Bulgaria$700
Chile$54,285
China$41,585
Colombia$522,203
Congo$7,904
Croatia$10,714
Cyprus$119,000
Czech Republic$426,994
Denmark$8,810,442
Ecuador$520,343
Egypt$13,589,334
Estonia$70,600
Finland$521,770
France$30,153,761
Georgia$508
Germany$45,868,372
Greece$132,114
Greenland$39,878
Guatemala$6,000
Guyana$58,000
Hong Kong$48,041,540
Hungary$5,107
India$5,430,876
Indonesia$742,370
Iraq$1,925,769
Ireland$528,793
Israel$7,838,849
Italy$15,337,638
Japan$13,805,051
Jordan$5,350,624
Kazakhstan$127,984
Kenya$2,839,593
Latvia$2,114
Lebanon$762
Liechtenstein$636
Lithuania$12,753
Luxembourg$12,021,454
Madagascar$799
Malaysia$886,077
Malta$222
Mexico$2,124,475
Montenegro$153,932
Morocco$46,608
Namibia$930
Netherlands$22,070,879
New Zealand$5,726,311
Nigeria$1,702,796
Norway$7,991,706
Oman$2,554,784
Peru$19,585,265
Philippines$192,490
Poland$2,116,541
Portugal$660,909
Puerto Rico$35,154
Qatar$660,000
Romania$1,991
Russian Federation$1,599
Saudi Arabia$95,640,705
Singapore$11,731,436
Slovakia$26,271
Slovenia$22,224
South Africa$4,084,773
South Korea$14,248,236
Spain$19,879,107
St. Kitts-Nevis$450
Sweden$13,041,594
Switzerland$7,144,524
Taiwan$429,415
Tanzania$460
Thailand$6,094,897
Tunisia$5,989,166
Turkey$7,556,736
Ukraine$155,135
United Arab Emirates$3,629,728
United Kingdom$100,092,212
Vietnam$6,482
Yemen$32,000
Grand Total$676,431,004
Table 5: Group 2 of Canada’s Export Control List
Export Control List ItemIllustrative ExamplesFootnote 18
2-1Smooth-bore weapons with a calibre of less than 20 mm, other arms and automatic weapons with a calibre of 12.7 mm or less and accessories
2-2Smooth-bore weapons with a calibre of 20 mm or more, other weapons or armament with a calibre greater than 12.7 mm, projectors and accessories
2-3Ammunition and fuse-setting devices, and specially designed components
2-4Bombs, torpedoes, rockets, missiles, other explosive devices and charges, and related equipment and accessories specially designed for military use; and specially designed components
2-5Fire control, related alerting and warning equipment, and related systems; test and alignment and countermeasure equipment specially designed for military use; and specially designed components and accessories
2-6Ground vehicles and components
2-7Chemical or biological toxic agents, riot control agents, radioactive materials, and related equipment, components and materials
2-8Energetic materials and related substances
2-9Vessels of war, special naval equipment and accessories, and components specially designed for military use
2-10Aircraft, lighter-than-air vehicles, unmanned airborne vehicles, aero-engines and aircraft equipment, related equipment and components, specially designed or modified for military use
2-11Electronic equipment, military spacecraft and components not controlled elsewhere
2-12High-velocity kinetic energy weapon systems and related equipment, and specially designed components
2-13Armoured or protective equipment and constructions and components
2-14Specialized equipment for military training or for simulating military scenarios, simulators specially designed for training in the use of any firearm or weapon controlled in 2-1 or 2-2, and specially designed components and accessories
2-15Imaging or countermeasure equipment, specially designed for military use, and specially designed components and accessories
2-16Forgings, castings and other unfinished products the use of which in a controlled product is identifiable by material composition, geometry or function, and which are specially designed for any products controlled in
2-1 to 2-4, 2-6, 2-9, 2-10, 2-12 or 2-19
2-17Miscellaneous equipment, materials, libraries and specially designed components
2-18Equipment for the production of products referred to in the Munitions List
2-19Directed energy weapon systems, related or countermeasure equipment and test models, and specially designed components
2-20Cryogenic and superconductive equipment, and specially designed components and accessories
2-21Software
2-22Technology
Table 6: Exports of Military Goods and Technology by Export Control List Item - 2015Footnote 19

Export Control List #

Value Exported ($)

2-1$34,539,768
2-2$3,938,393
2-3$27,257,067
2-4$7,222,684
2-5$21,159,887
2-6$128,062,666
2-7$692,580
2-9$36,957,218
2-8$2,947,072
2-10$150,829,343
2-11$34,445,697
2-12-
2-13$2,548,050
2-14$24,601,746
2-15$112,820,013
2-16$3,226,625
2-17$6,446,995
2-18$7,741,064
2-19-
2-20-
2-21$51,446,297
2-22$29,157,251
Table 7: Exports of Military Goods and Technology by Destination and Export Control List  Item - 2015Footnote 20
Export DestinationExport Control List
#
Value Exported
($)
Algeria2-10$53,149
 2-14$353,422
 2-15$25,452,647
 2-18$2,685,377
 2-22$45,563
Argentina2-1$30,190
 2-3$105
 2-10$22,527
 2-22$100
Armenia2-1$16,364
Australia2-1$342,471
 2-2$357,919
 2-4$15,351
 2-5$2,237,221
 2-6$1,435,939
 2-7$8,620
 2-9$1,814,784
 2-10$20,148,912
 2-11$1,138,449
 2-13$884,957
 2-14$5,429,479
 2-15$3,680,064
 2-16$17,394
 2-18$226,644
 2-21$6,329,741
 2-22$2,090,761
Austria2-1$152,161
 2-3$4,100
 2-5$27,576
 2-6$124,525
 2-15$114,615
 2-21$97,180
 2-22$270
Azerbaijan2-5$41,128
Bahrain2-6$74,852
 2-15$15,567
 2-18$8,184
Bangladesh2-1$241
Belgium2-1$11,150,144
 2-3$3,674,101
 2-5$2,702,876
 2-6$4,441,661
 2-8$1,529,850
 2-10$867,686
 2-11$58,330
 2-15$1,204,669
 2-16$28,984
 2-17$1,892,974
 2-21$1,538,233
 2-22$40,075
Belize2-1$26,967
 2-3$15,904
Botswana2-7$232
 2-10$568,600
Brazil2-1$861,327
 2-3$16,050
 2-6$768,547
 2-7$33,553
 2-10$111,365
 2-11$361,847
 2-14$8,402
 2-17$34,400
Brunei Darussalam2-14$213,771
 2-21$10,200
 2-22$226,111
Bulgaria2-1$700
Chile2-1$4,206
 2-10$15,448
 2-15$1,559
 2-18$252
 2-21$22,720
 2-22$10,100
China2-5$30,465
 2-11$11,120
Colombia2-5$4,791
 2-6$8,790
 2-10$508,622
Congo2-11$7,904
Croatia2-1$10,714
Cyprus2-1$119,000
Czech Republic2-1$75,420
 2-3$4,140
 2-4$9,108
 2-11$33,869
 2-13$304,458
Denmark2-1$2,962,401
 2-6$1,010,052
 2-10$2,503,580
 2-11$474,512
 2-15$1,759,891
 2-18$93,272
 2-22$2,406,026
Ecuador2-6$430,000
 2-15$90,343
Egypt2-11$12,600
 2-15$13,576,734
Estonia2-1$4,485
 2-11$26,115
 2-22$40,000
Finland2-1$17,878
 2-6$32,316
 2-10$272,302
 2-11$92,698
 2-15$102,500
 2-22$4,077
France2-1$813,261
 2-2$2,400
 2-3$813,948
 2-4$516,550
 2-5$86,313
 2-6$1,475,807
 2-9$619,272
 2-10$10,885,108
 2-11$1,293,383
 2-13$168,596
 2-14$62,100
 2-15$11,097,378
 2-17$228,437
 2-18$414,498
 2-21$1,161,693
 2-22$658,325
Georgia2-1$508
Germany2-1$147,193
 2-2$220,000
 2-3$56,010
 2-4$289,935
 2-5$3,578,068
 2-6$2,262,335
 2-9$201,204
 2-8$5,197
 2-10$8,437,285
 2-11$3,975,202
 2-14$1,323,996
 2-15$4,561,602
 2-16$309,288
 2-17$143,030
 2-18$484,358
 2-21$17,229,487
 2-22$3,986,141
Greece2-1$2,012
 2-2$106,428
 2-9$9,908
 2-15$3,858
 2-21$9,908
 2-22$9,908
Greenland2-1$39,878
Guatemala2-1$6,000
Guyana2-3$58,000
Hong Kong2-1$4,352
 2-10$48,017,188
 2-15$20,000
Hungary2-7$4,992
 2-21$115
India2-1$150,200
 2-9$597,036
 2-10$4,186
 2-11$82,476
 2-13$46,200
 2-14$1,503,799
 2-15$36,000
 2-18$3,125
 2-21$1,503,799
 2-22$1,504,055
Indonesia2-1$41,900
 2-5$11,070
 2-10$24,400
 2-15$625,000
 2-22$40,000
Iraq2-1$1,923,739
 2-3$1,980
 2-22$50
Ireland2-1$2,987
 2-6$66,400
 2-11$4,102
 2-13$15,317
 2-15$410,366
 2-22$29,620
Israel2-1$96,457
 2-4$2,455,824
 2-5$748,561
 2-6$149,268
 2-9$1,002,838
 2-10$871,346
 2-11$2,273,472
 2-14$24,455
 2-15$71,572
 2-16$124,771
 2-18$10,846
 2-21$25,393
 2-22$19,826
Italy2-1$3,929,785
 2-3$78,000
 2-5$125,130
 2-7$7,209
 2-9$16,000
 2-10$8,653,114
 2-11$876,136
 2-15$1,077,448
 2-16$368,754
 2-18$10,804
 2-21$32,298
 2-22$162,959
Japan2-1$4,088
 2-2$6,629
 2-4$126,000
 2-9$82,014
 2-10$9,304,252
 2-11$605,208
 2-14$125,717
 2-15$120,274
 2-16$1,300,686
 2-21$1,896,276
 2-22$233,908
Jordan2-1$1,000
 2-6$4,515,000
 2-11$208,845
 2-15$429,427
 2-18$77,381
 2-21$50,490
 2-22$68,481
Kazakhstan2-1$116,304
 2-3$11,680
Kenya2-1$208,381
 2-6$570,000
 2-15$2,061,212
Latvia2-1$2,114
Lebanon2-1$762
Liechtenstein2-1$636
Lithuania2-15$12,753
Luxembourg2-1$75,767
 2-5$7,291
 2-6$7,291
 2-9$1,368,989
 2-10$483,053
 2-11$284,979
 2-15$9,774,034
 2-18$27,268
 2-22$73
Madagascar2-1$799
Malaysia2-7$72,034
 2-10$48,497
 2-18$765,546
Malta2-1$222
Mexico2-11$4,485
 2-14$40,000
 2-15$2,045,424
 2-18$9,000
 2-22$25,566
Montenegro2-1$153,932
Morocco2-11$6,304
 2-14$40,000
 2-21$250
 2-22$54
Namibia2-1$930
Netherlands2-1$2,094,180
 2-3$5,440
 2-4$1,195,200
 2-5$2,500
 2-6$47,264
 2-9$4,578,096
 2-10$3,137,905
 2-11$2,815,175
 2-14$6,935
 2-15$7,273,446
 2-16$70,856
 2-18$289,976
 2-21$270,007
 2-22$774,415
New Zealand2-1$90,619
 2-2$1,075
 2-3$633,350
 2-5$1,734,415
 2-6$347,494
 2-10$2,954,088
 2-11$26
 2-14$54,632
 2-15$257,290
 2-21$100
 2-22$715
Nigeria2-6$1,260,000
 2-10$436,671
 2-13$6,125
Norway2-1$166,522
 2-2$223,612
 2-3$1,055,500
 2-5$145,841
 2-6$3,480,858
 2-7$4,935
 2-9$322,492
 2-10$15,000
 2-11$110,080
 2-15$2,434,497
 2-18$3,563
 2-21$28,279
 2-22$16,280
Oman2-1$357,174
 2-4$1,655,598
 2-7$27,540
 2-11$2,192
 2-14$183,429
 2-21$278,166
 2-22$50,685
Peru2-1$140,140
 2-6$19,444,625
 2-13$66,475
 2-22$500
Philippines2-10$192,490
Poland2-1$316,992
 2-2$17,400
 2-3$139,920
 2-7$66,545
 2-9$201,386
 2-10$103,638
 2-11$35,079
 2-18$1,234,640
 2-21$180
 2-22$760
Portugal2-9$557,148
 2-10$53,657
 2-15$10,104
 2-22$40,000
Puerto Rico2-11$26,398
 2-15$8,757
Qatar2-6$660,000
Romania2-11$1,990
Russian Federation2-1$1,599
Saudi Arabia2-1$1,860,499
 2-2$2,957,810
 2-3$6,092,760
 2-5$1,476,836
 2-6$71,259,172
 2-8$303,660
 2-11$37,598
 2-13$1,030,201
 2-14$1,023,891
 2-15$4,664,000
 2-18$189
 2-21$2,361,858
 2-22$2,572,230
Singapore2-1$11,000
 2-3$6,373,173
 2-6$1,800,401
 2-7$132,240
 2-8$1,108,365
 2-10$2,069,953
 2-11$143,037
 2-14$42,727
 2-21$5,041
 2-22$45,499
Slovakia2-1$26,271
Slovenia2-1$2,064
 2-13$20,160
South Africa2-1$56,863
 2-6$1,256,092
 2-11$1,552,787
 2-15$27,000
 2-17$1,177,350
 2-21$14,431
 2-22$250
South Korea2-1$30,464
 2-5$99,418
 2-7$34,980
 2-9$5,337,066
 2-10$2,558,178
 2-11$2,685,452
 2-14$1,194,457
 2-15$31,001
 2-17$617,561
 2-18$294,375
 2-21$11,690
 2-22$1,516,001
Spain2-1$2,069
 2-3$4,292,727
 2-6$101,680
 2-10$2,579,766
 2-11$692,636
 2-14$882,999
 2-15$1,305,888
 2-16$29,298
 2-17$164,720
 2-18$94,796
 2-21$5,607,664
 2-22$4,124,864
St. Kitts-Nevis2-3$450
Sweden2-1$37,083
 2-3$17,712
 2-4$14,000
 2-5$1,198
 2-6$8,309,791
 2-9$386,181
 2-10$1,292,858
 2-11$134,589
 2-14$130,987
 2-15$13,640
 2-17$1,226,940
 2-21$607,417
 2-22$879,888
Switzerland2-1$144,197
 2-3$385,520
 2-5$1,440,849
 2-6$1,500,418
 2-7$299,700
 2-10$976,231
 2-11$181,581
 2-15$1,785,604
 2-21$389,189
 2-22$41,235
Taiwan2-11$307,892
 2-17$73
 2-21$80,000
 2-22$41,450
Tanzania2-1$300
 2-3$160
Thailand2-1$8,141
 2-10$6,032,403
 2-11$10,728
 2-13$3,625
 2-22$40,000
Tunisia2-10$5,989,166
Turkey2-1$1,600
 2-5$544,876
 2-6$171,164
 2-10$369,537
 2-14$323,832
 2-15$4,034,089
 2-17$122,357
 2-21$1,847,410
 2-22$142,689
Ukraine2-1$109,871
 2-11$44,994
 2-22$270
United Arab Emirates2-1$1,423,938
 2-6$351,051
 2-10$1,004,295
 2-11$19,495
 2-15$119,500
 2-17$589,020
 2-18$24,400
 2-21$3,750
 2-22$94,279
United Kingdom2-1$4,153,821
 2-2$45,120
 2-3$3,526,337
 2-4$945,117
 2-5$6,113,465
 2-6$699,871
 2-9$19,862,804
 2-10$9,262,885
 2-11$13,690,394
 2-13$1,935
 2-14$11,632,716
 2-15$12,510,263
 2-16$976,593
 2-17$250,133
 2-18$982,570
 2-21$10,033,332
 2-22$7,173,190
Vietnam2-1$6,482
Yemen2-15$32,000
Table 8: Country Lists
Member countries of the North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationAutomatic Firearms Country Control List (AFCCL)Participating States of the Wassenaar Arrangement
Albania
Belgium
Bulgaria
Canada
Croatia
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Italy
Latvia
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Slovakia
Slovenia
Spain
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States
Albania
Australia
Belgium
Botswana
Bulgaria
Chile
Colombia
Croatia
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Israel
Italy
Kuwait
Latvia
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Peru
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Saudi Arabia
Slovakia
Slovenia
South Korea
Spain
Sweden
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States
Argentina
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Bulgaria
Canada
Croatia
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Ireland
Italy
Japan
Latvia
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Malta
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Russia
Slovakia
Slovenia
South Africa
South Korea
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
Ukraine
United Kingdom
United States

Footnotes

Footnote *

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Footnote 1

Note that due to long-standing bilateral agreements between Canada and the United States, most exports of military goods and technology move between our two countries permit free. Therefore, Canadian exports to the United States are not captured by the statistics contained in this Report.

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Footnote 2

More information about Canada’s export controls, including the publication A Guide to Canada’s Export Controls, which contains the Export Control List, can be found on the Internet.

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Footnote 3

More information about economic sanctions imposed by Canada, including arms embargoes against a number of countries, can be found on the Internet.

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Footnote 4

Subsection 84(1) of the Criminal Code provides definitions of “non-restricted firearm” and “restricted firearm”.

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Footnote 5

Subsection 84(1) of the Criminal Code provides definitions of “prohibited firearm”, “prohibited weapon” and “prohibited device”.

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Footnote 6

More information about Canada’s non-proliferation policies can be found on the Internet.

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Footnote 7

More information about the Wassenaar Arrangement can be found on the Internet.

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Footnote 8

More information about the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms can be found on the Internet.

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Footnote 9

Exports to the United States are not included in this report. Please see data interpretation notes.

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Footnote 10

Categories are based on the 2015 Human Development Index as presented in the UN Development Programme Human Development Report 2015.

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Footnote 11

A list of member countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is presented in Table 8.

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Footnote 12

A list of countries on the Automatic Firearms Country Control List (AFCCL) is presented in Table 8.

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Footnote 13

Data for this table is taken from the “Annual Report to Parliament on the Administration of the Export and Import Permits Act.”  The information for this table is drawn from the Export Controls Online (EXCOL), an online database used to process export permit applications. The information on EXCOL is not publically available.  Unlike the information presented throughout the report, which only covers Group 2 items, this table covers all control groups; Group 2 is highlighted.

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Footnote 14

Exports to the United States are not included in this report. Please see data interpretation notes.

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Footnote 15

Exports to the United States are not included in this report. Please see data interpretation notes.

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Footnote 16

Exports to the United States are not included in this report.  Please see data interpretation notes. Table 3 is a listing of Canada’s top destinations outside of the United States military items by value.  Canada’s “Annual Report to Parliament on the Administration of the Export and Import Permits Act” contains a chart that reflects the top 12 destinations by number of permits issued for all military, dual-use and strategic items on the Export Control List.

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Footnote 17

Table does not include the United States.  Please refer to Data Interpretation Notes.

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Footnote 18

The full list of goods and technology, including precise definitions of the terms used in the table, may be found in A Guide to Canada’s Export Controls, available on the Internet.

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Footnote 19

Exports to the United States are not included in this report.  Please see data interpretation notes.

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Footnote 20

Exports to the United States are not included in this report.  Please see data interpretation notes.

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