Volume #13 - 370.|
SECOND SESSION OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
WESTERN MUTUAL ASSISTANCE PACT
Head, Second Political Division,|
to Ambassador in United States
October 20, 1947|
Dear Hume [Wrong],
10. Such a treaty might also make easier a solution of the problem of maintaining defences in Greenland. Conceivably, it might also make it easier for us to carry on our present defence arrangements with the United States. These are all ideas which have just occurred to me but I thought I might pass them on to you for what they are worth and for your comments.
11. I am giving a copy of this letter to Mr. Pearson and to Mr. Robertson.. Yours sincerely,
Ottawa, October 17, 1947
It was good of you to write me on July 16th† sending me the address which you gave at Hartford on July 4th. Your letter reached me just at the end of the Parliamentary session. I put it aside so that I could reply after I had had an opportunity to give your suggestion careful consideration. Your letter was then unfortunately mis,laid and turned up only a few days ago.
I agree with you that the full implications of the transfer of power which has occurred during the last thirty years have not yet been sufficiently realized. The burden which these changes in the distribution of power have thrown on the United States, the United Kingdom, and the rest of the Commonwealth, is a heavy one, especially if the world is going to be divided into two mutually suspicious camps. It would seem to me that if conditions of peace are to be created and maintained, the long-run problem is to find some way by which the two worlds can learn to live together in peace as good neighbours. Meanwhile, it is vital to ensure that there is an overwhelming preponderance of power on the side of those who wish to see peace maintained.
The United Nations can be of great help in maintaining a preponderance of power on the side of peace and in upholding moral values. If the Charter could be improved, the United Nations could be an even more effective instrument.
But the possibility of reforms in the Charter of the United Nations is narrowly limited by the obvious unwillingness of the Soviet Union to agree to substantial reforms since no formal changes in the Charter can be made without Soviet consent.
Therefore, if the United Nations is to be kept in existence as a meeting ground between the two worlds and if, at the same time, a more effective system of inter,national security is desired, are we not forced to the conclusion that we shall have to get that security in some other way than by amendment of the Charter?
Perhaps those members of the United Nations who are willing to accept more specific international obligations in return for greater national security will have to consider whether they should not be prepared to agree to a treaty of mutual defence against any aggressor.
I enclose a copy of the address which the Secretary of State for External Affairs made on September 18th at the opening of the Second Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations. You will see that Mr. St. Laurent touched on this point at the end of his address.
I note that you are expecting to visit Canada this autumn to address some of the Eastern Branches of the Canadian Institute of International Affairs. I had hoped that if you were visiting Ottawa, I would have had an opportunity for a talk with you. However, as you are probably aware, I shall be [illegible] with the Royal Wedding.
With my best wishes to Lady Zimmern and yourself,
W.L. MACKENZIE KING
30Rédacteur en chef, Foreign Affairs.
31Voir le document 363./See Document 363.
32Pièce jointe au document.
33Professeur invité, Trinity College, Hartford (Connecticut); ancien conseiller, Commission préparatoire de l'UNESCO.
34Voir :/See: Escott Reid, Time Of Fear and Hope. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1977, pp. 30-2.
35Protocole pour le règlement pacifique des différends internationaux (1924).
36Major-général K.W. Strong, directeur général de la Political Intelligence, Foreign Office du Royaume-Uni.