Canada supports the NEPAD through its response contained in the commitments of the G8 Africa Action Plan in the areas of peace and security, governance, economic growth, debt relief, health, education, agriculture and water.
Implementing the G8 Africa Action Plan is a priority for Canada. Government departments and organizations both inside and outside the federal government are implementing activities to ensure that Canada's commitments are delivered in a timely fashion. Since the adoption of the G8 Africa Action Plan (AAP) at Kananaskis, Canada has issued national reports on an annual basis, outlining its leadership role in implementing and responding to the challenges described in the Africa Action Plan. This year again, Canada has released a comprehensive national report outlining concrete steps it has taken in the delivery of the commitments contained in the Africa initiative endorsed at Kananaskis.
The importance Canada attaches to the full AAP implementation was made clear by the rapid start-up of all programmes announced by the Prime Minister at Kananaskis on June 27, 2002. Many of these programmes are funded through the $500 million Canada Fund for Africa established in the December 2001 budget.
According to the University of Toronto's G8 Research Group, Canada has done well in fulfilling its commitments made at the Kananaskis and Evian summits and has the best implementation record among G8 countries.
In support of the G8 Africa Action Plan, Canada committed in 2002 to double our assistance budget by 2010, with half or more going to Africa. This promised $6 billion over five years (2002-07) in support of African development.
Canada will continue to increase aid to Africa over the next five years, and will double its 2003-04 African aid level by 2008-09. This pledge is part of an additional $3.4-billion increase in Canada's international assistance over the next five years, with a goal of doubling international assistance from its 2001-02 level by 2010-11.
Budget 2005 includes the following Africa-related announcements:
A doubling of Canada's aid to Africa by 2008-09 from its 2003-04 level.
$160 million in funding for the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization, an organization with a goal of saving the lives of 1 million children from 2004 to 2006.
$140 million to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.
$42 million to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, to put it on track towards its goal of eliminating polio worldwide by the end of this year.
$34 million in further support for the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Trust Fund.
$172 million over the next five years to pay Canada's share of debt-service costs owed by eligible countries to the International Development Association of the World Bank and the African Development Fund.
$100 million annually over five years to peace and security initiatives, to provide security assistance to failed and failing states.
On April 19, 2005, Canada announced that 25 countries, 14 of which are from Africa, will receive the bulk of Canada's country-to-country assistance under the new International Policy Statement. These "development partners" were selected based on three criteria: Level of poverty, to ensure that aid resources are focussed where it is needed most; Ability to use aid effectively; and Sufficient Canadian presence to add value, helping build on established relationships with development partners to more effectively deliver the programs needed.
Canada continues to support the African Union and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) as they develop their capacity to prevent, resolve and manage crises.
On May 12, 2005, the Prime Minister announced Canada's commitment to enhance our engagement in support of international efforts to bring peace and stability to the Darfur. This package includes three elements:
Canada will offer up to $170 million to provide technical support to the Africa Union Mission in Sudan (Darfur) - any support in this regard would be in response to AU requests. This support would build on existing Canadian assistance to the AU Mission in Sudan $20 million announced at the UN General Assembly in New York in September 2004 - most notably the provision of leased helicopters since last fall to the AU to enhance the AU monitors' mobility across this vast region;
$28 million in humanitarian support for the Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in Darfur and refugees in Chad - funds that will be channelled through UN agencies;
Canada will offer support to the AU-led mediation and work with other members of the international community to ensure sustained focus on the situation in Darfur until peace is achieved and the displaced people and refugees are able to return safely to their homes.
Through the Canada Fund for Africa, a $4 million contribution from Canada is supporting the African Union's peace and security mechanism, and strengthening links with sub-regional organizations. Canada played an important role in creating a new position within the African Union, the Special Representative for Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict.
As part of a $15 million commitment to the Canada-West Africa Peace and Security Initiative of the Canada Fund for Africa, the Canadian Pearson Peacekeeping Centre is helping the Kofi Annan International Peace Training Centre in Ghana develop curriculum and training. The aim is to prevent and resolve violent conflict in West Africa. In another initiative, the number of small arms and light weapons is being reduced in Sierra Leone, with Canadian support to arms for development programs and increased border controls.
Canada's newly created Global Peace and Security Fund is dedicated to providing security assistance to failed and fragile states, post-conflict stabilization and recovery, and capacity building for peace operations primarily in Africa, as provided for by the G8 in its Global Peace Support Operations Initiative announced at Sea Island in 2004.
Through the Canada Fund for Africa, Canada has made regional and continental improvement of governance capacity a strong priority - to help Africans get the tools they need so they can put into place the goals described in the NEPAD.
Many Canadian partners contribute their expertise to these endeavours. The Federation of Canadian Municipalities is helping Africans acquire knowledge of decentralized government and the necessary accountability mechanisms to make it effective and efficient within the African Local Governance Program (ALGP). The Canadian Parliamentary Centre is implementing the Africa-Canada Parliamentary Strengthening Program.
African organisations, such as the African Capacity Building Foundation, are also heavily involved in this program.
Through the Canada Fund for Africa, Canada is providing:
$28 million to help countries develop skills and expertise in the public sector, including financial accountability and economic policy.
$9 million to the Canada-Africa Parliamentary Strengthening Program. This enables African and Canadian parliamentarians to share knowledge and best practices on peace and security, and to discuss parliamentary oversight. The focus is on gender equality, anti-corruption and poverty issues. Activities include a network on anti-corruption, which is developing guidelines for member countries. The program will enhance the role of parliamentarians in the implementation of NEPAD initiatives.
$6 million to help improve local governance. With African partners, it aims to develop new approaches to providing basic community needs, such as access to water, sanitation and health care, with increased community participation in the process.
$2.5 million for the NEPAD Outreach Fund to help involve African volunteer and community-based organizations, as well as the private sector and the general public, in making NEPAD a reality.
In January 2003, Canada opened its markets to all imports from all LDCs (34 of which are in Africa), except for certain supply-managed agricultural goods (poultry and eggs). This arrangement has now been extended to June 30, 2014. Between 2002 and 2004, Canada's imports from Africa's least developed countries grew at an average annual rate of 11.7%.
Canada recently launched the Canada Investment Fund for Africa (CIFA), a joint public-private initiative that provides risk capital for private investments in Africa that generate economic growth. The Government of Canada will contribute up to $100 million to the Fund, on a matching basis with other investors. The aim is to encourage private sector engagement in Africa, with a focus on infrastructure projects and small and medium-sized businesses.
To increase Africa's trade capacity, Canada is providing $20 million for initiatives that promote exports within and outside the continent, and that strengthen the role of African countries and institutions in multilateral trade negotiations.
Canadian support for the African Development Bank helps African countries to develop projects and tap into unused sources of financial assistance for infrastructure projects. Along with the Bank, Canada is providing $10 million for financially viable projects, including two now in development, the Kenya-Uganda oil pipeline and the Benin-Togo-Ghana electricity interconnection project.
Since the 2003 Evian Summit, Canada has provided $128 million in debt forgiveness to African countries, cancelling 100% of the debt owed by four African countries. Four other African countries are expected to benefit from 100% debt forgiveness from Canada once they complete the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative.
Bilaterally, Canada has provided over $595 million in debt relief to African Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs). Under the Canadian Debt Initiative that began in 1999, Canada will forgive over $1.1 billion in debts owed to Canada by HIPCs. To date, Benin, Ethiopia, Ghana, Madagascar, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia have benefited from this Initiative.
Multilaterally, Canada contributed $346.4 million to the World-Bank administered HIPC Trust Fund. In addition, in February 2005 Canada committed $172 million (over five years) to begin unilaterally implementing our proposal for donors to pay 100 percent of the debt service payments owed by up to 56 low-income countries to the International Development Association of World Bank and the African Development Fund until 2015. Canada also called on all donors to agree to provide further relief on IMF debt and to identify the best way to finance this cost.
The HIV/AIDS pandemic, malaria and other communicable diseases continue to have a devastating impact on many African countries. Canada has made a number of significant contributions to help fight these infectious diseases through a host of multilateral initiatives and institutions.
In 2000, Canada announced that its funding to fight HIV/AIDS would quadruple over the next 5 years, for a total of $270 million. Canada has gone over and above these targets through strategic investments that now exceed $600 million in HIV/AIDS spending, including contributions to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, bilateral programming and key strategic investments in vaccine and microbicide research and development.
The Canada Fund for Africa has directed $50 million towards finding a vaccine against HIV: $45 million to the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) for the development of HIV vaccines, and $5 million to the WHO's African AIDS Vaccine Programme. In addition, Canada has also made a $15 million, three-year contribution to the International Partnership for Microbicides (IPM).
In 2001, Canada made an initial four-year contribution of $160 million to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria (GFATM). In May 2004, Canada made an additional pledge of $70 million. Most recently, Canada announced in Budget 2005 an additional $140 million in funding for the GFATM.
In Budget 2005, Canada announced it will provide $160 million in funding for the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI). Canada has been involved with GAVI since its formation in 2000, and has previously contributed $40 million.
Canada is currently the lead donor to the World Health Organization's "3 x 5 Initiative," which aims to build and improve the global clinical and programmatic norms and standards available to enable access to three million HIV/AIDS patients in developing countries to antiretrovirals by the end of 2005.
Other Canadian initiatives in health include a total of $162M for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative including a $42 million contribution in January of 2005. To make the world polio-free, Canada is collaborating with UNICEF and the WHO in supporting the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) and has since 1988 been among the top five donors to the GPEI. As a result of increased international immunization, reported polio cases dropped from over 350,000 estimated cases to less than 800 in 2003, most of them occurring in Africa. The GPEI's goal is the worldwide eradication of polio by the end of 2008, through efforts such as a campaign to immunize 80 million children across sub-Saharan Africa.
Canada has also recently enacted legislation to implement the 2003 Decision of the World Trade Organization members on the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights and Public Health that permits lower cost versions of patented medicines to be exported to developing and least developed countries. The Jean Chrétien Pledge to Africa Act will allow Canadian manufacturers to provide low-cost medicines to developing countries. This makes Canada one of the first countries to take concrete measures in this regard.
For African countries with well-developed education plans, Canada is doubling its investment in basic education to $100 million a year by 2005.
Canada is providing $35 million for three African initiatives that expand the use and benefits of new information and communications technology. Increased connectivity is helping health care providers to access critical information through wireless technology, and increased access to information and communications technology is enhancing competitiveness among small and medium-sized businesses in South Africa.
Access to water resources, for agricultural purposes as well as household uses, is still not at the reach of every African. Canada is working with other international donors, as well as key multilateral institutions, to facilitate a greater availability of water for the rural majority as well as Africa's city-dwellers.
At the same time, research focussed on African agricultural needs is being promoted in research locations on the continent. Much programming has been undertaken by the Canada Fund for Africa program, focussed on sustaining the life support systems of agriculture, the environment, and water.
Canada is investing $40 million for Africa-specific research at the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research. The focus will be on the needs of small-scale farmers and women producers. Among the innovations is new, more productive and nutritious varieties of beans and potatoes and increased weight for tilapia, a common fish.
With Canadian support of $30 million, a bio-sciences centre for agriculture is being established in Kenya to develop local capacity for advanced research. Canada's support will also help develop a network of centres of excellence in Africa.
Canada has committed over C$ 50 million from 2002-2007 to support water resource management through the Global Water Partnership, the African Water Facility, the African Development Bank and the UN-Habitat's Water and Sanitation Trust Fund. This will help African cities and communities promote investment in water and sanitation, with a focus on the very poor, including towns on the shores of Lake Victoria.