Volume #17 - 747.|
RELATIONS AVEC LES ÉTATS-UNIS
QUESTIONS DE DÉFENSE ET SÉCURITE
COMMANDEMENT DU NORD-EST
Note du président du Comité des services mixtes de la côte est|
au président du Comité des chefs d'État-major
le 22 février 1951|
BASIC PROVISIONS FOR CANADA-U.S. COLLABORATION ON DEFENCE IN THE NORTHEASTERN AREAS OF CANADA|
At a meeting held on Tuesday and Wednesday, February 20th and 21st, 1951 between Major General Lyman P. Whitten, commanding United States North Eastern Command, Captain D.G. Donaho, United States Navy, commanding United States Naval Base, Argentia, Colonel M.A. Preston, Chief of Staff of General Whitten, the members of the Joint Services Committee East Coast and the members of the Joint Services Committee Newfoundland and attended by Commodore R.E.S. Bidwell, R.C.N. and Colonel C.H. Cook of National Defence Headquarters, it was agreed the planning should be commenced between the relevant Canadian authorities and the Commanding General North East Command for the defence of the north eastern areas of Canada.
In order to provide a basis for such planning, a paper was prepared and approved entitled "Basic Provisions for Canada-United States Collaboration of Defence in the North Eastern Areas of Canada". It is intended that this paper shall form the terms of reference for those officers detailed to produce the proposed plan. A copy of this paper is attached herewith for the approval of the Chiefs of Staffs' Committee. It is understood that General Whitten is also forwarding a copy to the Joint Chiefs of Staff in Washington.
It should be noted that Section III entitled "Defence Against Air Attack" is beyond the terms of reference of the Joint Services Committee East Coast to complete as no representatives of the Royal Canadian Air Force Air Defence Group were available for consultation. It is therefore requested that Royal Canadian Air Force Air Defence Group may be invited to complete this Section of the paper in collaboration with the United States North Eastern Command.
On completion of this paper it will be submitted to the Chiefs of Staffs' Committee for their consideration.
SECRET [Halifax], February 21, 1951
BASIC PROVISIONS FOR CANADA-U.S.
COLLABORATION ON DEFENCE
1. To effect an apportionment of defence undertakings in the Northeastern areas of Canada between the U.S. and Canada in order that the two nations may conduct their defence planning and programming concerning these areas on a basis which ensures that all defence requirements receive consideration with a minimum of duplicative effort.
2. To define the responsibilities and prerogatives, vis-a-vis one another, of the commanders of the forces of the two countries operating in these areas to ensure the required co-ordination, prevent misunderstanding, and assure the greatest combined effectiveness.
3. To establish procedures for co-ordination of effort.
4. In this section are listed all provisions of general application to all defence undertakings. These provisions form a common basis for each of the subsequent sections of this document dealing with specialized defence fields.
5. Certain terms, susceptible to varying interpretation as to meaning and scope are defined as follows:
Area (General) Defence: non-localized defence; not pertaining to the defence of a point, a base, or an individual facility; pertaining, instead, to a large area in which there may be a number of bases or other facilities. Defence which is activated by the enemy's existence, or imminent existence, in an area regardless of the enemy's possible intent to attack a particular facility in that area.
Area (General) Defence Means, Area (General) Defence Forces: Means or Forces deployed for the purpose of defeating, destroying or dislodging an enemy from an area, or contesting his entrance, into, passage through or operations in the area, regardless of the enemy's specific objective. (Example: Interceptor Fighters).
Local Defence: Defence undertaken for the purpose of protecting an individual point, base, or other facility.
Local Defence Means or Forces: Means or forces deployed for the defence of a specific facility. (Example AAA)
Internal Security: Pertains to defence against internal uprising, sabotage, subversion or covert action; pertains to defence against action originating from within, or to action which, if originating from without, takes a form not recognised under international law as action by military forces.
External Security, External Defence: Pertains to defence against all forms of armed action by military forces.
Air Defence: Pertains to all measures undertaken to minimize the effect of air attack, including combatant and non-combatant measures, pre-raid and post-raid measures, active and passive measures.
Northeast Approaches: That part of Canada which includes Newfoundland, Labrador and the Canadian Northwest Territories, but excludes the Canadian Maritimes and the St. Lawrence Valley.
6. Canada will assume sole responsibility for the Local Defence of facilities of purely Canadian concern.
7. The U.S. will assume sole responsibility for the Local Defence of facilities occupied by the U.S. under the terms of the Leased Bases Agreement (i.e. 99 year leased bases).
8. The U.S. will assume sole responsibility for the Local Defence of facilities (such a radar, communications, and weather facilities) operated by the U.S.
9. Canada will assume sole responsibility for the Local Defence of facilities operated by Canada.
10. Canada will assume primary responsibility for the external defence of facilities which are jointly occupied or operated (by Canada and U.S.), and the U.S. may, by agreement of local Commanders, make provisions, and augment the forces made available for the defence of those facilities.
11. The nation with sole responsibility in any defence task as enumerated above, will control the forces and the effort devoted thereto. In cases of facilities jointly operated, the control of the forces allocated to their defence will be exercised by Canada unless the control of such forces is vested in the United States by prior agreement.
12. Each nation, in planning, programming and implementing its defence undertakings will keep the other continuously informed.
DEFENCE AGAINST AIR ATTACK
13. The provisions of Section II apply to the field of defence treated herein (Defence against Air Attack) and to all other fields of defence. Those provisions contained in this section are especially applicable, or exclusively applicable to Defence against Air Attack.
14. The U.S. will assume the responsibility for the fighter defence of bases operated by the U.S. in the Northeast, either unilaterally or jointly with Canada. Incidental to this responsibility, the U.S. will conduct the Area Defence of the Newfoundland/Labrador area and the Northeast Approaches to the U.S. and Canada against attack by air except as provided in paragraph 17 below.
15. Canada may share responsibility for the Area Defence of the NewfoundlandLabrador area against air attack and may make provisions, and augment the forces made available by the U.S. for the air defence of this area.
16. The U.S. will establish and operate AC & W radar at Pepperrell, Hannon and Goose Bay (and at Frobisher Bay at U.S. discretion).
17. Canada and the U.S. will provide jointly for the establishment and operation of AC & W radar required elsewhere in Canada for the defence of the Northeast and the Northeast approaches to Canada and the U.S.
18. The over-all AC & W system in the Northeast will be operated under U.S. direction and control in accordance with commonly accepted doctrine and practices concerning AC & W.
19. Control and direction of the over-all Area Air Defence system (fighters and AC&W) will pass to Canada at such time as Canada desires to assume control and is prepared to provide the greater portion of the Area Air Defence means.
DEFENCE AGAINST ARMED ATTACK DELIVERED ON THE GROUND
20. The provisions of Section II apply to the field of defence treated herein (Defence against Ground Attack) and to all other fields of defence. Those provisions contained in this section are especially applicable, or exclusively applicable to Defence against Ground Attack.
21. Canada will assume primary responsibility for area defence. The U.S. may, by agreement of local Commanders, augment the Canadian forces made available for this purpose.
22. The U.S. acting in the defence of its facilities, may proceed, as the situation requires, beyond the bounds of the U.S. areas. If, however, as a result of this action, a requirement arises for co-ordination of Canadian and U.S. military effort, Canada will have the prerogative of directing the co-ordinated action.
DEFENCE OF SHORE FACILITIES AGAINST ATTACK BY SEA-GOING VESSELS
23. The provisions of Section II apply to the field of defence treated herein (Defence against Sea-Going Vessels) and to all other fields of defence. Those provisions contained in this section are especially applicable, or exclusively applicable, to defence against Sea-Going Vessels.
24. Canada will have primary responsibility for area defence. The U.S. may, by agreement of local Commanders, make provisions and augment the Canadian forces made available for this purpose.
25. Canada will defend the harbour of St. John's, including the U.S. Docks therein, the facilities at Goose Bay and the approaches thereto, and other jointly operated facilities.
26. The U.S. will defend Argentia harbour and the approaches thereto and provide local defence at McAndrew, Hannon and Pepperrell.
27. Each nation will be responsible for measures to insure against acts of sabotage and subversion on the part of personnel in the military service of that nation or employed by that nation.
28. At facilities jointly operated and divided into Canadian and U.S. sectors (as at Goose Bay) each nation will assume sole responsibility for internal security measures to be taken within their individual areas.
29. Canada will assume primary responsibility for internal security measures entailing action in Canada beyond the bounds of facilities operated by the U.S. or by Canada-U.S. jointly.
30. At facilities, jointly operated but not sub-divided internationally (as at certain weather and electronic facilities) Canada will assume primary responsibility for internal security.
31. The U. S., in dealing with internal security matters requiring action extending beyond the limits of U.S. operated facilities or affecting Canadian nationals not in the U.S. employ or pertaining to Canadian nationals in U.S. employ but entailing action beyond US authority, will co-ordinate their action with the RCMP. Contact with the RCMP for this purpose will be made through Canadian military authorities unless otherwise arranged with the concurrence of the latter.
32. Each nation will keep the other informed of all action, prospective action, conditions, investigations, suspected conditions or personnel which might affect the security of facilities of the other against sabotage or covert action.