Canada signed the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions (the "OECD Convention") on December 17, 1997 and deposited the instrument of ratification with the OECD on December 17, 1998. On December 7, 1998, it adopted implementing legislation in the form of the Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act (CFPOA), which received Royal Assent on December 10, 1998. The law came into force on February 14, 1999. The CFPOA is the main vehicle for implementation of the OECD Convention and is intended to give tangible expression to commitments made in the OECD and to represent Canada's legislative contribution to the international effort to fight corruption of foreign public officials. Section 12 of the CFPOA states that the Minister of Foreign Affairs shall cause an annual report on the implementation of the OECD Convention and the enforcement of the CFPOA to be laid before each House of Parliament. This is the Ninth Report to Parliament under the CFPOA.
For previous reports, please see the Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada web site.
The Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act may be viewed at the Justice web site.
To date, 37 states have ratified the OECD Convention, including all original members of the OECD Working Group on Bribery in International Business Transactions ("the Working Group"). The Working Group comprises the 30 member states of the OECD and seven non-members of the OECD: Argentina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Chile, Slovenia, Estonia, and since June 2007, South Africa.
Annex A to this report contains information on the ratification status of the OECD Convention. All current members of the Working Group (including Canada) have had their implementing legislation evaluated as part of the peer review process. Thirty one members have also had their enforcement mechanisms evaluated as part of the Phase 2 review (PDF*, 391 KB).
The United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) entered into force on December 14, 2005. Not only does this Convention adapt some language from the OECD Convention, but by providing global norms for the criminalization of bribery and for transnational cooperation in related investigations, it is expected to complement enforcement of the CFPOA. Canada signed UNCAC on May 21, 2004. Parliament passed legislation in May 2007 making Canadian law consistent with the provisions of this UN Convention. Canada ratified UNCAC on October 2, 2007.
In February 2005, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) appointed a commissioned officer to provide functional oversight of its anti-corruption programs. The corruption of foreign public officials is now specifically referenced in the RCMP Commercial Crime Program’s mandate. Current RCMP policy specifically identifies the CFPOA as a Commercial Crime Branch responsibility. The RCMP has the capability to track CFPOA cases being handled by the Force and is confident that credible allegations reported to other law enforcement agencies or Canadian foreign missions will be reported through to the RCMP.
The RCMP have established two seven person International Anti-corruption Units, based in Ottawa and Calgary. These units are charged with investigating allegations that a Canadian person/business has bribed a foreign public official, allegations that a foreign person has bribed a Canadian public official that may have international repercussions, allegations that a foreign public official has secreted or laundered money in, or through, Canada. They also deal with requests for international assistance. The RCMP provides functional oversight of the International Anti-Corruption Teams and anti-corruption enforcement activities through a commissioned officer at National Headquarters. The International Anti-corruption Teams’ law enforcement mandate is aligned with Canada’s obligations under the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, as well as the United Nations Convention Against Corruption.
The Trade Commissioner Service of The Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) has developed instructions to Canadian missions abroad, including embassy personnel, concerning the steps that should be taken where credible allegations arise that a Canadian company or individual has bribed or attempted to bribe a foreign public official. In April 2004, an internal committee was established, chaired by the Chief Trade Commissioner, to consider and review cases where Canadian individuals or companies have been found guilty of bribery or corruption overseas and this committee would advise the Minister responsible. Although no such cases have been referred to the committee to date, some members of the committee do meet to discuss allegations against Canadian individuals and companies.
In order to clarify its policy on bribery, in 2004 Export Development Canada (EDC) introduced its Anti-Corruption Policy Guidelines (a public document) which outlines the measures EDC will apply to combat corruption, including a section on debarring companies convicted of bribery as well as a section on disclosure to law enforcement authorities. Furthermore, EDC developed a detailed internal procedural document which outlines the process for disclosure to law enforcement where there is credible evidence of bribery. EDC also developed a detailed internal procedural document relating to the debarment of convicted companies, and such process essentially provides that any party who has been convicted of bribery will be debarred from support until EDC is satisfied that they have taken appropriate measures to deter further bribery. Such measures include replacing individuals who have been involved in bribery; adopting an effective anti-corruption program; submitting to audit and making the results of such audit available. In 2006, under the auspices of the OECD Export Credit and Credit Guarantees Group, EDC worked with export credit agencies to enhance the OECD Action Statement on Bribery. Revisions to the Action Statement necessitated a number of changes to EDC’s anti-corruption practices. In addition to providing a no-bribery declaration, exporters seeking export credit agency EDC-backed support will now be required to indicate whether they have been previously convicted of bribery, and whether they have been debarred by the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the European Development Bank or the African Development Bank, for which the ECAs agreed to undertake enhanced due diligence. Furthermore, EDC will ask for details about agents and commissions should they deem it necessary as part of their due diligence process. ECAs also agreed to do their part to raise awareness among their exporting communities about the consequences of engaging in bribery as well as to encourage them to develop, apply and document appropriate management control systems that combat bribery.
The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) has a Protocol for Dealing with Allegations of Corruption that states that situations of allegations of criminal activity may require referral to police authorities. The Protocol includes specific internal procedures for reporting allegations of corruption to the relevant Director and to the Chief Audit Executive for appropriate action. The Protocol ensures a thorough assessment of the allegations regarding CIDA financing so that senior management can ascertain whether there exists “credible evidence” of a violation of the CFPOA.
CIDA’s Office of the Chief Audit Executive has drafted, for management approval, principles and guidelines intended to be used as guidance in the conduct of investigations of fraud, corruption and wrongdoings, including disclosures of wrongdoings made by public servants. The principles and guidelines will require CIDA employees to report to the Chief Audit Executive allegations or evidence of fraudulent and corrupt practices, including violations of the CFPOA, related to CIDA-financed activity. The principles and guidelines also state that all losses of money and suspected cases of fraud, defalcation or any other offence or illegal act against Her Majesty must be reported to law-enforcement authorities.
CIDA also has in place a policy that requires entities wishing to take part in CIDA development projects to declare previous corruption-related offences (see Contracting).
The Canadian Commercial Corporation (CCC) has included in all its domestic contracts with Canadian suppliers a clause prohibiting the bribery and corruption of government officials. As such, should a Canadian supplier be convicted of bribing a government official while under a contract with CCC, the Corporation will apply various sanctions which could include the termination of the contract with the supplier.
The Public Servants Disclosure Protection Act (PSDPA), as amended by the Federal Accountability Act, came into force on April 15, 2007. The Canada Public Service Agency (formally known as the Public Service Human Resources Management Agency of Canada) is responsible for leadership and support to organizations in the implementation of the PSDPA.
The purpose of the PSDPA is to encourage employees in the public sector to come forward if they have reason to believe that serious wrongdoing has taken place, and to prohibit reprisal against them if they do so. It also provides a fair and objective process for those against whom allegations are made. In addition, the PSDPA establishes the Public Sector Integrity Commissioner as an agent of Parliament. It gives the Commissioner a mandate to conduct independent reviews of disclosures of wrongdoing, issue reports of findings to enable organizations to take appropriate remedial action, and submit annual and special reports to Parliament. Although there is nothing in the PSDPA that specifically addresses bribery of foreign public officials, the Act nevertheless provides a means by which a public servant could report the bribery and be protected from reprisal. Public servants may make disclosures within their organization or to the Commissioner, and members of the public may provide information concerning wrongdoing in the federal public sector to the Commissioner.
At DFAIT, employees who have knowledge ofcorruption-relatedoffences such asbriberyof foreign public officials,being in possession of property or proceeds of such bribery and laundering the proceeds of bribery,mayreport themvia the disclosure of wrongdoing process.DFAIT employeeshave three venues for making a disclosure: theymay disclose either to theirsupervisor, the departmental Senior Officer for Disclosure or the Public Sector Integrity Commissioner. All supervisors who receive a disclosure of wrongdoing are required to promptly transfer it to the Senior Officer for Disclosurefor screening and follow-up and they shalladvise the employee-discloser of this transfer. DFAIT's Internal Disclosure Procedures for the Implementation of the PSDPA can be found on the departmental site "Disclosure of Wrongdoing".
There has been one successful prosecution under the Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act. Hydro Kleen Group Inc (a company based in Red Deer, Alberta), its president and an employee, were charged under the CFPOA with, among other things, two counts of bribing Hector Ramirez Garcia, a U.S. immigration officer who worked at the Calgary International Airport. Hydro-Kleen entered a plea of guilty in the Court of Queen's Bench in Red Deer, Alberta on January 10, 2005. The company admitted to one count under s. 3(1)(a) of the CFPOA and were ordered to pay a fine of $25,000. Two other charges against a director and an officer of the company were stayed. Mr. Garcia pleaded guilty in July 2002 to accepting bribes. He received a 6 month sentence and was subsequently deported to the United States.
No other prosecution under the CFPOA was reported to the Department of Justice by provincial Heads of Prosecution. Further there are no federally-conducted prosecutions at this time.
As illustrated in previous annual reports, considerable efforts have been made to make persons aware of the CFPOA. Officials continue to make presentations at conferences and at various meetings in Canada and consultations continue to take place with the provinces and territories. More specific instances include:
a) Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada (DFAIT) - In the Spring 2005, the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs announced the intention to build a 21st century Foreign Ministry. Targets were established to achieve this goal and one of the priority items was to create a Values and Ethics Division, within the Office of the Inspector General. The Values and Ethics Division is the centre of expertise for DFAIT to assist employees in developing a professional culture based on the Values and Ethics Code for the Public Service. It aims to promote a solid culture of values and ethics that inspires confidence in the services provided by the Department to Canadians and in the relationships with foreign interlocutors and governments with whom we interact.
The departmental website features material on bribery and corruption as it relates to corporate social responsibility, including all previous Annual Reports to Parliament. DFAIT has been providing instructions and information to all staff (local and abroad) on both the OECD Convention and the CFPOA. The Ninth Annual Report will also be made available on the departmental web site. To see more informationon the issue of corruption please visit the corruption website.
The Department continues to provide information and training for its trade commissioners and trade commissioner assistants on the CFPOA and the OECD Convention. The Trade Commissioner Service (TCS) has added the promotion of corporate social responsibility (CSR) to its list of roles and activities. The TCS addresses issues of bribery and corruption within the general framework of CSR:
The TCS intranet site, Horizons, provides information to Trade Commissioners on how to advise clients on the CFPOA and the risks of bribery.
On a case-by-case basis, the TCS Support Division provides supplementary advice and guidance to missions abroad on how to counsel Canadian businesses abroad on CSR, including issues of corruption and bribery.
Canadian missions have been participating in CSR seminars in various regions and promote the CFPOA during their face-to-face briefings with Canadian clients.
In May and June 2008, Trade Commissioners and headquarter staff participated in a half day information session on CSR, which included the promotion of the CFPOA.
The Trade Commissioner Service Renewal Division has developed a mandatory comprehensive five-day training course entitled "The Global Learning Initiative" (GLI) which seeks to strengthen the capacity of trade program managers in their overall management competencies and skills. At the time of this report, all trade program managers in missions abroad and all directors and deputy directors at regional offices in Canada have participated in this course, which features a number of case studies with broad management issues dealing with CSR.
Based on the success of the GLI, a similar course for all trade staff in Canada and abroad was developed. As a result, "The Global Learning Initiative for International Business Development Staff Abroad" course (GLI-2) aims to reinforce Canadian policies vis-à-vis CFPOA. Moreover, as part of this training, trade commissioners participate in exercises where they apply TCS core values. Since 2005, 1207 Commercial/Economic staff abroad have participated in the GLI-2 course which excludes employees recently hired who will take the course by the end of fiscal year 2008/09. Since September 2007, a module on CSR has been added to the course.
The Department also gave a presentation on the CFPOA and Canada’s OECD obligations to a training session for all officers in the RCMP’s new International Anti-Corruption Units.
b) Department of Justice - in 1999 issued a publication: The Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act: A Guide. The Guide has been updated to reflect amendments to the Act and has been distributed and posted on the Department of Justice web site.
c) The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) has been engaged in raising the awareness of anti-corruption issues both within the Agency and externally:
In June 2000, CIDA published two anti-corruption documents: an "Anti-Corruption Primer", which articulates the parameters of corruption, its impact on development, and reviews donor strategies, and an "Anti-Corruption Questions and Strategies" document, which focuses more on developing bilateral programming approaches and lessons learned
In October 2003, CIDA included mention of the CFPOA and international anti-corruption conventions in the Governance Orientation Program for New Development Officers (NDOs) and Locally Engaged Professionals (LEPs);
In December 2003 a paper entitled "Corruption and the Development Challenge" was drafted which examines the effects of corruption on the success of poverty reduction and sustainable development strategies and highlights the importance of donor harmonization;
In June 2004, CIDA circulated an "Anti-Corruption Scoping Study" within the Agency which provides an overview of anti-corruption policy and programming activity in the Agency;
On February 11, 2005, CIDA hosted a seminar on Corruption and Development Effectiveness at its headquarters; and
CIDA co-chairs the OECD DAC/World Bank Joint Venture for Procurement, supporting procurement related commitments of the Paris Declaration. In 2006, the JV for Procurement developed a benchmarking tool, the Methodology for Assessment of National Procurement Systems, to establish reliable baseline data on the quality of country procurement systems including specific anti-corruption measures. This tool is currently being field-tested in 22 pilot countries; as results become available, they are being posted on the JV for Procurement website. For CIDA, assessments will be used as part of fiduciary risk due diligence when considering programming approaches that rely on the use of country systems. The Methodology and links to key complementary resources on anti-corruption in public procurement, such as the OECD Checklist for Enhancing Integrity in Public Procurement, have been integrated into the newly revised Guide for Procurement Risk Assessment and Mitigation under Program-based Approaches.
In 2006, CIDA staff started participating actively in the U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre`s (U4RC) training opportunities, including the online courses and in-country workshops. In April 2007, facilitated by U4RC, CIDA also held two anti-corruption workshops for CIDA headquarter staff. CIDA’s new Development Officers Learning Program, piloted in September 2007, incorporates modules specifically addressing anti-corruption.
In December 2007, a first-level analysis of CIDA programming in anti-corruption was concluded with a view to establishing greater clarity in CIDA’s anti-corruption.
The Office of the Chief Audit Executive is developing and will deliver fraud awareness training sessions for development officers and program assistants.
CIDA has also helped to raise awareness globally by supporting audit, transparency and anti-corruption work in partner countries and regions, including providing direct and indirect support to the implementation of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC). CIDA’s support also extends to awareness-raising work of international bodies such as the OECD DAC GOVNET and the Utstein Group, as well as of international non-governmental organizations such as Transparency International and its country chapters, and the Global Organization of Parliamentarians Against Corruption (GOPAC).
CIDA's Corporate RRMAF, approved in July 2007, explicitly described corruption risk and selected it as a key corporate risk.
In June 2008, CIDA approved its Corporate Risk Profile. Corruption risks are included under Fiduciary Risk (Financial Risk 2), Human Resources Risk (Operational Risk 1) and Socio-Political Risk (Development Risk 2). The Corporate Risk Profile establishes methods to analyse and mitigate these risks, and harmonizes them with Internal Audit and the Financial Risk Management Unit procedures.
d) Export Development Canada (EDC) - has been engaged in awareness-raising of the OECD Convention and the CFPOA. Its activities include:
EDC has devoted an entire page on its website to corruption and bribery, including links to the CFPOA, the OECD Convention and the OECD Recommendation on Bribery and Officially Supported Export Credits;
EDC has developed an anti-corruption brochure that is systematically distributed to its new customers to inform them of the potential risks they face if exposed to corrupt business practices, and to encourage the development of corporate best practices in this area. EDC updated its brochure to reflect the enhancements agreed in the OECD Recommendation on Bribery and Officially Supported Export Credits. The brochure encourages Canadian exporters to develop, apply and document appropriate management control systems that combat bribery.
At various times in the last several years, EDC has written to its customers to inform them about the OECD Convention and the CFPOA. Another writing campaign to all its current customers to inform them about the enhancements agreed in the OECD Recommendation on Bribery and Officially Supported Export Credits was undertaken in the first half of 2007 with a cover letter from an EDC executive; EDC will continue to write to all of its new customers and send them a copy of the brochure to advise them about the CFPOA and the dangers of engaging in bribery and corruption in international business transactions; and
In addition to the distribution of its brochure, EDC will continue to exploit other opportunities to communicate to customers and will do so, for example, via articles in its quarterly magazine, ExportWise, and/or through industry association trade publications.
e) Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) - has developed a section in its Audit Manual to deal with the application of section 67.5 of the Income Tax Act as it relates to outlays and expenses incurred as a result of bribery of foreign public officials. This provision prohibits the deduction of outlays and expenses involved in the bribery of foreign public officials. The Investigations Manual, which previously referred to bribery offences under the Criminal Code, has been revised to include a reference to the CFPOA and a link to the section of the Audit Manual that deals with the application of section 67.5 of the Income Tax Act. The new section in the Audit Manual "Hot Off the Presses" which is a weekly listing of new or revised material updating the CRA Electronic Library changes.
f) Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) - since March 2005 the Force has included the issue of foreign bribery generally and the CFPOA in particular to its training of all RCMP liaison officers before they depart for their assignments overseas. While the RCMP has had responsibility for CFPOA enforcement as a federal statute, specific reference to the corruption of foreign public officials in the Commercial Crime Program mandate is intended to raise awareness of this responsibility among investigators.
The RCMP, together with the Department of Justice and the International Centre for Criminal Law Reform and Criminal Justice Policy, provided subject matter expertise to the Canada-China Procuratorate Reform Cooperation Project’s Symposium on the Reform of Criminal Justice.
The RCMP officer responsible for Anti-Corruption enforcement oversight is a recognized subject matter expert. As a subject matter expert this officer attends and speaks at Anti-Corruption Conferences and seminars. During the reporting period, subject matter expert presentations were made at the International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities Seminar; the American Conference Institute's Bribery and Foreign Corruption Conference; and, Transparency International Canada's Annual Symposium, "The Anatomy of Corruption in Canada."
The two new RCMP International Anti-Corruption Units have participated in anti-corruption training and awareness workshops and have given a series of presentations in 2008 on their units, their activities and the CFPOA to such organizations as provincial Securities Commissions, private sector-organized seminars, and national energy security professionals.
g) The Canadian Commercial Corporation (CCC), Canada’s international contracting and procurement agency, is committed to ensuring legal and ethical conduct in its business dealings and addresses issues of bribery and corruption within the general framework of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). As part of its CSR initiatives, CCC is finalizing a Code of Conduct and a Code of Business Ethics, which seek to provide specific guidance and direction both to the Corporation’s employees and clients, with regards to ethical behaviour. In order to raise awareness CCC will provide training on CSR to all staff by the end of fiscal 2008-09. In addition, all employees and clients will have access to a copy of the Code of Conduct and the Code of Business Ethics and will be required to sign an acknowledgment and agreement confirming their understanding of the Codes and their responsibility to comply with the Codes.
In 1999, CIDA implemented an anti-corruption clause in all contracts and contribution agreements, as well as a Protocol for Dealing with Allegations of Corruption, which outlines internal procedures for assessing and reporting such allegations. In response to the Acres International case, CIDA's Contracting Management Division (CMD) introduced a new anti-corruption clause in its contracts in December 2003. This clause requires entities wishing to enter into a contract or contribution agreement with CIDA to declare previous corruption-related convictions and sanctions and that entities must confirm that, in the three years prior to signing a contract or contribution agreement, they have not been convicted of, and are not under sanction for, any corruption-related offence. If an entity has been convicted or is under sanction, it will have the opportunity to make representations to CIDA, to show that steps have been taken to counter the problem. However, CIDA reserves the right to accept, to accept conditionally, or simply refuse to do business with an entity convicted of, or sanctioned for, a corruption-related offence. In addition, CMD developed a subsequent Protocol for entities found guilty of corruption, to be implemented if/when an entity declares a previous corruption-related offence involving activities funded by an organization other than CIDA.
At Export Development Canada, exporters are required to sign anti-corruption declarations. The wording in the declarations may be different depending on the product in question, but generally states: “We have not been and will not knowingly be party to any action which is prohibited by Canada's Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act which makes it illegal for persons to, directly or indirectly, give, offer, or agree to offer a loan, reward, advantage or benefit of any kind to a foreign public official in order to obtain or retain an advantage in the course of business.” Further, EDC’s insurance policies and loan documents include clauses / representations and warrants against bribery.
The Government of Canada and all provinces deny the tax deductibility of outlays made or expenses incurred in the bribery of foreign public officials.
Canadian Multi-stakeholder Consultations
The 2006 “National Roundtables on CSR and the Canadian Extractive Sector in Developing Countries” provided a forum for the sharing of knowledge and experience between companies and stakeholders on challenges faced abroad. Following the Roundtables process, the Advisory Group developed a set of recommendations for the government’s consideration, including a recommendation to amend the Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act to clarify that it applies extraterritorially to Canadian nationals. The government has already acted on some of the recommendations contained in the Advisory Group Report, and remains committed to enhancing the Government of Canada’s support for CSR-related initiatives.
The OECD Convention aims to stop the flow of bribes and to remove bribery as a non-tariff barrier to trade. The Convention and the 1997 Revised Recommendation of the OECD Council on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions provide for self and mutual evaluation by members of the OECD Working Group on Bribery in International Business Transactions (the "Working Group"). The aim of the review exercise is to ensure the effectiveness of national instruments to combat bribery and that all members enjoy a level playing field.
The evaluation takes place in two phases. Phase 1 is designed to evaluate whether the legal texts through which participants implement the Convention meet the standards set by it, as well as initial actions to implement the 1997 Revised Recommendation. Phase 2 studies and assess the structures put into place to enforce national laws and determine their practical application.
Phase 1 involves the review of each member country's implementing legislation to determine if it meets the requirements of the OECD Convention. Except for South Africa which joined in June 2007, all members of the Working Group have undergone Phase 1 reviews.
Where a country's implementing legislation has been found not to meet the standards of the OECD Convention, a Phase 1bis examination is conducted to determine if legislation implemented in response to the initial Phase 1 review meets OECD Convention standards. To date, only Hungary and the United Kingdom have received Phase 1bis examinations. All Phase 1 reviews are available on the OECD's website.
During the Phase 2 examination, the Working Group evaluates, among other things, member countries' enforcement and implementation of their foreign bribery legislation. Phase 2 examinations involve the completion of a questionnaire by the reviewed country followed by an on-site visit by members of the OECD Secretariat and lead examiners from two other OECD countries. These on-site visits constitute a major aspect of the evaluation process, and include meetings with government representatives as well as informal exchanges of views with representatives of the private sector and civil society. (Each examined country is consulted on the best manner of obtaining input from the private sector and civil society.)
Following an on-site visit, the Secretariat, in consultation with the lead examiners, drafts a preliminary report. The Working Group, meeting in plenary, then reviews and adopts the report which is later transmitted to the OECD Council.
Finland was the first country to be evaluated under Phase 2 in 2002. Since then, the Working Group has also reviewed, and approved, Phase 2 reports for 31 countries, including Canada. All Phase 2 examinations of current members are expected to be completed in 2008.
The Working Group is currently negotiating a review of the instruments associated with the Convention in part to facilitate current discussions on a planned Phase 3 of review. Phase 3 will be a focussed review of certain cross-cutting issues along with issues specific to individual countries that have been identified in the Phase 2 process. The first Phase 3 reviews are expected to begin in the fall of 2009.
Canada's Phase 1 Evaluation
The Working Group reviewed Canada's implementing legislation, July 8-9, 1999 and concluded that the CFPOA met the requirements set by the Convention. The Working Group also noted that some issues may benefit from further examination during the Phase 2 evaluation. These include the exemption of reasonable expenses incurred in good faith, Canada's choice not to establish nationality jurisdiction with respect to bribery of foreign public officials, payments to secure performance of any act of a routine nature from the purview of the offence, and sentencing courts’ discretion in imposing fines. The Phase 1 Report on Canada (PDF *, 125 KB) may be consulted at the website.
Canada's Phase 2 Evaluation
At its June 17-19, 2003 meeting, the OECD Working Group on Bribery approved the report on the evaluation of Canada's enforcement of its laws against foreign bribery. Overall, the report is positive in its evaluation of Canada's fight against corruption. However, the report makes recommendations which, in the opinion of the Working Group, would further improve Canada's capacity to fight corruption. These recommendations deal with the measures to prevent and detect foreign bribery and measures to prosecute and sanction it. The Report also identifies issues requiring follow-up by the Working Group because of insufficient practice at the time the evaluation was conducted to assess Canada's performance. The Phase 2 Report on Canada can be found on the OECD website (PDF*, 398 KB).
The OECD post-Phase 2 follow-up procedure required Canada to provide information on its follow-up actions at a meeting of the Working Group in March 2005, one year after the publication of the Phase 2 Report on Canada in March 2004, and a more detailed report after two years. Canada provided an oral update at a Working Group meeting on March 17, 2005 and provided a detailed written report at the meeting of March 2006.
Canada’s Phase 2 Follow-Up Report
In March, 2006, Canada presented its Written Follow-Up to the Phase 2 Report and the Working Group issued its response on June 21, 2006. The Working Group found that Canada had made important steps in a number of areas to implement the recommendations adopted by the Working Group, including further raising awareness of the foreign bribery offence and the
OECD Convention, efforts in the area of co-ordination among law enforcement authorities, strengthening accounting and auditing legislation, and developments in the area of reporting and detecting foreign bribery offences, as well as statistics gathering for sanctions for the offence.
The Working Group expressed concern over the grounds for which Canada can choose not to prosecute the foreign bribery offence “in the public interest” and over the lack of nationality jurisdiction for the offence, and encouraged Canada to adopt a policy of debarment for applicants convicted of foreign bribery in the context of public tenders. The Working Group also expressed surprise at the paucity of prosecutions under the CFPOA.
The Working Group’s Phase 2 Follow-up Report (PDF*, 294 KB) can be found on the OECD's website
Canada's Activities as Lead Examiner
Canada and Italy were lead examiners in the Phase 2 review of France and Canadian officials participated in the on-site visit of France from June 23 to 27, 2003. The report on France was adopted at the Working Group's October 2003 meeting. The report on France (PDF*, 589 KB) can be found on the OECD's website.
Canada and France were lead examiners in the Phase 2 review of the United Kingdom and Canadian officials participated in the on-site visit of the UK from July 19 to 23, 2004. The report on UK was adopted at the Working Group's March 2005 (PDF*, 675 KB) meeting and can be found on the OECD's website.
In response to concerns expressed by the Working Group on the UK’s failure to remedy certain key deficiencies identified in their Phase 2 review, in addition to and potentially linked to concerns raised by the interruption of the investigation of an important foreign bribery case, the Working Group decided in March 2007 to conduct a supplementary Phase 2 bis of the UK. Canada and France are lead examiners in this evaluation and participated in the on-site visit from March 31st to April 3, 2008. The Phase 2 bis report will be presented to the Working Group on Bribery in October 2008.
|Country||Deposit of instrument ratification/accession||Entry into force of the Convention||Implementing Legislation|
February 08, 2001
April 09, 2001
November 10, 1999
October 18, 1999
December 17, 1999
December 17, 1999
May 20, 1999
July 19, 1999
October 01, 1998
July 27, 1999
September 25, 1999
April 03, 1999
August 24, 2000
October 23, 2000
June 11, 2002
December 22, 1998
February 20, 1999
January 29, 1999
December 17, 1998
February 15, 1999
February 14, 1999
April 18, 2001
June 17, 2001
January 21, 2000
March 21, 2000
June 09, 1999
September 05, 2000
November 04, 2000
May 01, 2000
November 23, 2004
January 22, 2005
July 1, 2004
December 10, 1998
February 15, 1999
January 01, 1999
July 31, 2000
September 29, 2000
September 29, 2000
November 10, 1998
February 15, 1999
February 15, 1999
February 05, 1999
April 06, 1999
December 01, 1998
December 04, 1998
February 15, 1999
March 01, 1999
August 17, 1998
February 15, 1999
December 30, 1998
September 22, 2003
November 21, 2003
November 26, 2001
December 15, 2000
February 13, 2001
October 26, 2000
October 13, 1998
February 15, 1999
February 15, 1999
January 04, 1999
March 05, 1999
February 15, 1999
March 21, 2001
May 20, 2001
February 11, 2001
May 27, 1999
July 26, 1999
May 18, 1999
January 12, 2001
March 13, 2001
February 01, 2001
June 25, 2001
August 24, 2001
May 03, 2001
December 18, 1998
February 16, 1999
January 01, 1999
November 23, 2000
January 22, 2001
June 09, 2001
September 08, 2000
November 07, 2000
February 04, 2001
September 24, 1999
November 23, 1999
November 01, 1999
September 06, 2001 (accession instrument)
November 05, 2001
January 23, 1999
June 19, 2007
August 18, 2007
April 28, 2004
January 4, 2000
March 04, 2000
February 02, 2000
June 08, 1999
August 07, 1999
July 01, 1999
May 31, 2000
July 30, 2000
May 01, 2000
July 26, 2000
September 24, 2000
January 11, 2003
December 14, 1998
February 15, 1999
February 14, 2002
December 08, 1998
February 15, 1999
November 10, 1998
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