Kinshasa Summit, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) (October 13‑14, 2012)
The 14th Francophonie Summit was the first to be held in Central Africa and the fifth in Africa. Canada’s participation in the Kinshasa Summit formed part of a strategy to strengthen dialogue on human rights, democratic principles and good governance in the DRC with a range of stakeholders in government, civil society and the business community. The theme of the Summit, “La Francophonie, Economic and Environment Issues in the face of Global Governance”, was designed to express La Francophonie’s wish to make globalization beneficial to all, especially the people of Africa, through a series of tangible and measurable commitments. These commitments are contained in the Kinshasa Declaration and five resolutions on 1) the situation in Mali; 2) the situation in the DRC; 3) piracy in the Gulf of Guinea; 4) good governance of the extractive and forest industries (introduced by Canada); and 5) crisis situations, crisis recovery and peacebuilding in La Francophonie.
Montreux Summit, Switzerland (October 23‑24, 2010)
The 13th Francophonie Summit celebrated the 40th anniversary of La Francophonie. However, discussions focused firmly on the future. How can La Francophonie use its members’ influence to make its voice heard globally, and to foster peace, democracy and respect for human rights in member countries? What can La Francophonie do about major global issues (climate change, food and economic crises, and problems related to biodiversity, water and forests)? How can La Francophonie continue to promote the French language, the bond shared by this increasingly wide-ranging group of countries? In addition to the Montreux Declaration, the Summit passed eight resolutions on the following themes: 1) piracy; 2) counterfeit or expired pharmaceuticals; 3) transborder crime in Africa; 4) terrorism; 5) flood-affected countries; 6) the reconstruction of Haiti; 7) countries in crisis, crisis recovery and peacebuilding; and finally, 8) the 10th anniversary of the Bamako Declaration, entrenching the political role of La Francophonie. The Summit confirmed the re‑election of Secretary General Abdou Diouf for a third four‑year term.
Quebec City Summit, Canada (October 17-19, 2008)
The 12th Francophonie Summit took place in a context of financial and food crises. It was marked by several innovations: four themes instead of one, a shorter declaration containing strong and specific commitments, and a new formula with four environmental round tables that allowed heads of state and government to engage in discussions within a narrower framework, a first for La Francophonie. Heads of state and government expressed their support for the initiative to hold a global summit on the financial crisis and the reform of the international economic system. They also pointed out that the financial crisis should not overshadow the food crisis and be resolved at the expense of developing countries.
Bucharest Summit, Romania (September 28‑29, 2006)
The Bucharest Declaration focused on the Summit’s theme, “Information Technologies in Education” and international political questions. Heads of state and government passed five resolutions on 1) the global digital solidarity fund; 2) dumping of toxic waste in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire; 3) international migration and development; 4) the positioning of a UN force in the Central African Republic; and 5) climate change. The Ministerial Conference of La Francophonie approved a guide on the use of the French language in international organizations. The Secretary General of La Francophonie, Abdou Diouf, was re-elected by the heads of State and government to head up La Francophonie for a four-year term.
Ouagadougou Summit, Burkina Faso (November 26‑27, 2004)
The theme of the Ouagadougou Summit was "La Francophonie: a community that supports sustainable development." Here La Francophonie broadened its political role, notably by deciding to hold a ministerial conference on conflict prevention and human security in St. Boniface, Manitoba. At the initiative of Canada, this summit adopted the very first ten-year strategic framework for La Francophonie, which henceforth defines its four main missions: 1) promoting the French language and cultural and linguistic diversity; 2) promoting peace, democracy and human rights; 3) supporting education, training, higher education and research; and 4) developing cooperation to ensure sustainable development and solidarity.
Beirut Summit, Lebanon (October 18‑20, 2002)
The Beirut Summit, the first held in an Arab country, had as its theme the dialogue of cultures. Here La Francophonie made a policy shift by addressing issues related to the Middle East. The Heads of State and Government made a firm commitment to implementing the Bamako Declaration on democracy, good governance and human rights. The summit also indicated support for the principle of the adoption by UNESCO of an instrument on cultural diversity that entrenches the right of states and governments to maintain, establish and develop policies in support of culture and cultural diversity. Senegal's former president Abdou Diouf was elected Secretary General of La Francophonie and undertook to pursue the political and cooperative action started by his predecessor, Boutros Boutros-Ghali.
Moncton Summit, New Brunswick, Canada (September 3‑5, 1999)
To highlight the key contribution of young people to the future of La Francophonie and of the world in general, the summit's main theme was youth. Two secondary themes, the economy and new technology, were also discussed. In Moncton, the Heads of State and Government also decided to hold three sectoral conferences in preparation for the next summit: 1) a symposium assessing democratic practices, rights and freedoms in the French-speaking world, to be held in Bamako, Mali; 2) a ministerial conference on culture, in Cotonou, Benin; and 3) the first Women of La Francophonie conference, in Luxembourg.
Hanoi Summit, Vietnam (November 14‑17, 1997)
The Hanoi Summit represented another important step in the development of La Francophonie institutions: the revised charter was implemented and the first secretary general, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, was appointed to make La Francophonie a more dynamic and active force in the international arena. Although the summit's main theme was economic cooperation, the Heads of State and Government also agreed to focus their efforts on peace and conflict prevention in member countries. In addition, they resolved to cooperate with the international community in protecting human rights.
Cotonou Summit, Benin (December 2‑4, 1995)
The Cotonou Summit led to a profound change in the institutions of La Francophonie. It was decided to appoint a Secretary General and to transform the Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation (ACCT) into the Intergovernmental Agency of La Francophonie (AIF), establishing the position of chief executive to manage it. It was also at Cotonou that the Heads of State and Government decided to focus the operating agencies' activities on the five major cooperation programs of La Francophonie: 1) freedom, democracy and development; 2) culture and communications; 3) knowledge and progress; 4) economics and development; and 5) La Francophonie in the world. This summit also underscored the promotion of cultural diversity as more legitimate and necessary than ever, ascribing it a role in peacebuilding.
Mauritius Summit (October 16‑18, 1993)
At Mauritius, the participants decided that each summit would be known as a conference of Heads of State and Government of countries using French as a common language, a gesture meant to reaffirm their membership in the Francophone family while respecting each country's diversity. The summit participants also recognized the importance of economic issues, calling for increased cooperation among Francophone business communities.
Chaillot Summit, France (November 19‑21, 1991)
According to François Mitterrand, then president of France and the host of the Chaillot Summit, this conference marked both the coming of age and an expansion of La Francophonie. Nearly 50 countries and governments from five continents were represented. At this summit, the Ministerial Conference of La Francophonie and the Permanent Council of La Francophonie were created, and the role of the ACCT as the secretariat of all of the organization's institutions was confirmed.
Dakar Summit, Senegal (May 24‑26, 1989)
The Dakar Summit strengthened the organization by reaching into new areas of activity, including education and training, the environment, and legal and judicial cooperation. It confirmed the role of the Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation (ACCT) as the principal operating agency and key instrument of La Francophonie as a multilateral organization. It was at Dakar that Senghor University in Alexandria, Egypt, was created.
Quebec City Summit, Canada(September 2‑4, 1987)
During the Quebec City Summit, more progress was made in the areas of cooperation and the strengthening of solidarity among the countries and governments that participated in the Paris Summit. La Francophonie's priority areas were confirmed as agriculture, energy, scientific and technological development, language, communication and culture. The Institute of Energy and Environment of La Francophonie (IEPF) – renamed the Institute for Sustainable Development of La Francophonie (IFDD) in 2013 –which is based in Quebec City, and the Francophone Business Forum, a non‑governmental organization of French-speaking businesspeople, were created at the Quebec City Summit.
Paris Summit, France (February 17‑19, 1986)
Forty-one countries and governments were represented at the first summit, which took place at the Palace of Versailles. The conference marked a new departure for the organization, an effort to establish ongoing consultations on major issues of the day. It also provided an opportunity to affirm the role of the French language as a modern tool for progress and intercultural dialogue. Finally, it sought to convey Francophone solidarity through concrete programs with broad appeal.
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