Absent a United Nations Security Council resolution, authority exists to impose sanctions pursuant to the Special Economic Measures Act (SEMA). The Act authorises the Governor in Council to make orders or regulations to impose sanctions measures in relation to a foreign state in either of the two following situations (ss. 4(1)):
Under the SEMA, the Governor in Council may order that the property in Canada of a foreign state, of persons in that foreign state or of nationals of that foreign state who are not ordinarily residing in Canada, be seized, frozen or sequestered (par. 4(1)(b)). The Governor in Council may make orders or regulations to restrict or prohibit persons in Canada or Canadians outside Canada from dealing in property of that foreign state (or its residents or nationals), from exporting, selling or shipping goods to that foreign state, from transferring technical data to that foreign state, from importing or acquiring goods from that foreign state or from providing or acquiring any financial or other services to or from that foreign state (par.4(2)(a)-(e)). As well, restrictions or prohibitions may be imposed on vessels or aircraft from that foreign state coming to Canada and Canadian vessels or aircraft going to that foreign state (s.4(2)(f)-(i)).