Strategic Environmental Assessment Public Statements

Development Priorities

CIDA's Food Security Strategy

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for CIDA's Food Security Strategy. The SEA determined that the activities stemming from this strategy are likely to cause direct or indirect environmental and social impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

Environmental sustainability, equality between women and men, and governance are fundamental building blocks to any successful development program or project. In order to ensure consistency in the integration of these three cross-cutting themes set out by the Minister of International Cooperation, all were analysed under the established SEA process. The SEA process is one that considers both the biophysical and social environments, therefore, the integration of equality between women and men and governance, as well as the environment is consistent with customary SEA practice.

Environmental sustainability underpins the resources upon which agricultural and food security is based. Land degradation, poor water quality and quantity, and reduced genetic diversity are key risk areas to food quality, food quantity, and the resilience of the food system. Climate change may also result in increased frequency and intensity of droughts and flooding, which will affect the stability of as well as access to food supplies. Potential positive impacts of CIDA's food security programming include opportunities for climate change adaptation and mitigation, increased biodiversity, rehabilitation of degraded land, and increased yields without degrading the natural resource base. To mitigate negative impacts and promote opportunities, CIDA's food security programming should utilize the following sustainable practices:

  • Sustainable land management — conservation agriculture, agroforestry, and sustainable rangeland management
  • Integrated water resources management — drip irrigation and watershed management
  • Protection and enhancement of biodiversity — seed banks and integrated pest management
  • Climate change mitigation and adaptation — climate resilient crop-varieties and carbon sequestration potential of agricultural land

Equality between women and men and women's empowerment are essential to achieve sustainable food security. While men are often involved in market chains and large-scale cash crops, women produce 60 to 80 percent of food in developing countries and half of the world's food. Women are also largely responsible for the preparation of food for their families and the health of their children within their own households, making them key partners in achieving food security. In this regard, ignoring pre-existing inequalities between women and men in areas that affect food security (i.e. sustainable agricultural development, food aid and nutrition, and research and development) are key risks for CIDA's Food Security Strategy. To mitigate negative impacts and promote opportunities, CIDA's food security programming should effectively integrate equality between women and men, focusing on:

  • Advancing women's equal participation with men as decision-makers in issues that affect food security
  • Supporting women and girls in realizing their full human rights, particularly as they relate to land tenure and rights
  • Reducing inequalities between women and men in access to and control over the resources and benefits of development (e.g. agricultural technologies, food assistance)

CIDA's Food Security Strategy offers potential positive impacts to improve inequalities based on women's and men's specific roles in society, which, in turn, will improve sustainable short-, medium- and long-term food security

Good governance is crucial to achieving results for food security and will affect the quality of CIDA's contribution to priority areas for action in partner countries. Public sector institutional deficits, weak or absent oversight and accountability mechanisms for government performance, and systemic discrimination and marginalization of the poor, including women, children, and youth, are key risk areas for increasing the availability, access, and stability of quality nutritious food. If CIDA's Food Security Strategy does not include an explicit focus on strengthening these three areas, many of the underlying structural conditions required to address food insecurity will remain unchanged in partner countries, jeopardizing future investments in food security. Potential positive impacts include:

  • National and local institutions that are capable of addressing food insecurity
  • Government performance that is monitored to ensure that politicized issues (i.e. food, land, inputs) do not become currency to feed corrupt systems of governance
  • Empowered citizens that participate in decision-making on food issues (based on the right to food) and advocate for their access to land (property rights) and land tenure reform

To mitigate negative impacts and promote opportunities, CIDA should undertake governance analyses of the food security situation in partner countries that will strengthen the capacity of governments, promote human rights, foster opportunities for the poorest, and ensure that overall efforts for food security in CIDA's partner countries are inclusive and pro-poor.

A broad consultation process was conducted for CIDA's Food Security Strategy. The process included bilateral meetings, technical consultations, field consultations, and roundtables (which, in turn, included representatives from research institutions, civil society, and developing country partners). The leads for the environment, equality between women and men, and governance integration each provided input into the content of the presentations and the questions posed during the field consultations and roundtables. As well, the lead for equality between women and men organized a technical consultation with the World Bank and the International Food Policy Research Institute on equality between women and men and food security. The lead for the environment held an informal environment-related technical consultation with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Internal consultations were also held with relevant specialists.

The SEA recommends that CIDA track progress annually on its expected results on equality between women and men, environmental sustainability, and governance in reference to its Food Security Strategy and consider conducting a progress review in three years so that lessons learned can be pulled together and best practices scaled up and replicated in other programming. The SEA also recommends that these efforts be aligned with on-going CIDA efforts to create indicators and streamlined within existing internal results frameworks.

CIDA's Sustainable Economic Growth Strategy

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for DFATD's Sustainable Economic Growth Strategy. The SEA determined that the activities stemming from this strategy are likely to cause direct or indirect environmental and social effects that should be addressed.

Environmental sustainability, equality between women and men and governance are fundamental building blocks to any successful development program or project. In order to ensure consistency in the integration of the three crosscutting themes set out by the Minister of International Cooperation, all three themes were analysed under the SEA process at CIDA. The SEA process is one that considers the biophysical and social environments. Therefore, the integration of gender equality and governance, as well as the environment, is consistent with customary SEA practice.

Environmental sustainability underpins the importance of natural resources as a pillar of sustainable economic growth. Furthermore, natural resources provide the base upon which the majority of the poor, particularly the rural poor, depend on for their existence. Degradation and unsustainable use of the natural resource base, issues surrounding tenure and access rights, and the resilience of the system to shocks — including natural disasters and climate change — are major risk areas to the capacity of the system to generate sustainable economic growth. Potential positive effects of CIDA's sustainable economic growth programming include opportunities to increase environmental awareness and education (sustainable natural resource management, community-based natural resource management, etc.) and integrate environmental considerations into economic policy development. In order to mitigate negative effects and promote opportunities, CIDA's sustainable economic growth programming should:

  • Facilitate environmental awareness and enhance corporate social responsibility
  • Promote environmental management systems, green technologies, sustainable natural resource management, and adaptation to climate change
  • Ensure the sustainability of economic growth programming by incorporating environmental considerations into all levels of policy, plan and program development

Equality between women and men and economic empowerment of women is key to long-term development, sustainable economic growth, and social advancement for all. Women represent 40 percent of the formal labour force and the majority of the informal unmeasured economy. Women own nearly one third of small businesses worldwide. Women also carry out the majority of domestic and care work. Improving the return on women's formal and informal work has the potential to create economic growth and social well-being. The economic consequences of ignoring barriers to women's engagement in the workforce can be significant. CIDA's sustainable economic growth programming will effectively integrate gender equality by focusing on:

  • Increasing women's participation in decision-making processes at all levels including household, local sub-national, national, and international
  • Strengthening support for the development and growth of micro-, small, and medium private sector businesses, with a special emphasis on female entrepreneurs
  • Increasing access of women to essential, demand-driven skills training and knowledge needed for formal labour market participation, including literacy and numeracy

Effective governance is central to economic growth in developing countries and is recognized as a key factor for development. The absence of state capacity to manage public finances and deliver core functions and services, combined with a lack of transparency of government performance and weak accountability to citizens, are elements that hamper growth prospects. In many countries, corruption raises the cost of doing business and erodes the political culture that is necessary to promote and implement national growth strategies. To ensure the sustainability of economic growth, governance must be integrated into programming. Specific aspects could include:

  • Building capacity of public sectors and civil society
  • Strengthening management systems
  • Improving accountability and transparency
  • Improving respect for human rights

Progress on these issues requires the participation of a range of actors, including all levels of government, public and private sectors, independent oversight institutions, civil society (including poor and marginalized groups), and the media. In order to strengthen effectively partner country capacity to stimulate and manage economic growth in a sustainable and equitable manner, CIDA's sustainable economic growth programming should integrate governance considerations into investments, beginning with a country-level analysis of the political, economic and social dynamics, which underpin the governance constraints to growth.

A broad consultation process that included bilateral meetings, technical consultations, field consultations, and roundtables with representatives from research institutions, civil society and developing country partners was conducted for CIDA's Sustainable Economic Growth Strategy. The environment, gender-equality and governance integration leads each provided input into the content of the presentations and the questions posed during the field consultations and roundtables. Internal consultations were also held with relevant specialists.

The SEA recommends that CIDA track progress on its expected gender-equality, environmental sustainability, and governance results related to CIDA's Sustainable Economic Growth Strategy annually and consider conducting a review of progress after three years so that lessons learned can be obtained and best practices scaled up and replicated in other programming. The SEA also recommends that these efforts be aligned with ongoing CIDA efforts to create indicators that will be streamlined within existing internal results frameworks

CIDA's Children and Youth Strategy

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for DFATD's Children and Youth Strategy. The SEA determined that the activities stemming from this strategy are likely to cause direct or indirect environmental and social effects that should be addressed.

Environmental sustainability, equality between women and men and governance are fundamental building blocks to any successful development program or project. In order to ensure consistency in the integration of the three crosscutting themes set out by the Minister of International Cooperation, all three themes were analysed under the established SEA process at CIDA. The SEA process is one that considers the biophysical and social environments, therefore, the integration of gender equality and governance, as well as the environment, is consistent with customary SEA practice.

Environmental sustainability underpins the importance of a safe and clean environment for children and youth, as their natural and built environments play a critical role in their healthy growth and development. Children and youth, especially girls, are extremely vulnerable to their physical environment. Major risk areas to the growth and development of children and youth include:

  • Indoor air pollution
  • Water, sanitation, and hygiene
  • Climate change, especially the effect of changing patterns of communicable diseases
  • Dwindling and polluted environmental resources
  • Hazardous occupations held by children and youth

Potential positive effects of CIDA's children and youth programming include environmental education and increasing awareness surrounding issues such as water, sanitation and hygiene, and air pollution. In order to mitigate negative effects and promote opportunities, CIDA's children and youth programming should incorporate the following:

  • Improved water, sanitation, and hygiene
  • Improved indoor air quality
  • Education on environmental issues, including climate change mitigation and adaptation
  • Implementation of greener construction and programming in the education sector, for example green schools

Gender-equality components central to CIDA's Children and Youth Strategy are:

  • Promotion of maternal, newborn, and child health
  • Provision of education and training to girls and boys, and young women and men
  • Attention to issues of protection and security for children and youth at risk

Research shows that unequal access to health information and services, poor quality education, physical and sexual violence, early marriage, and early pregnancy contribute to decreased health and life outcomes for girls and women. Violence against girls and boys reduces the probability that they will contribute to the long-term economic and social growth of their communities. Investments in women's and girls' education and economic opportunities have a ripple effect, creating a positive impact on their families, communities and future children.

CIDA's programming for children and youth will integrate gender equality by focusing on:

  • Improving access for women and girls to basic health care services and information
  • Improving the capacity of the education system to address barriers to girls' and boys' access to and completion of quality basic education
  • Improving legal, judicial, and social service to address gender-based violence, including programs that involve boys and men in finding solutions

Good governance is crucial for achieving results for children and youth and will affect the quality of CIDA's contribution to the priority areas for action in CIDA partner countries. Securing the future of children and youth requires the strengthening of health systems, good governance in education, and building a protective environment in order to prevent and respond to violence, abuse, and exploitation and enable children and youth to access quality healthcare and education. Special attention needs to be given to the most marginalized children and youth, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples, and minorities, who are especially vulnerable to violence and poor health and are least likely to be in school. Appropriate legal frameworks and institutions with adequate capacity and resources, as well as participatory political, managerial, and administrative processes need to be in place to respond to the rights and needs of children and youth. Strengthening the capacity of parliament, civil society, including children's own organizations and adult child rights organizations, media and local communities is critical to improve accountability and transparency in the formulation of public policies that affect children and youth.

CIDA should undertake governance analyses to understand better the context of children and youth within CIDA's countries of programming. Such analyses would identify, among others, the status of human rights commitments, governance challenges, and the capacity of legislatures, civil society, the independent media, and other democratic institutions to ensure accountability from government in meeting health, education, and child protection commitments.

A broad consultation process that included bilateral meetings, technical consultations, field consultations, and roundtables, which included representatives from research institutions, civil society and developing country partners, was conducted for CIDA's Children and Youth Strategy. The environment, gender-equality, and governance integration leads each provided input into the content of the presentations and the questions posed during the field consultations and roundtables. Internal consultations were also held with relevant specialists.

The SEA recommends that CIDA track progress on its expected gender-equality, environmental sustainability, and governance results related to CIDA's Children and Youth Strategy annually and consider conducting a review of progress after three years so that lessons learned can be obtained and best practices scaled up and replicated in other programming. The SEA also recommends that these efforts be aligned with ongoing CIDA efforts to create indicators that will be streamlined within existing internal results frameworks.

Multilateral and Global Programs

International finanancial institutions

CIDA’s Contribution to the Replenishment of the Multilateral Investment Fund

In compliance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause direct or evident environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

The Multilateral Investment Fund (MIF) will have no anticipated significant adverse impact on natural resources and the environment. However, trade could result in higher levels of demand for production of and trade in various goods, which imply potentially greater use of resources and greater amounts of waste and pollution. Also, the scale and cumulative effects of technical assistance and investment projects could potentially be significant and could result in significant negative impacts.

A number of activities resulting from the initiative will likely have positive effects on the environment. Examples include: providing technical assistance and investment for all projects, removing the constraints to the achievement of environmental sustainability (poverty, inadequate financial and human resources, etc.), and promoting the development of an environmentally responsible business sector.

The SEA has found that the environmental assessment procedures of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) are adequate to identify and mitigate negative environmental effects. To enhance the positive effects of the initiative, MIF will build on its early work and promote eco-efficient production, promote the adoption of corporate social responsibility, and build private sector capacity in the environment sector. This will include activities such as improving how the markets function, developing the private sector networks, and demonstrating new ways to do business.

Consultations with affected partners with respect to the development of the initiative were held. Affected partners include CIDA specialists and the Committee for Social and Environmental Impact (CESI), an advisory committee for the IDB.

With regard to monitoring and follow-up, the entire MIF portfolio is to be submitted for review to the CESI. Also, CIDA will continue to monitor the IADB and the MIF's performance, with specific regard to the overall goals of the initiative, through its due diligence assessment.

CIDA’s Contribution to the Asian Development Bank

In compliance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause direct or evident environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

An environmental scan of the Asian Development Bank (AsDB) indicates that the nature of the activities performed under each of its areas of intervention have the potential to have significant negative effects on natural resources and the environment. Examples of negative effects from a particular project might include: soil erosion, noise, vibration, wastewater, air pollution, and solid wastes.

Mitigation measures have been identified and proposed for the potential negative environmental effects. Some of these include creating a soil erosion protection plan, relocating schools to less noisy areas, installing noise barriers and soundproof windows, providing sanitary latrines and building sedimentation ponds as well as water filtration facilities, using more efficient diesel or gas boilers, and creating landfill sites.

The potential positive effects resulting from the initiative might include the following: decreased poverty, increased quality of life, natural resource preservation, natural disaster mitigation, food security, reduced conflict, and increased capacity of governments and citizens.

Consultations with affected partners with respect to the development of the program were held. Affected partners included CIDA specialists and other contributors to the Bank's funding.

The borrower is responsible for doing an environmental impact assessment (EIA), the report of which is reviewed by the AsDB in order to ensure that it meets the AsDB's criteria and requirements. Within AsDB, the chief compliance officer, supported by the Environment and Social Safeguards Division, is responsible for monitoring compliance of regional departments with AsDB's environmental assessment requirements and advising management on compliance. All projects should have an environmental management plan in place. After project completion, the relevant regional department must prepare a report to account for the environmental aspects of the project/program, its impacts and the extent to which mitigation plans were implemented.

Humanitarian Assistance

Food Aid and Related Micronutrient Contributions to Developing Countries

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause direct or indirect environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

The negative environmental effects include soil erosion, disturbances to groundwater flow, increased river siltation, and the spread of waterborne diseases as a result of infrastructure and natural resource management activities. Damage to human health, water pollution, increased pest resistance, and ozone depletion is a result of improper use and disposal of hazardous chemicals. There is a high probability of deforestation and land degradation as a result of energy needs for cooking, and potentially negative biophysical impacts arise from the planting of genetically modified food and seed.

Mitigative actions have been identified and proposed for the potentially negative environmental effects. Mitigation measures include providing quick-cooking food commodities to minimize cooking-fuel needs, addressing any potentially negative environmental effects of programming activities, and ensuring environmental diligence during planning, design, and construction. Furthermore, another mitigation measure is the careful selection and use of chemicals, and seeking approval of recipient countries on the composition of food aid commodities, such as genetically modified food aid

A number of activities, as a result of the plan, will likely have positive effects on the environment. Some examples include decreased stress on the natural environment because citizens are less likely to resort to harmful agricultural practices and proponents of genetically modified crops may reduce their use of pesticides due to improved resistance to disease, pests, herbicides, and extreme elements.

Through due diligence, Multilateral Programs Branch will review its partner organizations' annual reports and follow up as required to ensure that these organizations comply on matters pertaining to environmental concerns.

Reinvesting in the Multilateral Humanitarian System

In compliance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause direct or evident environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

The negative environmental impacts of the initiative include: soil erosion, loss of wildlife and non-timber products, loss of land available for food production, depletion and contamination of aquifers, soil and surface water contamination, and deterioration of soil structure.

Mitigation measures have been identified and proposed for the potential negative environmental impacts. Those measures include: providing energy-efficient cooking systems, situating settlements away from protected or ecologically fragile areas, avoiding concentrated settlements, promoting environmentally friendly shelter construction, maintaining of vegetation during site planning, collecting household waste regularly, providing refuse containers, creating a sanitary landfill, situating water treatment facilities away from groundwater sources, separation of infectious and non-infectious medical waste and proper handling of contaminated sharps, and promoting sustainable agriculture.

The mandate of CIDA's International Humanitarian Assistance (IHA) program is to help ease human suffering resulting from conflicts and natural disasters in developing countries. Multilateral partners will improve the lives of people in affected regions, primarily through construction of shelters, camps, latrines, wells, and health service structures.

Consultations with affected partners with respect to the development of the program were held. Some of the multilateral partners involved include: the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the International Committee of the Red Cross, the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Oxfam Canada, World Vision Canada, and CARE Canada.

CIDA will monitor the environmental effects of programming resulting from the initiative through partner reporting, policy dialogue (both bilateral and multilateral) as well as field visits.

United Nations

CIDA’s Core Funding to the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)

In compliance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause direct or evident environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

The negative environmental effects include: biomedical waste disposal, such as organic waste materials and sharps; exposure to insecticides; and environmental impacts resulting from construction activities for schools and facilities directed at children, and water sanitation facilities.

Mitigation measures have been identified and proposed for the potential negative environmental effects. These include maximizing the safety of immunization injections, which includes the implementation of auto-disable syringes. Mitigation will also include proper segregation, collection, storage, and final disposal of sharps. UNICEF will continue to integrate training of health workers on proper waste management. UNICEF will conduct environmental assessments for all water sanitation projects including urban-economic planning, technical training for construction workers, and policy formulation and strategy development.

A number of activities resulting from the initiative will likely have positive effects on the environment. Examples include: improved health through education, schools for children through better construction, and increased hygiene and personal cleanliness through improved water sanitation. Increased school attendance and, as a consequence, increased education level of local populations will also be a result of the initiative.

Consultations with affected partners with respect to the development of the initiative were held.

UNICEF will use its own guidelines for monitoring and evaluation. CIDA will review UNICEF's annual reports and follow up as required to ensure that UNICEF complies on matters pertaining to environmental concerns.

Other

CIDA's Mine Action Strategy

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause direct or indirect environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

The negative environmental effects as a result of de-mining include soil and water contamination from landmine disposal; soil depletion due to unsustainable agricultural practices; and exposure of diverse biological habitats and protected areas to human exploitation by providing infrastructure and access to previously mined areas.

Mitigative actions have been identified and proposed for the potential negative environmental effects. These effects can be mitigated by including environmental scans in Landmine Impact Surveys, wildlife protection materials, community education, proper disposal protocols, and mainstreaming mine action.

A number of activities will likely enhance positive environmental effects. These include: strengthening local capacity; numerous socio-economic benefits such as job opportunities; decrease in livestock mortality; increased local, regional, and national productivity; and wildlife protection.

Interviews with CIDA personnel who have experience in Mine Action were conducted, including consultations with specialists and those with experience in de-mining efforts. The CIDA Mine Action Strategy should support efforts to conduct a Global Inventory of Environmental Impact, due to the lack of research and data on the environmental impact of mines and de-mining. CIDA should also consider supporting Project Level Environmental Impact Assessments, and efforts to monitor and report on compliance.

Geographic Programs

Americas

Americas Strategy Implementation Plan

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause direct or indirect environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

The Americas strategy provides a coherent vision of where CIDA's activities in the Americas should be headed. It will guide the whole Agency to pull in the same direction and promote coherence between what CIDA does and what the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade and a host of other government departments do in the region. This vision is based on Canada's foreign policy values and principles. The latter positions Canada as an international leader for trade liberalization, as well as a model for the values of democracy, the rule of law, and human rights. CIDA proposes a strategy of leadership and partnership in the Americas that stands on three key pillars: prosperity, democratic governance, and security. Priorities for programming include free trade agreements, trade-related technical assistance, governance in extractive industries, corporate social responsibility, energy, support for democracy, freedom, human rights, prosperity, social cohesion, parliamentary cooperation, disaster risk reduction, public health, and prevention of pandemics.

Although it is currently difficult to determine all the positive and negative environmental impacts of the Americas strategy, some activities, especially in the prosperity pillar, would need to be carefully assessed. Some of the negative environmental effects that could occur as a result of the initiative include increased use of natural resources for export and production, increased pollution and environmental degradation, and the production of greenhouse gases. Some positive environmental effects that could occur as a result of the initiative include contributions to sustainable development and poverty reduction (through revenue generation in extractive industries), enhanced public participation, development of biofuel technologies, and disaster risk reduction

Since specific activities have yet to be defined, mitigation methods will be developed as necessary. Some preliminary enhancement opportunities include, but are not limited to, increasing cooperation between the parties to free trade agreements to better conserve, protect, and enhance the environment; promoting pollution prevention policies and practices; working with extractive industries to increase their environmental governance; working with the private sector to develop more environmentally friendly corporate social responsibility; and working with partners to improve waste management practices.

Consultations for this initiative were held with affected partners and CIDA staff.

A more thorough examination of activities will define mitigation measures to reduce adverse effects and enhance positive ones. Monitoring and follow-up will be conducted in accordance with CIDA's performance assessment frameworks and the monitoring and follow-up chapter of CIDA's SEA handbook.

Guatemala Country Strategy

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this country strategy. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the strategy are likely to cause direct or indirect environmental effects that should be addressed.

The overall aim of the 2009-2014 Guatemala country strategy is to promote food security, with a focus on agriculture, and security, with a focus on security system reform.

Given proper integration of environmental considerations into economic development plans and technical assistance, the current programming presents several environmental opportunities and should bring about positive environmental effects.

Conversely, agricultural projects have the potential for adverse effects on the environment and require careful planning and mitigation measures on a project-by-project basis. Potential negative effects of uncontrolled agricultural practices could include:

  • Soil degradation
  • Water overuse
  • Surface and underground water pollution
  • Biodiversity loss

Some initiatives involving construction work may require specific environmental effect assessments under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act.

Furthermore, Guatemala is highly vulnerable to extreme climatic events such as floods, droughts, and hurricanes. Considering Guatemala's fragile environmental situation, it is very likely that climatic events will affect negatively on the country strategy. Projects under the food security components are more at risk considering that these activities are closely dependent upon climatic conditions, be they extreme or not. Likewise, hurricanes and earthquakes may destroy small infrastructure such as warehouses or irrigation systems. For secondary effects, CIDA will consider, among others, the disruption of development plans, increased public sector deficits and debt, and worsened poverty.

The SEA concludes that the implementation of the proposed country strategy is not likely to result in important negative environmental effects if appropriate mitigation measures are applied. Projects under the food security priority may generate negative environmental effects and would require the application of mitigation measures. For the most part, the country strategy mostly presents environmental benefits and opportunities. Nonetheless, precautions have to be taken to ensure that projects take into account environmental considerations and apply appropriate mitigation measures.

The SEA identified the following mitigation measures to optimize the positive effects and minimize the negative ones:

  • ensuring the participation of an environmental specialist during the life cycle of all projects
  • optimizing environmental opportunities
  • reducing the environmental risk, for example, by ensuring that each individual project has its own environmental analysis identifying environmental effects, effects of the environment on the project, mitigation measures for potential negative effects, as well as environmental opportunities
  • reporting on environmental results
  • complying with international norms and standards
  • raising and maintaining environmental capacity of stakeholders, as well as program staff and partners, in the field and at headquarters

This SEA report was developed in consultation with the Guatemala program team at CIDA headquarters as well as in consultation with representatives from the field and CIDA's environmental specialists. All proposed mitigation measures and environmental opportunities have been reviewed as part of the consultation

Given the potential for both adverse effects and environmental opportunities, it will be necessary to ensure ongoing monitoring and reporting of the environmental effects associated with the implementation of the proposed country strategy.

Monitoring and reporting on positive and negative environmental effects should explicitly be integrated with the regular assessments and evaluations established at the program level, under the food security priority, as part of the country strategy's performance measurement component.

The continuous involvement of a CIDA environmental specialist will be useful in reviewing progress reports and identifying corrective measures as required to address situations where environmental results have not been achieved.

CIDA’s Country Development Programming Framework for Bolivia

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause direct or indirect environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

The Country Development Programming Framework (CDPF) for Bolivia focuses on poverty reduction, health, water and sanitation, and improved governance.

Without the implementation of CIDA's CDPF for in Bolivia, the following are some of the negative environmental issues that would be exacerbated: overall degradation of the environment, particularly with regards to air and water quality, as a result of increased mining activity; levels of suspended solids, cyanide, mercury, copper, cadmium, and lead activated by acid drainage; intensive use of wood and the destruction of vegetation cover; erosion; contamination of agricultural lands with heavy metals; reduced access to clean water and basic sanitation.

The CDPF for Bolivia is designed to ensure that these negative environmental effects are minimized and/or reversed where possible. CIDA's programs include activities that will contribute to mostly the following: the development of local environmental management capacities; the development of a medium and longer-term environmental strategy for the mining sector; the progressive substitution of traditional energy sources (i.e. wood) with domestic gas supplies; the promotion of drinking-water sources within national and local water resources management frameworks; potable water supply programs, accompanied by complementary support for waste water and sewage management where possible; and the improvement of hospital waste management practices.

The positive environmental impacts associated with the implementation of the CDPF for Bolivia are significant. They include: increased access to clean water; improved environmental management measures with regard to mining activities, resulting in reduced health and environmental impacts on surrounding communities; a modernization of the state and its capacity to adequately manage the natural environment and resources; and general improvements in health.

In developing the CDPF for Bolivia, consultations were held with the Government of Bolivia, Bolivian and Canadian civil society, and other donors.

The activities emerging from the recommendations in the SEA will be monitored as part of the overall monitoring of the CDPF. Indicators have been developed to enable and facilitate monitoring and reporting activities. These activities will be carried out on a regular basis by CIDA staff and partners.

CIDA's Interim Country Development Programming Framework for Haiti

In compliance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause direct or evident environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

The environmental effects identified in the SEA vary widely from one sector to another. Examples of adverse effects include pollution from disarmament activities, pollution from wastewater disposal systems, an increase in greenhouse gases, the alteration and loss of natural habitats, soil salination, an increase in water use, and pollution of surface water and groundwater by fertilizers and pesticides.

Mitigation measures have been planned to counter the possible negative environmental effects identified in the SEA. Examples include the following: metal recovered in disarmament activities will be recycled; water conservation techniques will be promoted; trees will be planted to offset greenhouse gas emissions; consumptive wildlife activities will be avoided in sensitive environments or those characterized by threatened species; and renewable energy and organic farming will be favoured.

The SEA also identified the potential for positive environmental effects. These effects include decreasing personal insecurity, increasing forest cover, reducing the use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers, increasing local community involvement, reducing dependence on wood as a source of energy, and improving soil quality through composting.

Stakeholders were consulted in developing the programming framework.

A monitoring and evaluation program will be developed for all projects likely to have a potential environmental impact in connection with the programming framework. This will make it possible to verify the accuracy of the environmental assessment or analysis, and to gauge the effectiveness of the mitigation measures identified. The scope of the monitoring activities will be in proportion to the risks of adverse environmental effects.

Indigenous Peoples Partnership Program for the Latin America and Caribbean Region

In compliance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause direct or evident environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

The Indigenous Peoples Partnership Program (IPPP) is not likely to cause significant adverse environmental effects. The main purpose of the program is to improve environmental sustainability.

There is significant potential for the IPPP to enhance the environment and to promote the sustainable development. Much of the positive impacts would be in the form of knowledge-based development, including research, and training and capacity building for its beneficiaries and partners.

To reduce the effects of the environmental issues plaguing the Latin America and Caribbean region, and to improve the results of the positive impacts of the program, mitigation measures have been identified and proposed. Low-tech forms of biotechnology such as engineered wetlands for water purification and pollutant-eating bacteria for soil degradation have been proposed to reduce biodiversity loss in the region. The program will also be moving gradually towards high-tech forms of biotechnology such as manipulation of DNA and RNA (gene splicing, recombinant DNA, cloning, amplification, sequencing, etc.). Other areas that could be improved to benefit Indigenous peoples include ecosystem health and integrity, sustainable use of natural resources, and political ecology. Improving results of the positive impacts of the program involves enhancements in information management and awareness raising, policymaking and planning, institutional capacity development, implementation and enforcement of policies and legislation, and capacity to pool resources.

In preparing the SEA, there has been feedback from CIDA program officers, policy analysts and field representatives, as well as from other federal government departments and national Aboriginal organizations in Canada. Internal consultations were undertaken with CIDA staff.

The Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) process active at CIDA is the appropriate mechanism for identifying and documenting adverse environmental effects on a project-by-project basis. Partners should report on direct and indirect environmental effects. A yearly survey to detect adverse indirect effects would be worthwhile in determining their occurrence and in what types of projects so that they could be avoided in future IPPP approvals.

CIDA’s Bilateral Program in Colombia

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause direct or indirect environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

CIDA's bilateral program in Colombia focuses on issues relating to children, particularly those living in rural areas.

The direct, negative environmental impacts of CIDA's current program of bilateral projects in Colombia, as stated in the respective planning documents, are likely to be very little or nil. The ECOFONDO and the Promoting Durable Solutions for People Displaced by Conflict projects have had significant positive environmental effects. Building on the strengths, experience and lessons learned of those two projects will ensure that the Colombia program continues to result in positive direct impacts. A number of CIDA's other bilateral projects could achieve significant, long-lasting indirect positive environmental effects if they address environmental themes within their broader capacity development and awareness building activities. Positive direct or indirect environmental effects might also be possible through the Local Fund for Governance and Human Security project if it were to support environmental initiatives emerging from the Office of the National Ombudsman and Attorney General's Office.

In developing the bilateral program, consultations were held with the Government of Colombia, Colombian and Canadian civil society, and other donors.

CIDA's monitoring and reporting strategy for its Colombia program is carried out at the level of individual projects. Consideration of the kinds of environmental issues identified in the SEA would need to take place within the monitoring and evaluation of those projects. For this to happen, the projects will need to identify specific environmental concerns and indicators of environmental effects.

Cooperation Program with Cuba (2004)

In compliance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause direct or evident environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

CIDA's cooperation program with Cuba has two main themes: modernization of the state and promotion of community-based participatory development.

The implementation of the local development project applies to the productive sector and could have minor adverse environmental effects. However, if the project's sub-initiatives are undertaken without assessments for environmental impact, the resulting increased economic activity would entail the following potential adverse effects: soil degradation, water pollution, overuse of water reserves, and production of solid waste.

The following mitigation measures are proposed as part of the program: comparative analysis of Canadian and Cuban legislation on environmental assessment and local development initiatives, and formal, systematic integration of environmental considerations in project proposals. Institution building will also be included as a key programming area where possible.

Owing to capacity building and with the introduction of new technology and practices, the implementation of this program should significantly help to reduce environmental degradation, protect biodiversity, improve people's living conditions, and promote sustainable management of available natural resources.

Several consultations were held between CIDA, the Government of Cuba, and Canadian and local organizations in developing the Canadian cooperation program in Cuba.

Modernization-of-the-state initiatives are assessed on a regular basis. CIDA has also recruited an independent consultant to coordinate, monitor, and evaluate all CIDA local development projects in Cuba.

CIDA’s Bilateral Programming Plan for Nicaragua (2002-2007)

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause direct or indirect environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

CIDA's bilateral programming plan for Nicaragua is focused on the reduction of ecological and social vulnerability, and the promotion of human rights.

In the absence of mitigation measures, the implementation of a number of projects under the plan may result in a range of adverse environmental outcomes, particularly those projects related to water access and provision and support for small-scale farmers. Adverse environmental outcome include: environmental impacts related to the construction of health facilities or schools; a reduction of the quality and quantity of water, resulting from groundwater abstraction; health risk associated with the deterioration of water quality caused by incorrect storage; the pollution of groundwater; and an increase in the release of waste water.

Mitigation measures have been designed to ensure that the potential negative environmental impacts listed above are avoided or minimized. They include, among others, the incorporation of environmental considerations into all phases of construction activities; using a best-practice approach in designing and establishing programs in improved access to sanitation and potable water supplies, including water storage; and establishing community development programs that focus on instruction in hygiene to mitigate the potential problems related to increases in waste water.

Some of the positive environmental effects that are likely to result from this programming plan are: improvements in water resources management and delivery; improved environmental sanitation through better management of solid/human waste and the reduced biological contamination of surface waters; and improved sustainable livelihoods and decreased health risks.

In developing the bilateral programming plan for Nicaragua, consultations were held with the Government of Nicaragua, Nicaraguan and Canadian civil society, and other donors.

Follow-up and monitoring will be carried out on a regular basis to provide information on the effectiveness of the SEA process. Essentially, the following issues will be reported on: the effects of individual projects on the environment, the effectiveness of environmental mitigation measures; and any corrective actions that are/were required through the project implementation process. In addition to providing post-assessment follow-ups and reporting on the environmental impacts of the plan, there is a need to identify environment-related objectives in project performance measurement frameworks and strategic results frameworks related to specific projects and the bilateral programming plan for Nicaragua as a whole.

Caribbean Regional Development Programming Framework

In compliance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause direct or evident environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

Significant negative environmental effects are likely to result from not incorporating specific environmental sustainability measures in both activity design and activity delivery. Some examples include: inappropriate planning and engineering occurring as a result of failed program planning. Pollution, erosion, land degradation and inappropriate natural resource use and management are other potential negative impacts.

Mitigative actions have been identified and proposed for the potential negative environmental effects. These actions include: environmental and disaster management in a context in which environmental management is viewed both as disaster prevention and as a mitigation strategy. Recognition of the need for appropriate project design and implementation can result in avoiding the possible negative environmental effects associated with this activity, and achieving highly positive environmental effects.

A number of activities, as a result of the plan, will likely have positive effects on the environment. Some examples include improved environmental policy and better functioning legal frameworks. Support for niche environmental industries and greater awareness of environmental issues and solutions, are other benefits of the plan. Through mitigation measures, communities may experience decreased vulnerability to the consequences of extreme natural events, more effective and accountable environmental management of sub-region resources and actions to strengthen governance.

Monitoring will focus on environmental resilience and disaster prevention measures. Environmental impact assessment and management planning will be routinely incorporated. There will be a review of current programs to mainstream environmental sustainability and coordination with donors to ensure complementarity of donor initiatives with respect to environmental issues.

Asia

CIDA’s Country Development Programming Framework for Vietnam

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause direct or indirect environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

The overall goal of the Country Development Programming Framework (CDPF) for Vietman is to support Vietnamese efforts to reduce the percentage of poor and hungry households in Vietnam.

Adverse consequences could arise through the expansion and intensification of resource-based industries and agricultural operations in the targeted areas, through trade liberalization initiatives of the Poverty Reduction Support Credit program and projects under the agriculture and rural development component. Such results could contribute to ongoing environmental concerns in soil quality, air quality, waste management, and biodiversity conservation. However, the scale of CIDA-supported activities under these initiatives, together with the commitment to mitigation, makes it unlikely that any significant adverse consequences will arise.

Mitigation measures will address: governance capacity building in environmental planning and management; incorporation of environmental concerns into agriculture and rural development projects; application of policy safeguards, such as environmental assessment; monitoring and reporting of environmental performance of development projects; and ensuring that CIDA staff have access to environmental expertise.

The implementation of the CDPF is likely to result in positive environmental consequences. Benefits are likely to be realized at the enterprise, sectoral, community, and national levels. In cooperation with other donor support, CIDA-supported initiatives under the CDPF are likely to result in practices and attitudes that promote soil and water conservation, biodiversity preservation, reduced waste discharges, sustainable food production and processing practices, as well as improved environmental planning, management, and enforcement. Although the scale of these consequences may be relatively small, they can help curb current trends in environmental degradation in the country and, in turn, help improve longer-term prospects for sustainable economic growth and poverty reduction in Vietnam.

The development of the CDPF was achieved in consultation with CIDA staff, the Vietnamese government, and numerous organizations.

Monitoring and reporting on environmental consequences (adverse and positive) will be integrated within the regular monitoring and evaluations established at the bilateral-project level as part of the CDPF's performance measurement component. For multilateral initiatives, CIDA will encourage the use of monitoring and reporting, at both the national and local government levels.

Sri Lanka Country Strategy (2009)

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this country strategy. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the strategy are likely to cause direct or indirect environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

The overall aim of the 2009 Sri Lanka Country Strategy is to promote economic growth, with a minor emphasis on human rights. Support for sustainable economic growth will focus on skills for employment, job creation, and an improved business climate. Support for human rights will focus largely on language rights.

The analysis of lessons learned from previous CIDA activity in the country showed that programming in sustainable economic growth with an emphasis on human rights is the most effective option to achieve the program goals and objectives while meeting the Government of Sri Lanka's development priority needs. No other feasible options were examined from an environmental perspective.

A few potentially significant negative environmental impacts were identified in relation to sustainable economic growth programming through vocational training and access to credit. These include an increase in demand for energy, increased greenhouse gas emissions, and an increase in solid, liquid, and organic waste outputs. In the long term and in the absence of mitigation measures, the concentration of rural economic activity in certain areas may further degrade natural resources, soil, air, and water as a result of heightened resource consumption.

With the appropriate mitigation measures, no significant negative environmental impacts are likely to result from the implementation of the Sri Lanka Country Strategy. Mitigation approaches include the following:

  • Raising awareness on linkages between environment (including climate change and disaster risk reduction) and poverty reduction
  • Including the systematic integration of environmental considerations into the planning, implementation, and monitoring stages of economic growth programs and projects
  • Supporting coordinated efforts to promote the adoption of best practices and to reduce the potential for cumulative effects that could arise from a concentration of economic growth activity
  • Promoting clean and sustainable practices in energy efficiency, input management, and waste management in all components of sustainable economic growth programming
  • Supporting technical assistance and capacity building in environmental management at all levels, as appropriate
  • Conducting environmental assessments of projects in accordance with the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act and the Government of Sri Lanka's requirements and applying CIDA's Policy for Environmental Sustainability
  • Ensuring environmental expertise is made available to project staff throughout the entire project lifecycle

The main developmental risk from an environmental perspective is the potential that natural disasters and crises as anticipated effects of climate change could seriously undermine the achievement of results such as increased sustainable economic opportunities and agricultural productivity. Programming may require adjustments if severe negative environmental impacts are experienced from natural disasters due to climate change or pressures from unsustainable population increase or unsustainable economic growth rates. Mitigation and management measures could include disaster risk reduction (DRR) training and integrating DRR principles into programming through a DRR strategy.

An opportunity to realize significant environmental benefits exists due to the integration of environmental awareness and sustainable practices into vocational training. Improved economic outlooks are likely to lead to improved sustainable natural resourse use.

Follow up on the implementation of the mitigation measures will be integrated within the regular monitoring, evaluation, and review functions of the country strategy.

This assessment was conducted in consultation with senior staff in CIDA's India, Nepal, Sri Lanka Division, Geographic Programs Branch.

Vietnam Country Strategy (2009)

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this country strategy. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the strategy are likely to cause direct or indirect environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

CIDA's program of assistance to Vietnam for the period of 2009-2014, as articulated in the 2009 Vietnam Country Strategy, will continue to support the overall program objective of stimulating sustainable equitable growth while contributing to food security. This objective will be achieved by working to improve the enabling environment for investment and by supporting rural small and medium-sized enterprise development and agricultural productivity. The global economic downturn highlights the importance of addressing Vietman's structural governance problems in order to facilitate continued sustainable and equitable economic growth.

Vietnam has achieved remarkable sustained economic growth and poverty reduction through relatively simple reforms, which laid the foundations for a market economy. As the country approaches lower middle-income status, maintaining this growth and poverty reduction demands more complex and deep structural reforms, technically and institutionally. Modernizing legal and judicial institutions, improving lawmaking practices, developing appropriate financial sector supervision, creating appropriate standards and practices in agriculture and agri-food, and generating better capacities and practices at the sub-national level will all help improve the business climate for continued growth and development

This programming focus will help address immediate concerns related to the global economic crisis as well as support Vietnam's longer-term development priorities. Environmental sustainability and equality between women and men are cross-cutting themes. The programming focus will be addressed through three sub-sectors under sustainable economic growth: support to rural small and medium-sized enterprises; skills for employment; and enabling environment for investment. Under food security, the sub-sector will be: support to agriculture.

Adverse environmental consequences of implementing support to small and medium-sized enterprises, agriculture, and skills development could include:

  • loss of habitats and biodiversity;
  • increased demand for energy;
  • soil degradation; degradation;
  • contamination and loss of quantity of freshwater, leading to increased human health issues and water borne diseases;
  • reduction of air quality in urban and rural areas and associated health issues;
  • increased pesticide use;
  • increased greenhouse gas emissions;
  • and increases in solid, liquid, and organic wastes.

The anticipated effects of climate change also have the potential to seriously undermine increased sustainable economic opportunities and agricultural productivity, since CIDA programming will be concentrated in provinces affected by frequent floods and landslides in the Mekong Delta. Increases in sea levels could potentially flood low-lying coastal areas, affecting water quality and agriculture. Agriculture will also suffer from changes in temperature patterns. Coastal zones will suffer from more intense typhoons, posing higher threats to people's lives, livelihoods, infrastructure, and agricultural production.

With respect to enabling environment for investment (legal and governance reforms), no significant environmental issues and effects are anticipated, except where programming triggers new development patterns or accelerated growth. Some unintended impacts could include adverse effects on soil quality, water quality, habitat and biodiversity, and energy consumption.

With appropriate mitigation measures, no significant negative environmental effects are considered likely to result from the implementation of the country strategy. Application of mitigation measures also presents an opportunity to realize significant environmental benefits by promoting sustainable development at different levels of government and at all levels of CIDA interventions. Initiatives in promoting small and medium-sized enterprises, agriculture, skills development, and legal and governance reforms, including through program-based approaches, present opportunities to promote sustainable development. Realization of these benefits will be an important step in achieving the program's proposed goal of contributing to Vietnam's sustainable economic growth and development.

Environmental effects from implementation of the county strategy and success in implementing mitigation and enhancement measures will be monitored on a regular basis within the regular monitoring, evaluation, and review functions of the country strategy.

It may be necessary to adjust programming if severe negative environmental effects are experienced from natural disasters due to climate change, pressure from unsustainable population increase, or from unsustainable economic growth rates.

This assessment was conducted in consultation with senior staff in CIDA's Mainland Southeast Asia Division and the Geographic Programs Branch.

Southeast Asia Regional Programming Strategy (2009)

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this strategy. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the strategy are likely to cause direct or indirect environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

The objective of CIDA's 2009 Southeast Asia Regional Programming Strategy is to promote poverty reduction in the region by supporting initiatives on transboundary and shared regional issues led by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The focus of the strategy is to support the ASEAN agenda in sustainable economic growth, (through disaster risk reduction) and other reforms — such as governance, through strengthened human rights for women, children, migrant workers, and ethnic minorities. The Southeast Asia Regional Program will strengthen regional institutions, networks, and organizations working on transboundary or development issues that are effectively dealt with at a regional level. This will be achieved through supporting specific regional institutions and networks to address selected transboundary or regional democratic governance and human rights and environmental sustainability issues in order to contribute to poverty reduction, sustainable development, and human security. The Southeast Asia Regional Program is shifting its strategic orientation to capitalize on emerging opportunities in the region, specifically the emergence of ASEAN as a credible and effective regional organization.

The geophysical and climatic conditions of Southeast Asia have endowed the region with rich natural resources that sustain a myriad of economic activities and livelihoods, and provide critical life support systems for the region. With one of the highest population densities in the world exerting increasing pressure on the environment, the region suffers from climactic hazards, and natural disasters are often unleashed in the form of typhoons, floods, earthquakes and tsunamis, landslides, volcanic eruptions, droughts, and wild fires. Many vulnerabilities and environmental management issues found in Southeast Asia further intensify some of these natural hazards. The national governments of the region have recognized the regional collaboration and effective cooperation to tackle these issues collectively.

The analysis of lessons learned from previous CIDA activity in the Southeast Asia region showed that programming in sustainable economic growth, human rights, and disaster risk reduction are the most effective options to achieve the program goals and objectives while meeting the development priority needs. As these sub-sectors were predetermined by the Southeast Asia Regional Program, no other feasible alternatives were examined from an environmental perspective, and the SEA did not present other alternatives for programming.

A concerted regional approach is necessary to increase the ability to mitigate the direct and indirect impacts of natural disasters and transboundary hazards across Southeast Asia. Given the size and devastating impacts of natural disasters and transboundary hazards, ASEAN identified disaster risk reduction as a priority for supporting economic growth in the region. Activities carried out under the disaster risk reduction may result in direct positive environmental effects of significant importance, such as improved environmental planning and management and the improved capacity of governments to develop and implement integrated disaster management policies and best practices. In the long term, these effects could contribute to reversing current trends in environmental degradation. The implementation of the Southeast Asia Regional Programming Strategy could result in the building of more physical infrastructure for disaster prevention, which will in turn require appropriate design, construction, and implementation to minimize significant adverse environmental effects. Although these effects may not be the direct results of program activities, CIDA is committed to implement relevant mitigation measures.

Strengthening human rights, the second of the sub-sectors of focus, is a major governance challenge for Southeast Asia and one with increasing transboundary implications as mobility and awareness increase in the region. The program will focus on the treatment of migrant workers and ethnic minorities and the human trafficking of women and children as the most affected groups and the least able to defend themselves. No significant environmental effects are likely to result from programming in the sub-sector of human rights.

In order to enhance positive effects and minimize adverse ones, CIDA is committed to the promotion and the integration of environmental considerations into initiatives having to do with disaster risk reduction. This will occur through the following:

  • Raising awareness of the linkages between disaster risk reduction and environmental management
  • Conducting environmental assessments in accordance with the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act and applying CIDA's Policy for Environmental Sustainability
  • Ensuring the integration of environment is reflected in results-based management tools and in memorandums of understanding, agreements, and arrangements
  • Engaging in policy dialogue to promote environmental mainstreaming into disaster risk reduction and development planning

Overall, it is expected that the program will result in positive environmental effects.

Follow-up on the implementation of the mitigation measures will be integrated into the regular monitoring, evaluation, and review functions of the program.

This assessment was conducted in consultation with senior staff in CIDA's Philippines-Indonesia Regional Program, Sri-Lanka and Nepal Division, and the Asia Program, Geographic Programs Branch.

China Country Strategy (2009)

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this country strategy. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the strategy are likely to cause direct or indirect environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

Canada's goal for its new strategy for China is to ensure that China engages internationally as a constructive force and a good global citizen with respect to global economy, regional and international security, human rights, and democracy. CIDA's program of assistance to China will focus on promoting the Canadian values of human rights, more specifically on ethnic minority rights, rule-of-law, and labour rights of migrant workers, and the environment.

It is unlikely that the planned programming in human rights will have any significant adverse effects. Opportunities for positive environmental effects, however, do exist. For example, programming in the area of labour rights should consider incorporating environmental issues such as indoor air pollution, hazardous waste management, and workers' health.

As to support for sound environmental management, this program element will help strengthen the Chinese government's environmental commitments and will likely lead to significant environmental benefits such as:

  • Development of significant environmental, economic, and social targets in the 2011-2015 five-year plan
  • Better informed policy decisions on environmental management and sustainable development in China
  • Promotion of environmental sustainability in China through support for Chinese efforts to manage environmental issues

In the long-term, the increased capacity of the Chinese government will assist in the reduction and reversal of the negative environmental trends.

In order to reduce, eliminate, or control the risks for minor adverse environmental effects and to enhance the likely positive environmental effects, CIDA will:

  • Ensure that every initiative, where appropriate, builds, from the outset, environmental sustainability considerations into its design, implementation, and monitoring
  • Ensure that environmental assessments are conducted as required under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) and that field level processes are in place to ensure all CEAA requirements are met
  • Ensure that field and regional staff working on initiatives under the China Country Strategy have appropriate skills, or access to expertise, in the areas of environmental assessment and integration
  • Seek to influence the partners it engages with, and seek to raise the awareness for environmental issues within their organizations

The analysis of lessons learned from previous CIDA activity in China showed that programming in ethnic minority rights, rule-of-law, and labour rights of migrant workers and influencing China's overall environmental management policies to reduce emissions and increase compliance with international environmental agreements are the most effective options to achieve the program goals and objectives while meeting the People's Republic of China's development priorities. No other feasible alternatives have been examined from an environmental perspective.

Monitoring and reporting on environmental effects will be integrated, as appropriate, into the regular mechanisms established at the project level.

This assessment was conducted in consultation with senior staff in CIDA's China and Northeast Asia Division, Geographic Programs Branch (Asia).

With the application of the above measures, it can be concluded that there are no likely significant adverse environmental effects as a result of the implementation of this country strategy and that the approach has the potential to result in important positive environmental effects.

Cambodia Country Strategy (2009)

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this country strategy. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the strategy are likely to cause direct or indirect environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

The strategy covers a five-year period from 2009-2010 to 2013-2014. CIDA's bilateral budget for Cambodia will average about $5 million per year over the next five years. The 2009 Cambodia Country Strategy objective is to support sustainable economic growth and food security through expanded economic opportunities and improved land management for rural poor in Cambodia. To meet this objective, programming will target the sectors of sustainable economic growth and food security, focussing on the subsectors of land management and administration and support to agriculture extension services in northwest Cambodia.

Effective agricultural extension services are an imperative for Cambodia's efforts toward sustainable and equitable economic growth. To strengthen agricultural development and land tenure development, secure and equitable access to mine-cleared land must be expanded; the use of environmentally sustainable and more productive small-scale agricultural techniques and tools must be encouraged; and improved support services to increase access to and share of markets for poor farmers must be facilitated.

This strategic focus will increase access to safe and productive land for rural farmers and strengthen agricultural extension services and markets to help improve physical and economic access to safer and more nutritious food for the poor.

Lessons learned from previous CIDA activity in Cambodia showed that programming in land management and administration and supporting agricultural extension services are the most effective options to achieve program goals and objectives while meeting the Royal Government of Cambodia's development priority needs. As these options were predetermined by the Cambodia Country Program, no other feasible alternatives were examined from an environmental perspective, and the SEA did not present alternatives for programming.

The strategy could, in the absence of appropriate mitigation measures, lead to unsustainable use of resources, potentially resulting in:

  • Reduced soil quality
  • Increased vulnerability to natural disasters
  • Contamination or destruction of habitat
  • Loss of biological diversity
  • Increased waste outputs

Several of these direct environmental consequences also have potential to create adverse consequences for human health and economic conditions. Cumulatively, these risks of environmental degradation would result in overall reduced prospects for sustainable livelihoods among Cambodia's poor. With appropriate mitigation measures, however, no significant negative environmental effects are likely to result from the implementation of the strategy.

An opportunity to realize significant environmental benefits exists due to integration of environmental awareness and sustainable practices in agricultural extension. The adoption of sustainable harvesting and environmental management practices in farm and food processing operations and in demining operations could help to:

  • Reduce current trends in environmental stresses in Cambodia
  • Increase prospects for sustainable livelihoods in rural areas
  • Reduce vulnerability to natural disasters (particularly flooding)

The strategy will likely strengthen the capacity for land administration, an essential first step in promoting more sustainable and equitable economic growth in Cambodia.

To mitigate the likely environmental consequences identified, the following measures will be implemented, as appropriate:

  • Raise awareness on linkages between environment (including climate change and disaster risk reduction) and poverty reduction (including economic growth)
  • Promote knowledge sharing and adoption of clean and sustainable practices in resource harvesting, crop production, food processing, and livestock management
  • Support land management based on possibilities, limitations, and values, including disaster risk reduction
  • Conduct environmental assessments of projects in accordance with CIDA's obligations under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act and with the Royal Government of Cambodia's requirements
  • Apply and promote the United Nations mine action standards regarding environmental protection
  • Use appropriate environmental tools (for example, environmental management plans, environmental assessments, strategic environmental assessments, site assessments)
  • Monitor and report on environmental consequences of programming
  • Ensure environmental expertise is made available to project staff, when needed

The SEA identified no important positive effects, and therefore there is no need for enhancement measures.

With respect to environmental risks, climate change impacts, including changes in prevailing precipitation patterns, frequency and intensity of cyclones, storm surges, and sea level increases are likely to have serious consequences for Cambodia, affecting food security and water supplies, poverty levels, human health conditions, and biodiversity. Potential disasters also pose a risk for agricultural programming, especially in flood prone areas.

Follow-up on the implementation of the mitigation measures will be integrated into the regular monitoring, evaluation, and review functions of the strategy.

This SEA was conducted in consultation with senior staff in CIDA's Mainland Southeast Asia Division, Geographic Programs Branch.

Philippines Country Strategy (2009)

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this country strategy. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the strategy are likely to cause direct or indirect environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

The Philippines environment has experienced severe environmental stress and degradation from increasing population pressures and unsustainable harvesting practices, resulting in the loss of forests and upland soils, degradation of coastal and marine ecosystems, loss of natural habitat and biodiversity, poor air quality in urban centres, and increased vulnerability to natural disasters such as flooding. Although the Philippines has a progressive environmental policy and legal framework, it is fragmented and limited, at both the national and local levels, by constraining factors such as weak institutional capacity and financial resources for environmental planning, management, and enforcement.

To address these issues, the Philippines government identified environmental sustainability and protection as major elements of its poverty reduction and sustainable development goals. Environmental sustainability and natural resource management are part of the main objectives in the Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan 2004-2010 as well as part of its commitment to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of poverty reduction and environmental sustainability.

The analysis of lessons learned from previous CIDA activity in the Philippines showed that programming to improve the investment climate and protect the economic interest of the poor is the most effective option to achieve the program goals and objectives while meeting the development priority needs of the Government of the Philippines. As this option was predetermined by the Philippines-Indonesia Regional Program, no other feasible options were examined from an environmental perspective, and the SEA did not present alternatives for programming.

The objective of CIDA's 2009 Philippines Country Strategy program is to support inclusive and sustainable economic growth by improving the enabling environment in two specific areas:

  • Improving the climate for investment
  • Protecting the economic interests of the poor

The overall direction of programming in sustainable economic growth is toward a more intensive level of resource use. The concern is that this trend may lead to a demand for land, water, and energy resources beyond the capacity of the environment to maintain or provide renewable resources on a sustainable basis. These negative consequences, although maybe minor in absolute terms, could contribute to current environmental degradation trends and undermine the future prospects for sustainable livelihoods for the poor. If long-term environmental considerations are not taken into account in program implementation, the potential for cumulative effects with respect to the continued loss of environmental quality, increased risks to human health, and increased vulnerability of the population to environmental changes and natural disasters will remain.

Key mitigation measures include:

  • Targeting of governance capacity building in environmental planning and management, especially with local government units
  • Incorporation of environmental concerns into development projects
  • Application of policy safeguards such as environmental assessment where appropriate
  • Monitoring and reporting of environmental performance of development projects
  • Ensuring that CIDA field staff have access to environmental expertise

With appropriate mitigation measures, programming for improving the investment climate and protecting the economic interests of the poor has the potential to generate indirect positive environmental consequences. Over the longer term, the country strategy can help to build capacity for incorporating environmental concerns into decision making at all levels. This will help to improve longer-term prospects for sustainable economic growth and reduce poverty in the Philippines.

The main developmental risk from an environmental perspective remains the potential of natural disasters due to climate change. The anticipated effects of climate change have the potential to seriously undermine programming if severe negative environmental effects are experienced from natural disasters due to climate change. Mitigation and management measures could include disaster risk reduction (DRR) training and integrating DRR principles into programming through a DRR strategy.

Monitoring and reporting on environmental effects will be integrated, as appropriate, into the regular assessments and evaluations established at the program and project level.

This assessment was conducted in consultation with senior staff in CIDA's Philippines-Indonesia Regional Program, Sri-Lanka and Nepal Division, Asia Program, Geographic Programs Branch, as well as program staff posted in Manila.

CIDA’s Country Development Programming Framework for Bangladesh

In compliance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause direct or evident environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

This Country Development Programming Framework (CDPF)'s goal is to contribute to poverty reduction and sustainable development through support for social development (health and education), governance, and the private sector.

In the absence of mitigation measures, impacts on human health as well as the following negative environmental effects could occur as a result of the implementation of initiatives under this programming framework: localized land disturbance, reduced water quality, land degradation, reductions in the quality and quantity of water resources, loss of biological diversity, habitat destruction, and reduced air quality. The SEA concluded that the negative impacts identified in the analysis are not significant.

Each initiative will be designed to promote sustainable development. In particular, initiatives promoting private sector-growth will consider how best to promote a competitive enabling environment while ensuring sustainable resource management and pollution prevention. In some cases, those considerations will be raised in the context of project environmental assessments under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA). In most cases, projects will not directly involve physical works or activities that would warrant establishing a CEAA checklist. Additional environmental analysis will be mandated separately. In the case of initiatives that deal with regulation or capacity building, the additional environmental analysis may take the form of more specific and focused subsidiary SEAs.

This CDPF will have significant environmental effects, which include: improved environmental performance as a result of governance reform on environmental and social responsibility, and a significant improvement of the country's approach to natural resources management.

Consultation on this SEA was undertaken with senior staff in the Bangladesh Division and with the environment specialist in the Strategic Planning and Policy Division, Asia Branch, at CIDA.

This CDPF may need to be adjusted if severe negative environmental effects are experienced from natural disasters due to the changing climate or from the growth rates needed to achieve poverty reduction goals. The assessment recommended measures to monitor these risks in cooperation with other donor countries and the Government of Bangladesh.

CIDA’s Country Development Programming Framework for Indonesia

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause direct or indirect environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

The goal of the Country Development Programming Framework (CDPF) for Indonesia is to support Indonesian efforts to reduce the vulnerability to poverty of its citizens.

In the absence of mitigation measures, implementation of the proposed CDPFhas the potential to result in a range of significant adverse environmental effects. Of particular concern is the potential for some rural economic development initiatives under the small and medium enterprises and natural resources management components to lead to more intensive short-term demand for and use of resources that exceeds the local environment's capacity to maintain or provide renewable resources on a sustainable basis. Such excessive demand could contribute to current environmental degradation trends and undermine the prospects of sustainable livelihoods for the poor.

Mitigation measures, to the extent possible, will be integratedinto the planning, implementation and monitoring of all initiatives carried out under the CDPF. Project-level environmental assessment will also be applied as policy safeguards in certain circumstances, and CIDA will need to ensure that field and regional staff have access to appropriate resource management expertise.

The proposed CDPFpresents a major opportunity to halt the current trends in environmental degradation in Indonesia, and to promote environmental sustainability and generate significant positive environmental effects at the community, enterprise and district government levels. CDPFinitiatives are likely to result in practices and attitudes that promote soil and water conservation, sustainable forestry and fishery harvesting practices, improved environmental enforcement, and reduced conflicts around resource access.

Consultation on the assessment was undertaken with senior staff in CIDA's Indonesia, Philippines and South Pacific Division, Asia Branch, and in the Environmental Assessment Unit, Policy Branch.

Monitoring and reporting on environmental effects will be integrated with the regular assessments and evaluations established at the project level as part of the CDPF's performance measurement component. Ongoing monitoring and reporting requirements will help ensure that potential and emerging problems related to adverse environmental effects are identified and addressed early on in the project design and implementation phase.

Eastern Europe

Concept Paper Outlining CIDA’s Country Development Programming Framework for Ukraine

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause direct or indirect environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

The proposed goal for CIDA's programming in Ukraine is to contribute to sustainable development, with equitable living standards for all Ukrainians and increased socio-economic opportunities for the poor.

In the absence of mitigation measures, the potential negative effects associated with the implementation of the country development programming framework (CDPF) include: a transfer of economic activity to more damaging or resource-intensive industries, concentration of economic activity; and poor environmental management practices by business.

The implementation of the CDPF will likely result in significant positive effects, which include: the integration of environmental sustainability considerations into policy formulation and implementation; increased transparency and participation in decision-making processes; increased incomes; a transfer of economic activity from ecologically damaging or resource-intensive industries to those that are more sustainable; human migration away from marginal or heavily contaminated land to areas with increased economic opportunities or improved environmental practices.

Mitigation measures will be designed to minimize negative environmental effects and maximize positive ones. In essence, sustainable development considerations will be integrated at the earliest possible stage of planning into projects carried out by CIDA in Ukraine. A complementary approach to mitigation will be for CIDA programming within the governance and private sector development sectors to include direct support for environmental management capacity building in the private and public sectors.

The SEA was developed in consultation with senior staff and environment specialists in CIDA's Europe, Middle East and Maghreb Branch.

Environmental effects resulting from the implementation of the CDPF and success in implementing mitigation and enhancement measures will be monitored on a regular basis through annual project performance reporting, annual program performance reporting, and by including environmental considerations in the terms of reference for evaluations, monitoring and reviews. Corrective measures will be implemented as required to address situations where environmental results are not being achieved.

North Africa and the Middle East

CIDA’s Program in Egypt

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for CIDA's program in Egypt. The SEA determined that the activities stemming from this program are likely to cause direct or indirect important environmental effects that should be addressed.

The goal of CIDA's program in Egypt is to help that country generate economic growth by strengthening the enabling environment for small and medium-sized enterprises and providing employment skills to marginalized people.

Important positive effects

Business development services can play a significant role in contributing to improved environmental performance and compliance with local and national regulations. By raising awareness surrounding the environment and private sector development issues, business services can support the adoption of more environmentally sustainable practices, sound health and safety practices, socially responsible principles, and the development of green business. They can facilitate better environmental management by providing training, linkages to knowledge and professional networks; facilitate certification; and provide access to environmental consulting services

Likewise, supporting the development of environmental skills and the integration of environment and natural resource issues into formal and informal education programs will increase awareness of beneficiaries and contribute to stabilizing the natural environment on which the population's livelihoods and the economy in general depend.

Important negative effects

Increased pressure on natural resources, such as additional demands for water resources, materials and energy, are generally associated with the development of micro-, small and medium-sized enterprises. This increased use of resources by industrial and agricultural processes generally translates into more pollution. The cumulative impacts of these firms can be significant when considering Egypt's fragile environmental situation, which includes continued loss of environmental quality, increased risks to human health, and increased vulnerability of the population to environmental changes and natural disasters.

CIDA's program in Egypt will optimize or minimize the expected positive and negative environmental effects through the following recommendations:

  • For projects requiring environmental guidance, ensure participation of environmental specialists in project teams throughout the project cycle.
  • Optimize environmental opportunities in programming; promote policy dialogue on environmental issues as appropriate.
  • Ensure that each individual project has its own environmental analysis identifying environmental effects, effects of the environment on the project, mitigation measures for potential negative impacts, as well as environmental opportunities. Planned construction projects may require an environmental assessment according to the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act.
  • Report on environmental results at both the project and program levels; capture project level environmental results in the narrative section of the program's management summary report in CIDA's reporting system; and review the program's performance measurement framework to include relevant indicators related to the environment. For each project, develop an environmental strategy and, where relevant, include specific environmental sustainability results and indicators. Report on environmental sustainability progress and results in all monitoring and evaluation exercises.
  • Ensure that CIDA's projects comply with internationally accepted norms and standards aimed at preventing the contamination of the natural environment and promoting adaptation to climate changes, including extreme climatic events.
  • Build and maintain environmental capacity of project stakeholders and CIDA staff, both at headquarters and in the field, to address environmental sustainability issues related to micro-, small and medium-sized businesses and use appropriate environmental tools such as strategic environmental assessments and environmental impact assessments.

Given the potential for both, adverse effects and environmental opportunities, the environmental effects associated with the implementation of CIDA's program in Egypt will continually be monitored and reported.

Monitoring and reporting on positive and negative environmental effects will explicitly be integrated with the regular assessments and evaluations established at the program level. The program will gather project level information through annual reporting and consolidate this information in the narrative section of the management summary report. The program's performance measurement framework will be reviewed to include relevant indicators related to the environment.

Ongoing monitoring and reporting on environmental progress and results will help to ensure that potential and emerging problems related to adverse environmental effects are identified and addressed early on in the project design and implementation phases.

This SEA was developed in consultation with CIDA's Egypt program team at headquarters and in the field. CIDA's environmental specialists, both in Egypt and in Canada, have been closely involved in the development of this document. All proposed mitigation measures and environmental opportunities have been reviewed as part of the consultation.

Sub-Saharan Africa

Optimizing Health Human Resources for Improved Health Outcomes in Zambia

In accordance with The Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

CIDA proposes to Optimize Health Human Resources for Improved Health Outcomes in Zambia by providing support to the Government of Zambia for the implementation of its Human Resources for Health Strategic Plan (HRHSP) through the Human Resources for Health (HRH) pooled fund. The amount proposed is $14.5 million over four years from the Zambia Program's reference level. This proposal for new support follows on the heels of a two-year, $20-million pilot initiative: Strengthening Health Systems in Zambia (SHSZam). SHSZam supports the implementation of the National Health Strategic Plan as well as directs support to the implementation of the HRHSP. Achievements through this investment to date include positive trends in key health indicators and significant operational improvements. Through [Editor's note: This acronym should be defined] iHOZ, CIDA is proposing to build on these early operational results with targeted support that will enable the Government of Zambia to accelerate the implementation of the various programs and priorities defined in the HRHSP.

There are a few potential negative effects resulting from this initiative, including the disposal of solid wastes such as hospital wastes and stockpiles of expired drugs. Other effects may result from the construction work necessary for the rehabilitation of training institutions.

CIDA has identified and proposed mitigation measures for these potentially negative effects. They include the use of policy dialogue to promote positive environmental actions in relation to the disposal of pharmaceutical waste. CIDA will also work with the government to ensure adherence to all applicable government environmental regulations associated with the rehabilitation of training institutions and the construction of staff housing at rural health facilities.

Consultations with the affected parties have been conducted. These parties comprise the Zambian Ministry of Health, members of the Human Resources Technical Working Group, Cooperating Partners in the health sector, and the Department of Foreign Affairs through its mission in Lusaka.

CIDA will monitor the application of Zambia's environmental legislation in the implementation of infrastructure projects associated with expanding training capacity in Zambia and the construction of housing for rural health workers.

CIDA’s Country Development Programming Framework for Senegal (2001-2011)

CIDA's Country Development Programming Framework (CDPF) for Senegal focuses on the education and grass-roots economic development sectors. The types of projects to be implemented within this framework probably will not have any major negative environmental effects. The systematic inclusion of an environment dimension in the planning and implementation phases of the projects - through the use of various environmental regulation tools and the application of the principles of CIDA's Policy for Environmental Sustainability - will minimize the potential negative effects.

The following are some of the positive effects noted in the basic education and grass-roots economic development sectors: better integration of environmental considerations to promote wise decision-making (at the local and government levels); consideration of environmental issues in decision-making when implementing programming framework projects, a better environment and better sanitation for schools, and awareness of environmental issues among pupils and teachers.

Several consultations were held between the Government of Senegal and CIDA in developing CIDA's CDPF for Senegal.

An environmental monitoring and control system will be put in place as part of the programming framework performance measurement process. Performance indicators, specific to the environment and natural resource management, will make it possible to evaluate the establishment of mitigation and improvement measures for the various areas of intervention. These indicators will be evaluated in the programming framework's annual bilateral review exercises.

Evaluation of CIDA's Country Strategy for Ethiopia

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this country strategy. The SEA determined that the activities stemming from this strategy are likely to cause direct or indirect important environmental effects that should be addressed.

The SEA was undertaken based on CIDA's 2009 country strategy for Ethiopia, which targets several areas of activity: food security, agriculture and rural development basic services, and good governance that focuses on accountability of institutions. These sectors of activity are consistent with Ethiopia's national poverty reduction strategy, Ethiopia: Building on Progress?A Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty, which identifies food insecurity, basic services, market-based agriculture, and improvement of service delivery institutions as main priorities

Food security, agriculture and rural development (support to farmers in developing diversified and resilient eco-agricultural systems): Among possible risks is the management capacity within the Government of Ethiopia and inadequate agricultural practices and land and water management. Symptoms of poor natural resources management capacity may include inappropriately located and managed agricultural and husbandry activities, misapplication of agrochemicals leading to water issues, soil loss and degradation, desertification, and increased incidence of malaria.

CIDA's programming for Ethiopia will ensure that environmental as well as climate change considerations are integrated in the planning, design and monitoring of initiatives. Programming will also encourage the adoption of integrated land and water management, sound agricultural and husbandry practices, control of soil erosion, and land rehabilitation. As part of the initiatives it supports, CIDA's programming for Ethiopia will seek opportunities to build the capacity of the Government of Ethiopia's institutional partners to address institutional constraints contributing to unsustainable natural resource use.

Children and youth (support to initiatives that promote high-impact health commodities such as vaccines and antimalarial bed nets): The main risk identified is associated with the disposal of medical waste from health programs and the potential for increased malaria and other vector-borne diseases as a result of increased irrigation.

Opportunities within CIDA's program in Ethiopia include supporting the enforcement of the Government of Ethiopia's environmental regulations related to the use and disposal of essential drugs and medical supplies by the Ministry of Health and other partners involved in delivery and use of health commodities. Through its support to food security, agriculture, and rural development initiatives, CIDA also promotes and encourages the adoption of an integrated approach to land and water management.

Governance (support to strengthen democratic institutions and build the capacity of the government): Poor environmental governance brings risks of inappropriate management of natural resources, which can exacerbate the severe problems of food insecurity, low agricultural productivity and resource conflict, and possibly further degrade the environment and hamper development goals. There is a significant opportunity to advance local government capacity in environmental governance in the areas of food security, agricultural development, and basic service delivery.

CIDA will continue to contribute to efforts that enhance appropriate environmental capacity of local government institutions participating in programs it supports. CIDA will work closely with the Government of Ethiopia and other development partners to develop the environmental management capacities of the Government of Ethiopia institutional partners of CIDA-funded programs. It will also continue to ensure that international and Canadian organizations that receive funds from CIDA for specific initiatives give due considerations to environmental issues, foster good environmental practices, and allocate sufficient resources to properly manage the integration , including the monitoring and reporting, of environmental considerations into their initiatives.

CIDA's country program for Ethiopia will ensure that appropriate and relevant assessments of environmental risks and opportunities are carried out early in the design of initiatives. Environmental results and monitoring indicators will be integrated, as relevant, into the logic model and performance management framework of the country development programming framework (CDPF) and program initiatives. The environmental results achieved by the program will be monitored.

Where the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act applies, the program will ensure environmental assessment is carried out early in the planning phase of initiatives and will monitor the implementation of mitigation measures and other recommendations stemming from these studies. In the interest of promoting best practices, CIDA's environmentally sustainable programming will strengthen emphasis on explicit and sector-specific environmental analysis, on consultation with women and men to identify needs and interests, on integration of climate change considerations into programming, and on inclusion of explicit and measurable results in relation to CIDA's objectives outlined in the CDPF.

CIDA's 2009 country strategy for Ethiopia builds on ongoing activities for the 2004 CDPF, for which a SEA was completed. The previous 2004 CDPF's SEA was developed in consultation with relevant Ethiopian stakeholders, such as the Environmental Protection Authority, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development, and development partners (for example, the World Bank). Their views on sound integration of environmental concerns into CIDA's programs and projects were incorporated. CIDA's program and project officers and environmental specialists at CIDA headquarters and in the field have reviewed this SEA, but no specific external consultations with Ethiopia's institutions or active donors have been conducted.

CIDA’s Country Development Programming Framework for Ethiopia

In compliance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause direct or evident environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

The implementation of CIDA's Country Development Programming Framework (CDPF) for Ethiopia will likely result in positive environmental effects. Without the CDPF, the without it the current environmental conditions would become worse. Some of the negative environmental effects associated with the status quo in Ethiopia include: soil erosion, leading to a decrease in soil fertility and impacting water harvesting infrastructure; a decrease in water quality and availability; inappropriate land-use planning; land tenure problems; and a general degradation of the environment and of natural resources, leading to increased threats to peace and security.

A systematic environmental analysis of new projects and programs, along with ongoing compliance with Ethiopian and Canadian environmental impact assessment requirements, can effectively mitigate most negative effects and can help identify opportunities to achieve important positive effects.

The CDPF presents great potential to achieve very significant positive effects if opportunities within the governance and food security programs are acted upon. These effects essentially include a reversal of the negative effects listed above and a general improvement in the environment.

In developing the CDPF, consultations were held with the Government of Ethiopia, Ethiopian and Canadian civil society, and other donors.

The performance measurement framework and strategic results framework for the CDPF will include an outline of long- and medium-term outcomes, targets, and indicators for environment-related objectives. The strategic results framework draws heavily on the policy matrix for poverty reduction support. The matrix will eventually serve as a common basis for ongoing performance measurement by the government and donors.

CIDA’s Country Development Programming Framework for Mali

In compliance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause direct or evident environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

Depending on how the activities of the Canada-Mali cooperation program are implemented, the following negative environmental effects could occur: a significant increase in water demand and use, an increase in the harvesting of forest resources, an increase in soil erosion, a decrease in biodiversity, a deterioration in soil quality and water quantities, an increase in the emission of air pollutants, and an increase in wastewater production.

Environmental considerations will be integrated in all planning, design, and implementation phases of the various projects and programs resulting from the programming framework. This principal mitigation measure will minimize negative environmental effects and maximize positive one. The SEA outlines more specific mitigation measures, such as adopting best practices in using natural resources.

The following are some of the positive effects noted: environmental assessment of projects; awareness of environmental best practices among stakeholders and communities, such as sustainable use and management of natural resources and the environment; introduction of new and more environmentally friendly production methods, and new approaches to waste management; implementation of environmental policies; and strengthening of acts and regulations to protect the environment.

The programming framework for Mali is the result of extensive consultation for over a year, involving all partners in Mali and Canada interested in the cooperation program between the two countries.

Project monitoring will include aspects of environmental monitoring for which recommendations were made in the environmental assessment process. A number of environmental indicators will also be included in the cooperation program's annual work plan and performance monitoring framework. Such indicators could focus on, for example, the number of projects that have undergone environmental assessments, public information and consultation sessions, and ongoing environmental monitoring.

CIDA’s Country Development Programming Framework for Mozambique (2004-2009)

In compliance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause direct or evident environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

CIDA'S country Development Programming Framework (CDPF) for Mozambique focuses on four sectors: education, agriculture and rural development, HIV/AIDS, and good governance.

The potential negative environmental effects that may occur as a result of implementation of this CDPF are not significant, and would likely occur in the agricultural sector as a result of expansion and intensification of resource use.

A number of mitigation measures have been identified to minimize or eliminate the negative environmental effects and maximize the positive effects. The most imperative measures involve: (1) ensuring that the design and operationalization of program elements as well as policy dialogue take into account and promote the principles of environmentally sustainable development; and (2) consistent monitoring and assessment of the evolving environmental context in Mozambique, and the performance of CIDA and its partners against, among others, environmental requirements, targets, and objectives.

The implementation of this CDPF is likely to have mostly positive environmental effects, notably in the area of improved environmental governance at all levels and across all sectors. More specifically, positive effects include: an improved education system that will help generate greater awareness of environmental issues; better personal hygiene, environmental health and increased waste management practices; improved fish and seafood harvesting practices; reductions in conflicts around resource access; improved forestry, watershed and coastal resource management; more protection of water quality; improved basic sanitation systems; and greater institutional capacity and awareness for incorporating environmental concerns into decision-making at all levels.

This CDPF was developed following extensive consultations with CIDA staff, the local government, and other partners in Mozambique.

The SEA will be frequently updated and improved through a process of monitoring, validation, consultation, re-assessment and adjustment. Feedback on the effectiveness of proposed mitigation measures, environmental effects (positive and negative) of CIDA initiatives, and any corrective actions that arise during implementation of the CDPF will be collected on a regular basis.

Nigeria Country Strategy

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this country strategy. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the strategy are likely to cause direct or indirect environmental effects that should be addressed.

The SEA was performed for the period 2010-2015 based on the Nigeria country strategy completed in 2009 and the annexes resulting from the country development programming framework exercise completed in 2010. Based on the programming objectives in the sectors of health and natural resource management, with the programming focus being placed on health, it is not anticipated that there will be any important negative effects on the environment from CIDA's programming.

There are, however, opportunities for positive important effects in both of these sectors, which should be exploited. These include:

  • Collecting information on and raising awareness of the strong links between the environment and human health in Nigeria
  • Improving practices concerning medical waste disposal
  • Improving natural resource management practices and systems
  • Improving Nigeria's policies regarding climate change
  • Raising awareness of the effects of climate change in Nigeria

Cumulative effects are not expected to be significant, and no negative cumulative effects are expected. There is potential for positive cumulative effects, but the enhancement of these effects is beyond the scope of CIDA's programming.

There were extensive consultations for the development of the Nigeria country strategy, as well as for this SEA. For the SEA, field and headquarters staff were consulted, as were key partners and other donors programming in the same sectors. There were no stakeholder or public concerns expressed during any of the consultations.

The SEA did not look at environmental effects pertaining to existing projects in sectors that are no longer CIDA's areas of focus in Nigeria. These projects have already been assessed under other processes.

The program will be monitored through the Nigeria program's performance management framework, which includes indicators stemming from the SEA. Further monitoring will be achieved through active participation of the assigned environmental specialist.

CIDA’s Country Development Programming Framework for Rwanda

In compliance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause direct or evident environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

CIDA's Country Development Programming Framework (CDPF) for Rwanda focuses on gender equality, the environment and HIV/AIDS. Its overarching goal is poverty reduction.

The implementation of this CDPF could result in a number of adverse environmental effects such as: the loss of habitat through increased cultivation of wetlands; a reduction of the capacity of wetlands to hold water as a result of drainage and irrigation activities; increases in waterborne diseases due to building irrigation ponds; the increased use of pesticides; and increased erosion due to road construction and repair.

Measures were developed to mitigate adverse environmental effects and enhance beneficial effects resulting from the implementation of the CDPF. These measures are as follows: systematic environmental assessment of new projects and programs, and ongoing observation of Rwanda's and Canada's environmental impact assessment requirements; excluding undeveloped wetlands from certain projects; analysis of the potential effects of changing wetlands on the water system in the project's area of implementation; grass-roots environmental training with a module on malaria and other diseases; and information campaigns and training regarding the use of fertilizers and pesticides

CIDA programming will have positive environmental effects such as: improved natural resource management; improved soil and water conservation; more sustainable farming practices; increases in the productivity of wetlands currently used for agriculture; improvements in food security; establishment of an environmental policy dialogue between donors and the Government of Rwanda; and capacity building and training for public servants and local communities on environmentally sensitive practices.

During the development of this CDPF, consultations were initiated with representatives of the Government of Rwanda, grass-roots civil society organizations, Canadian partners, interested Canadian federal government departments, CIDA's corporate team and Africa Branch's management group.

Following the programming framework's initial implementation phases, an in-depth environmental review will be carried out. Moreover, the performance measurement framework and the CDPF strategic results framework will define results, targets and objectives, and medium- and long-term indicators for achieving environmental objectives.

African Capacity Building Foundation (ACBF)

In compliance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause direct or evident environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

This particular initiative is aimed at improving governance, sustainability and environmental considerations in decision-making. This means that there are no negative effects to state regarding CIDA's plan for the African Capacity Building Foundation (ACBF), or any mitigative actions to be taken.

Two activities, as a result of the initiative, will likely have positive effects on the environment. These include: (1) increasing the capacity of institutions responsible for environmental management by helping direct investments in environmental management, and reforming and strengthening environmental institutions and governance; and (2) integrating environmental sustainability training in all ACBF operations.

Monitoring will be encouraged throughout the implementation of this initiative. CIDA will encourage ACBF to develop indicators for assessing the environmental impact of its programming. The Results and Risk Management and Accountability Framework (RRMAF) anticipates that environmental sustainability will be integrated into ACBF capacity building initiatives.

ACBF developed its strategic plans in consultation with stakeholders at the regional, national, and local levels. CIDA has consulted with ACBF, relevant Canadian embassies and high commissions in Sub-Saharan Africa, and Agency environmental specialists in preparing the SEA.

CIDA's support for food security in Ethiopia

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause direct or indirect environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

In this initiative, CIDA will grant up to $140 million dollars to support of the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) in Ethiopia through the World Bank, the World Food Programme, and other contracted entities. The PSNP is a major multi-donor instrument for achieving the Ethiopian government's goal of reducing vulnerability and contributing to the attainment of food security for approximately 7.5 million chronically food insecure people.

The PSNP will produce positive environmental impacts since its activities focus on environmental regeneration and infrastructure to promote more sustainable agricultural practices such as terracing and bunding for soil conservation. Negative environmental impacts can be avoided as long as good practices are followed in the design and implementation of the program. None of the potential impacts is considered to present unacceptable or unmanageable risks since the project will be guided by an environmental and social management framework.

Consultations on this initiative were conducted primarily with the donor community and the Ethiopian government partners at the federal, regional and district levels. The concerns identified in the SEA for this initiative were discussed with relevant stakeholders to ensure that CIDA's requirements are consistent with the common framework for program planning and environmental management.

An effective environmental review process must be established and the regional environmental authorities must have the capacity to undertake environmental review and approval of such plans. CIDA will continue to monitor, evaluate, and report on the performance of this program and provide targeted capacity building and technical assistance in environmental management and impact assessment.

Canada’s Contribution to Legal Sector Reform Program of Tanzania

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

The purpose of the program is to enhance social justice by updating and harmonizing legislation, improving access to justice for the poor and disadvantaged, enhancing human rights and strengthening the justice system, and improving service delivery and capacity of key legal sector institutions.

A number of positive effects are likely to occur as a result of the initiative. They include the improved enforcement of Tanzanian laws governing the environment and natural resource management, a higher profile for environmental issues, the more effective inclusion of environmental considerations in the legal sector, better coordination among and between legal and environment sector institutions, and the strengthened capacity of project stakeholders who will receive training in environmental screening for infrastructure initiatives.

A number of negative effects are likely to occur as a result of the initiative. They include environmental impacts relating to the infrastructure activities of building and rehabilitating some legal sector institutions, and could include loss of vegetation, pollution of land and water resources, soil erosion and unsafe disposal of hazardous materials.

Mitigation measures have been identified and proposed for the potentially negative environmental effects. They include the careful adherence to established processes for environmental management under Tanzanian laws and frameworks, including the Environment Management Act, and the application of a program-specific Environment and Social Management Framework, which complies with World Bank and international standards.

Consultations with affected parties have been conducted. These affected parties include stakeholders who were consulted in the development of the Environment and Social Management Framework. Consultation is part of the principles and procedures under the Environment Management Act.

Monitoring and follow-up procedures have been put in place for the initiative. They include environmental monitoring that will be carried out during the construction, operation, and maintenance of the infrastructure projects in order to measure the success of the mitigation measures.

Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa

In accordance with The Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

he main objective of the Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa's (FARA III) is to respond to the current food crisis by supporting the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP) of the African Union/New Partnership for Africa's Development (AU/NEPAD). CIDA's support to CAADP is focused on improving African agricultural research, and assisting farmers to adopt improved crop varieties and new farming techniques.

Anticipated positive environmental effects include assisting regional organizations to disseminate eight improved crop varieties to farmers (e.g. quality-protein maize), establishing learning teams in 20 different African countries to develop an African agricultural information network that facilitates learning and technology dissemination, as well as partnering with regional national policy institutions to develop strong, relevant, and harmonized policies for marketing agricultural technologies.

Negative effects may include the development of non-environmentally-friendly technologies, increased land clearing, and a decrease in innovating environmentally-friendly agricultural practices.

Mitigation measures that have been proposed include the development of an Environmental Policy Action Plan that reflects FARA III's commitments to sustainable development, which are in line with the aspirations of the AU/NEPAD Environmental Action Plan and the Millennium Development Goals.

In developing this project, a number of specialists and units at CIDA were consulted, including results-based management, gender equality, environment, and the sector-wide approach team responsible for program-based approaches, contracts, and finance. In addition, this project is based on the Medium-Term Operational Plan of FARA III, which has been developed with the assistance of performance specialists and all donors contributing to FARA III.

CIDA’s Poverty Reduction and Governance Program for Tanzania

In compliance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause direct or evident environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

It is not possible to directly identify negative environmental impacts to the broad-based support to be provided through the Poverty Reduction and Governance Program. However, increased growth in a country that depends on natural resources, is economically vulnerable and has an inadequate environmental management framework could cause land and water degradation, forest and vegetation depletion, urban land and water contamination, and coastal pollution.

In order to increase the effectiveness of the program and avoid potential risks, the PRGP will involve: conducting further environmental analyses; dedicating more staff resources to the environment; actively promoting environmental integration through established dialogue mechanisms, building staff capacity on environment, actively promoting better donor harmonization and alignment with Government of Tanzania priorities with respect to the environment; and promoting and funding (where appropriate) specific environment-related analysis in CIDA's programming sectors of concentration.

A number of activities resulting from the program will likely have positive effects on the environment. Goals that have been identified include: reducing negative effects on people's livelihoods; reducing land degradation and biodiversity; increasing contributions from wildlife, forestry, and fisheries to the incomes of rural communities; increasing the proportion of population with access to clean, safe water; building better sewerage facilities; reducing number of slums; eradicating unsanitary conditions in schools; reducing water pollution; reducing harmful industries and agricultural effluents; reducing vulnerability to natural disasters; and preserving natural resources and ecosystems. These goals will contribute to such positive impacts as increased rates of equitable economic growth, improved quality of life and social well-being, reduced inequalities, better governance practices, and accountability of public servants.

The key institutions with which consultations were done for this program assessment were: the National Environmental Advisory Committee, the Minister Responsible for the Environment, the Director of Environment, the National Environment Management Council, the sector ministries, the Prime Minister's Office - Regional Administration and Local Government, the Regional Secretariat, the local government authorities (LGAs), and the environmental committees.

Monitoring and follow-up will be performed primarily by the LGAs and will follow the regulations of Tanzania's 2004 Environmental Management Act. Reports and reviews will be done periodically.

Budgetary Support for Poverty Reduction in Mozambique - Pilot Project

In compliance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for this proposal. The SEA determined that the activities proposed in the initiative are likely to cause direct or evident environmental impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.

Because the budget support pilot project mirrors Mozambique's poverty reduction strategy, it is considered multidimensional. Therefore, effects will vary widely, depending on the interventions chosen by the Government of Mozambique. The variety of consequences may include: deforestation, land degradation, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, misuse of inland water resources, unplanned development of human settlements, and increased industrial pollution.

Mitigation measures have been identified and proposed for the potential negative environmental effects. These measures consist of integrating environmentally sustainable development considerations in all phases of design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation; including environmental results indicators in performance measurement tools; enhancing local technical capabilities for environmental impact assessment (EIA) and SEA; researching EIA methods; raising awareness of Government of Mozambique commitments under multilateral agreements; considering linkages between gender equality and the environment; and training EIA practitioners on EIA techniques.

A number of activities resulting from the project will likely have positive effects on the environment, such as creating a longer term capacity for incorporating environmental concerns into decision making at the national, provincial and district levels. CIDA's presence in the Multi-Donor Budgetary Support Programme will allow CIDA to advocate for or directly support measures to address the problems posed by low awareness and weak capacity. CIDA can help ensure that environmental issues receive high priority.

Consultation on the SEA report was undertaken with Mozambique Program staff in Maputo and at headquarters, as well as with the Africa Branch environmental specialists. In developing the Country Development Programming Framework for the SEA, various stakeholders in Mozambique were consulted in October 2004 (government, non-governmental organizations, CIDA staff, etc.).

Monitoring is now a coordinated effort led by the Government of Mozambique as part of the overall Performance Assessment Framework process. The responsibility for the PAF within the Government of Mozambique rests with the Poverty Monitoring Unit of the Ministry of Planning and Finance. CIDA will explore whether more capacity building is needed to boost capacity for environment-sensitive monitoring and evaluation.

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a detailed strategic environmental assessment (SEA) was conducted for CIDA's Food Security Strategy. The SEA determined that the activities stemming from this strategy are likely to cause direct or indirect environmental and social impacts and/or issues that should be addressed.