Volume #18 - 929.|
EUROPE DE L'OUEST ET MOYEN-ORIENT
RELATIONS AVEC DES PAYS PARTICULIERS
RÉPUBLIQUE FÉDÉRALE D'ALLEMAGNE
Le secrétaire d'État aux Affaires extérieures|
à l'ambassadeur aux États-Unis
le 16 février 1952|
THE UNIFICATION OF GERMANY|
Reference: Para. 8(a) of your despatch No. 162 of January 21.?
It is often said that the unification of Germany is the one desire common to all Germans. In a sense this is true but the bare statement raises a number of questions. For example, what sort of reunified Germany do the Germans want - a communist, a socialist, a capitalist or a neo-Nazi one? Does unification include the return of the Saar and the territories east of the Oder-Neisse Line now in Polish hands? Do the Germans want unification if it means the withdrawal of all occupation forces leaving a neutral Germany unarmed and vulnerable?
2. These questions are intended not to suggest that Canada is either for or against the unification of Germany but merely to show that the phrase needs definition. The possible results of unifying Germany in present circumstances must be clearly seen before we declare ourselves for such action.
3. Having said this, we can go on to state that in principle Canada favours eventual German unification on a right basis but believes that it is not practical politics to urge it now. The Minister for External Affairs, speaking in the House of Commons on October 22, 1951, gave clear expression to the Canadian Government's point of view when he said:
"Unity, based on free self-government, must one day come to Germany, and, if it is on the right basis the sooner the better; but it must not come in such a way that a united Germany will be forced to go the way of a united Poland and Czechoslovakia and become a united Russian satellite..."
4. We are of the opinion, therefore, that the integration of Germany, even if it is only of a truncated country, in the family of free nations, should precede unification. Although a more limited objective than unification, integration with the West is a more realistic and more easily attainable one. To achieve it Canada is supporting, at least by implication since we are not immediately concerned, the following Allied policies:
(a) The satisfactory conclusion of the contractual agreements between the United States, the United Kingdom and France on the one hand and the West German Federal Republic on the other;
(b) The participation of Germany in the European Defence Community, which will involve the association of Germany with the purposes of NATO;
(c) The resumption of full normal relations between Germany and the other western countries.
5. We also agree with the view held by the Allies that their position in Berlin must be retained. We have indeed kept a Military Mission there to show our support and to hearten the West Berliners. When the unification of Germany becomes possible, Berlin may once again be a capital of a united Germany and it is important that the West remain there against that day.
6. While we are moving towards the integration of the Federal Republic with the West, we must make it clear in all our dealings with Germany that we have no intention of sacrificing German interests in order to come to terms with the Soviet Union. In this connection it would be well to keep in mind the efforts made at the recent General Assembly of the United Nations by various nations, including Canada, to facilitate all-German elections. The point to emphasize here is that the Government of the East Zone, acting almost certainly on Soviet orders, has refused to allow the United Nations Commission to conduct its investigation in their part of Germany.
7. Care should always be taken not to lose sight of the eventual peace treaty with Germany. It should be emphasized that Soviet intransigence is the real stumbling-block to the conclusion of such a treaty. It is the hope of Germany's former enemies in the West that a peace treaty would settle such outstanding matters as Germany's frontiers, the problem of Berlin, and, of course, the unification of the country. Some idea of the difficulties to be overcome can be gathered from a review of the difficulties encountered by the Allies in their efforts to achieve a peace settlement in Austria which has but one government whereas Germany has two.
8. Canada has not been one of the powers occupying Germany and has, therefore, not been a direct participant in the negotiations concerning the replacement of the Occupation Statute by a series of contractual agreements. We are, nevertheless, concerned in such matters as the stationing, payment and legal status of Allied troops in Germany, and the treatment of war criminals. As a member of NATO Canada has an interest in the negotiations for the establishment of a European Defence Community which will include Germany, and particularly in the relationship between the projected defence community and NATO. As one of the Allies in the last war it would of course expect to take part in the eventual peace settlement. Until that time Canada shares the desires and supports the efforts of the Occupying Powers to restore as much sovereignty to West Germany as is compatible with the realities of the international situation. Canada believes that a united Europe is only possible through Franco-German rapprochement and that the inclusion of Western Germany in the Schuman Plan, the European Defence Community and any other projects which may further the integration of Europe can succeed only if they are firmly founded on this rapprochement.