International Trade Agreements

A Summary Guide for Canadian Municipalities

This publication was developed in cooperation with the Federation of Canadian Municipalities.

Note: This document is provided for information purposes only and does not in any way constitute legal advice or represent legal interpretations by the Government of Canada. Municipal measures would need to be assessed on a case-by-case basis. Municipalities should seek legal advice, as appropriate.

Table of Contents

Introduction

On June 4, 2005, the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development (DFATD) launched the web-based International Trade Agreements and Local Government: A Guide for Canadian Municipalities. This publication is a companion to the online Guide.

The online Guide was developed by DFATD at the request of and in collaboration with the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM). It is intended for use by municipal officials as a consolidated source of information about Canada’s trade agreements and as a practical tool for assessing how provisions in those agreements might affect municipal activities.

Municipal measures would also need to be considered in the context of the Agreement on Internal Trade (AIT) and any obligations that might apply to the activities of municipalities. For more information on the AIT and its provisions, please consult the Agreement on International Trade website.

Municipalities should seek legal advice as appropriate.

This Summary Guide is designed to provide municipal officials with quick access to key points of information from the online Guide in an easy-to-use format. As such, the Summary Guide provides:

  • an overview of Canada’s trade agreements;
  • an explanation of core principles and obligations;
  • a summary of key provisions in the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the agreements most relevant to municipalities; 
  • a description of key questions and examples set out in the online Guide to assist municipal officials in determining the potential applicability of trade agreement provisions to municipal measures; and
  • FAQs, a glossary of terms and a list of other international agreements, negotiations and organizations.

Of course, this Summary Guide provides only highlights of the online version. It is not comprehensive and cannot address all circumstances in which trade agreement obligations might apply.

For more information and technical details, consult the online Guide.

Note: Nothing contained in the Summary Guide or the online version constitutes legal advice or represents legal interpretations by the Government of Canada.

Canada's Trade Agreements

Overview

Canada’s participation in international trade agreements is driven by a fundamental reality: we must look outward for our prosperity, given that we have an abundance of production in natural resources, manufactured goods and services but a relatively small domestic market. This means that we must secure access to foreign markets and investment. It is in recognition of this reality that successive Canadian governments have pursued:

  • the first modern trade agreement with the United States, concluded in 1935;
  • the first major multilateral trade agreement, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which entered into force in 1948;
  • eight subsequent rounds of negotiations under the GATT to further liberalize trade, including the Uruguay Round, which established the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995;
  • the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (FTA), which entered into force in 1989;
  • the North American FTA, which entered into force in 1994;
  • bilateral FTAs with Israel (1997), Chile (1997), Costa Rica (2002), the European Free Trade Association (2009), Peru (2009), Colombia (2011), Jordan (2012), and Panama (2013).

Canada also has signed 24 bilateral Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection Agreements (FIPAs) and has been an active participant in a number of bilateral/regional FTA negotiations and the Doha Round of WTO negotiations that began in 2001.

Core Principles and Obligations

The basic principles underlying our trade agreements are straightforward and likely already reflected in how municipalities do business. They essentially call for non-discrimination and fairness.

The principle of non-discrimination is found in the core obligations of most-favoured-nation (MFN) treatment and national treatment contained in most agreements.

  • MFN treatment basically means that Canada may not discriminate between its trading partners. More specifically, Canada must treat businesses, products and services from one country no less favourably than it treats similar businesses, products and services from another country.
  • National treatment means that Canada must treat businesses, products and services from foreign countries no less favourably that it treats similar domestic businesses, products and services.

The principle of fairness is reflected in the core obligations of transparency and fair and equitable treatment contained in most trade agreements.

  • Transparency obligations call upon governments to make information about domestic laws, regulations, programs and administrative procedures readily available to foreign businesses.
  • The fair and equitable treatment requirement arises in the investment area and relates to providing foreign investors with internationally accepted, minimum standards of protection and due process.

Best Practices

The way in which Canadian municipalities treat businesses in their communities is typically in keeping with these basic principles.

Thus, while municipalities will wish to consider international trade obligations in specific cases, the chance of a trade issue arising is greatly minimized if municipal programs and regulatory practices are non-discriminatory, fair and transparent.

Even if measures depart from these core principles and obligations, they will not necessarily be inconsistent with our trade agreements. This is because of various exemptions and exceptions that remove municipalities from the coverage of those agreements in many circumstances. This is discussed further below.

Most Relevant Agreements for Municipalities: GATS and NAFTA

The online Guide provides details on a number of agreements that could affect municipalities, with a focus on the World Trade Organization (WTO) General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the services and investment chapters of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). These contain the provisions that are most likely to be relevant and will therefore be the focus of attention in this booklet.

It should be noted, however, that the online Guide provides details on the WTO Agreements on Technical Barriers to Trade and on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, as well as the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures. These agreements may be relevant to a municipality, for example, when it contemplates imposing technical regulations on products, applying measures to protect food safety or providing financial assistance to companies. Readers are encouraged to consult the online Guide for information about the potential applicability of these agreements.

The GATS

Overview and Key Provisions

The GATS, which was negotiated in the Uruguay Round and came into effect on January 1, 1995, is the first multilateral agreement covering trade in services. It essentially operates on two levels:

  • First, there are certain general obligations that apply, in principle, to any governmental measures affecting the supply of services. These obligations include MFN treatment, transparency and the provision of administrative review and appeal procedures.
  • These general obligations, however, may not be applicable to many municipal programs due to various exemptions and exceptions in the GATS, as discussed in the next section.
  • Second, GATS member countries have made sector-specific commitments to provide market access and national treatment in areas of their own choosing. Canada has made such commitments in a range of sectors including: professional, environmental, financial, communications, construction, transportation and tourism services.
  • Once again, however, certain exemptions and conditions limit the applicability or scope of some of these commitments, as discussed below.
  • In addition, a government’s right to regulate (including municipal governments), a basic attribute of sovereignty under international law, is reaffirmed in the GATS preamble and in a 2001 Ministerial Declaration that acknowledged “the right of Members to regulate, and to introduce new regulations, on the supply of services.”

Exemptions and Exceptions

Several GATS provisions limit its application with regard to municipal programs. For example:

  • GATS Article I specifically exempts “services supplied in the exercise of governmental authority” from the coverage of the agreement. These services are defined as “any service which is supplied neither on a commercial basis, nor in competition with one or more service suppliers.”
  • Article II provides for exceptions to MFN by allowing Members to preserve preferential access or treatment for service suppliers of selected countries; Canada has taken a number of such exceptions.
  • Although transparency requirements may apply to municipal programs, GATS Article III bis provides an exception that allows governments to protect confidential information in the public interest.
  • Article XIII.1 exempts government procurement of services from the MFN, market access and national treatment obligations, if the services are “purchased for governmental purposes and not with a view to commercial resale or with a view to use in the supply of services for commercial use.”
  • Article XIV provides an exception which specifies that nothing in the GATS prevents the adoption or enforcement of measures to protect public morals or maintain public order or to protect human, animal or plant life or health, as long as these measures are not “applied in a manner which would constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination between countries where like conditions prevail, or a disguised restriction on trade in services.”
  • Canada has also taken certain sector-specific exemptions that limit the application of market access and national treatment obligations in the sectors concerned. Canada has also made no GATS commitments in sectors such as: health services; public education and social services; cultural services; water collection, purification and distribution; and the transmission, distribution and wholesale or retail sale of electricity.

Provisions that Might Apply

The exemptions and exceptions described above are broad in scope. There may be particular circumstances, however, where GATS obligations might apply if the terms of an exemption or exception provision are not met.

For example:

  • The exemption for services “supplied in the exercise of governmental authority” applies when the services are neither being provided on a commercial basis nor in competition with other suppliers. Accordingly, if a municipality is supplying services on a commercial or competitive basis, GATS obligations may apply.
  • With respect to the government procurement exemption, if a municipality is buying services for commercial resale or use, GATS obligations may apply.
  • Although the GATS does not prevent a municipality from regulating, certain transparency provisions may apply. For example, a municipality may be required to publish regulations that pertain to or may affect the trade in services, particularly in areas where Canada has made sector-specific commitments. 
  • It should also be noted that, if a municipality authorizes a new monopoly supplier of a service, the monopoly would be subject to the MFN obligation under the GATS, as well as any specific commitments Canada has made in the relevant sector.

The NAFTA

Overview and Key Provisions

NAFTA entered into force between Canada, Mexico and the United States on January 1, 1994. The NAFTA chapters that are most likely relevant to municipalities are Chapter 11 (Investment) and Chapter 12 (Services). These are addressed below. Other potentially relevant chapters on standards, sanitary and phytosanitary measures as well as monopolies are described in the online Guide. It should be noted that NAFTA Chapter 10 (Government Procurement) does not apply to municipalities.

Municipal measures would also need to be considered in the context of the Agreement on Internal Trade (AIT) and any obligations that might apply to the activities of municipalities. For more information on the AIT and its provisions, please consult the Agreement on International Trade website.

Chapter 11 establishes rules to provide investors with a more predictable and secure investment climate as well as procedures for the settlement of disputes between investors and NAFTA governments. Subject to a number of exceptions and reservations that remove a wide range of municipal programs and activities from its coverage, key provisions of Chapter 11 include:

  • MFN and national treatment for NAFTA investors and their investments;
  • minimum standard of treatment for investments in accordance with customary international law;
  • prohibition on the imposition of performance requirements (e.g. domestic content requirements);
  • a prohibition on expropriation unless carried out for a public purpose, on a non-discriminatory basis, in accordance with due process of law and with the payment of compensation (fair market value); and
  • dispute settlement by way of international arbitration to settle alleged breaches of investment obligations by a NAFTA government that have resulted in loss or damage to an investor’s investment.

Chapter 12 establishes rules and obligations aimed at facilitating trade in services among the three NAFTA countries. Essentially, it applies to measures adopted or maintained by a NAFTA party relating to cross-border trade in services by service suppliers of another NAFTA party. It does not apply, however, to certain services that are specifically excluded, including air services and procurement of services by governments, or to subsidies and grants for services. Other exceptions and reservations described in the next section further limit the applicability of Chapter 12 to municipalities.

Subject to these exceptions and reservations, the key provisions of Chapter 12 include:

  • a requirement for MFN and national treatment for all service providers in covered service sectors;
  • a prohibition on requiring service providers from other NAFTA countries to establish a local presence as a condition of supplying a cross-border service, except as necessary for legitimate regulatory purposes such as consumer protection; and
  • measures to liberalize existing residency requirements as well as licensing and certification requirements for professionals.

Chapter 11: Exceptions and Reservations

Chapter 11 contains a number of exceptions and reservations that limit its potential application to municipal measures. These are found in Article 1108 and include the following:

  • Measures affecting investors and their investments that predate the entry into force of NAFTA on January 1, 1994, including trade-liberalizing amendments to such measures after that date, are not subject to the MFN, national treatment and performance requirements provisions of Chapter 11.
  • Sectors or measures listed by country in an annex to NAFTA (Annex II) are subject to specified reservations. In this annex, Canada has reserved the right to maintain or adopt measures inconsistent with the national treatment obligation and certain performance requirements, including with respect to: 
    • the social service sectors of public law enforcement, income security or insurance, social security or insurance, social welfare, public education and training, and health and child care;
    • disadvantaged minorities; and
    • Aboriginal peoples.
  • Government procurement is not subject to MFN or national treatment obligations.
  • The provision of subsidies and grants is not subject to MFN or national treatment obligations.

These exceptions and reservations remove a wide range of government measures, including at the municipal level, from the coverage of key Chapter 11 obligations.

Chapter 11: Provisions that Might Apply

In circumstances in which one or more of the exceptions or reservations described in the preceding section do not apply, the basic obligations contained in Chapter 11 could be relevant. These include MFN and national treatment for all NAFTA investors and their investments as well as limits on the imposition of certain performance requirements (e.g. local content requirements).

In addition, even where an exception or reservation does apply, the Chapter 11 provisions on minimum standard of treatment and expropriation described above are applicable to all levels of government.

These are some key points for consideration. Please consult the online Guide for more detail and guidance.

Chapter 12: Exceptions and Reservations 

The same exceptions and reservations described above for Chapter 11 apply to Chapter 12. Accordingly:

  • Measures affecting services that predate the entry into force of NAFTA are grandfathered, along with trade-liberalizing amendments to such measures.
  • Some sectors or measures listed by a country in its Annex to NAFTA (Annex II) are reserved against specific obligations in Chapter 12. The reservations preserve Canada’s right to maintain or adopt measures inconsistent with national treatment, market access, or any other Chapter 12 obligations. Canada has taken such Annex II reservations in areas such as: 
    • the social service sectors of public law enforcement, income security or insurance, social security or insurance, social welfare, public education and training, and health and child care;
    • disadvantaged minorities; and
    • Aboriginal peoples.
  • Government procurement and the provision of subsidies or grants are not covered (Article 1201).

Once again, these exceptions and reservations remove a wide range of measures, including at the municipal level, from the coverage of key Chapter 12 obligations.

Chapter 12: Provisions that Might Apply

In any circumstances where these exceptions and reservations do not apply, the MFN and national treatment obligations, as well as the prohibition on local presence requirements, could be applicable.

These are some key points for consideration. Please consult the online Guide for more detail and guidance.

Examples and Analytical Tools in the Online Guide

Part II of the online Guide is intended to assist municipal officials in assessing whether certain types of policies, programs or projects could be subject to trade agreement obligations. For this purpose, key questions that should be asked as part of such an assessment are provided.

These questions focus on four areas of municipal activity: financial assistance, government procurement, P3s and regulation. They lead the reader through an analysis that identifies potentially relevant obligations and provides a basis for determining whether or not they might apply. In each of the areas of activity addressed, practical examples of programs or projects provided by the FCM are set out to illustrate how the key questions can be used. The examples include:

  • grants to day-care centres (financial assistance programs);
  • incentives to attract an auto parts manufacturer (financial assistance programs);
  • a policy of awarding contracts for services to local suppliers (government procurement);
  • a natural gas franchise agreement with a U.S. supplier (P3s);
  • 40-year partnership with a European water service supplier (P3s);
  • a bylaw to ban diesel motors, certain gasoline additives or pesticides (regulation); and 
  • a proposal to “downzone” land optioned by a U.S. retailer in order to prohibit “big box stores,” except on land owned by the municipality (regulation).

It is recommended that municipal officials and their advisors review these analytical tools in Part II of the online Guide. It is important to note, however, that any commentary in the key questions or examples does not in any way constitute legal advice; they are presented for the purpose of illustration only.

The status of actual municipal measures must be addressed on a case-by-case basis, taking into account the particular facts and circumstances that apply. Municipalities are urged to obtain legal advice with respect to specific measures.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. Do international trade agreements, including the (North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the World Trade Organization Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA), limit the right of municipalities to regulate in the public interest or for the protection of the environment?
  2. Will the Government of Canada demand a permanent exception from international trade agreements, including the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), for local authorities?
  3. What does the NAFTA Chapter 11 decision in Metalclad v. Mexico mean to municipalities’ ability to implement zoning bylaws?
  4. Does NAFTA Chapter 11 affect municipalities’ ability to use P3s for government procurement?
  5. Do Canada’s trade obligations cover bulk water?
  6. Do international trade agreements, including the NAFTA and the GPA, require Canada to allow foreign businesses to provide water distribution services?

1. Do international trade agreements, including the (North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the World Trade Organization Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA), limit the right of municipalities to regulate in the public interest or for the protection of the environment?

  • No. Our trade agreements do not impair governments’ ability to adopt non-discriminatory measures necessary to achieve legitimate public policy objectives, such as the protection of health, safety and the environment.

2. Will the Government of Canada demand a permanent exception from international trade agreements, including the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), for local authorities?

  • No. In principle, Canada’s bilateral and multilateral international trade agreements apply to measures taken by Canada that affect trade in services, including measures taken by regional and local governments. However, these agreements contain a number of exceptions and exclusions that are relevant to municipalities. For example, the GATS excludes services supplied in the exercise of governmental authority (services that are supplied neither on a commercial basis, nor in competition with one or more service providers) as well as those services procured by governments and their agencies. Moreover, Canada has not made GATS commitments in connection with services such as health, public education and other social services.
  • This means that Canada’s GATS obligations do not apply to many of the services provided by local authorities nor to the services procured by them.

3. What does the NAFTA Chapter 11 decision in Metalclad v. Mexico mean to municipalities’ ability to implement zoning bylaws?

  • Neither the Tribunal award nor the statutory review of the award undertaken by the BC Supreme Court at the request of Mexico called into question the right of a local government to regulate on environmental or public health grounds.
  • The Metalclad Tribunal found that, after making a significant investment in a landfill site and obtaining all necessary authorizations from the Mexican federal government, a proponent was prohibited from proceeding with its project due to a local municipality’s denial of a construction permit on the basis of grounds that were outside its authority, and a state government’s issuance of an Ecological Decree to respond to local opposition. Moreover, a Chapter 11 investor-state Tribunal may only award monetary damages, costs and interest directly related to a breach of an obligation. A Tribunal cannot order a party to modify or remove existing legislation and it cannot award punitive damages.
  • While the Tribunal found that these measures constituted an indirect expropriation under NAFTA Chapter 11, the Metalclad award does not stand for the proposition that governments cannot regulate in the public interest or for environmental protection. It should also be noted that each Chapter 11 case is fact-specific and does not set a binding precedent for future cases.

4. Does NAFTA Chapter 11 affect municipalities’ ability to use P3s for government procurement?

  • Chapter 11 does not affect municipalities’ ability to use P3s for government procurement. The purchase of goods or services by a government through a public-private partnership may be considered government procurement. Under Canada’s existing international trade agreements, government procurement of goods and services by Canadian municipalities is not covered.
  • Moreover, certain provisions of NAFTA Chapter 11, e.g., Article 1102 (National Treatment) and certain paragraphs of Article 1106 (Performance Requirements), expressly do not apply to government procurement. This means that unless applicable procurement obligations have been taken in accordance with NAFTA’s Chapter on Government Procurement, no level of government is required to provide foreign investors national treatment in government procurement, nor are they prevented from requesting certain local preference requirements in the procurement of goods or services through a public-private partnership. 

5. Do Canada’s trade obligations cover bulk water?

  • Canada’s trade obligations do not preclude Canada’s ability to regulate water as a natural resource including whether it may be extracted and in what quantities. Canada has no trade obligations to allow bulk water extractions.
  • Water in its natural state, such as in lakes, rivers and aquifers, is a natural resource and is not considered a “good” for the purposes of trade agreements. Only when water is removed from its natural state and commercialized does it become a good potentially subject to trade disciplines, as in the case, for example, of bottled water for the commercial market.

6. Do international trade agreements, including the NAFTA and the GPA, require Canada to allow foreign businesses to provide water distribution services?

  • No. Canada’s international trade agreements do not require municipal, regional or provincial governments to allow foreign businesses to provide drinking water or other water distribution services. Governments and government-owned utilities may continue to provide these services themselves.
  • Only if governments do choose to procure water distribution services from private-sector firms, or to privatize water distribution services, may certain trade obligations, such as non-discrimination obligations, apply.

Glossary of Terms

Doha Round: The name of the current round of WTO trade negotiations. Ministers from WTO member countries met in Doha, Qatar, in November 2001 to launch the negotiations, in which the needs and concerns of developing countries are a priority.

Expropriation: The direct or indirect taking of private-property interests by a foreign Government without compensation at fair market value.

GATS: General Agreement on Trade in Services, which entered into force in January 1995. It is the first multilateral agreement covering international trade in services.

Liberalization: Reductions in tariffs and other measures that restrict trade.

MFN: Most-Favoured-Nation. The principle of not discriminating between one’s trading partners.

NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement. NAFTA entered into force on January 1, 1994.

National Treatment: The principle of giving others no less favourable treatment than that afforded to one’s own nationals.

Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs): Government measures other than tariffs that restrict trade (e.g. import quotas).

Performance Requirements: Government-mandated trade-related activities that investors must undertake, such as export or domestic content requirements, usually as a condition of establishment or operation in a country.

Transparency: Visibility and accessibility of laws and regulations.

UNCITRAL: The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law is a legal body in the UN system. Its arbitration rules can be used in investor/state dispute-settlement cases under NAFTA Chapter 11.

Uruguay Round (UR): Multilateral trade negotiations launched in the context of the GATT at Punta del Este, Uruguay, in September 1986, and concluded in Geneva in December 1993.

WTO: World Trade Organization, established on January 1, 1995.

Other International Trade Agreements, Negotiations and Organizations

The focus in this Summary Guide has been on the GATS and NAFTA, the two trade agreements most relevant to municipalities. The following is a list of other agreements and negotiations that may also be of interest. More information on these agreements is available in the online Guide.

ASCM: The Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures. The WTO agreement establishing disciplines on subsidies that distort international trade.

CETA: Canada-European Union (EU) Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA), under negotiation.

DSU: The Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes, the agreement establishing the WTO dispute-settlement system.

FIPA: Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement. Canada has entered into 24 such bilateral agreements to open foreign investment markets and protect the interests of Canadian investors in those markets.

FTA: Free Trade Agreement.

GATT: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. The original Agreement came into effect in January 1948 and is now part of the GATT 1994, a WTO agreement.

GPA: The Agreement on Government Procurement. The WTO agreement establishing rules for government procurement. The GPA is a plurilateral agreement, i.e. not all WTO member countries are signatories.

ICSID: The International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes is an institution linked to the World Bank that provides facilities for the arbitration of investment disputes between member countries and investors of other member countries. Its arbitration rules can be used in investor/state dispute-settlement cases under NAFTA Chapter 11.

ITA: Information Technology Agreement. A WTO agreement endorsed by several Members that calls for the gradual elimination of tariffs on information technology and telecommunications products.

SPS Agreement: The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. A WTO agreement setting out Members’ rights and obligations with respect to SPS measures (i.e. a measure applied to protect animal or plant life or health within a territory from risks such as pests, diseases, contaminants and toxins).
 
TBT Agreement: The Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade. A WTO agreement setting Member’s rights and obligations with respect to technical regulations, standards and conformity assessment procedures.

TRIPS: The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. Negotiated in the Uruguay Round, TRIPS is the WTO agreement addressing intellectual property rights

List of Useful Contacts

For all questions related to international trade, including the impacts of Canada’s international trade agreements on areas of municipal jurisdiction, municipal leaders should contact their respective provincial or territorial departments responsible for international trade, listed below. 

Alberta

Ministry of International and Intergovernmental Relations
Government of Alberta
Edmonton, AB
Telephone: (780) 422-1510
Fax: (780) 427-0699
Website: Alberta Ministry of International and Intergovernmental Relations

British Columbia

Ministry of Jobs, Tourism and Innovation
Government of British Columbia
Victoria, BC
Telephone: (604) 660-2421 (Vancouver) or (250) 387-6121 (Victoria)
or (604) 660-2421 (Outside B.C.)
E-mail: EnquiryBC@gov.bc.ca
Website: British Columbia Ministry of Jobs, Tourism and Skills Training

Manitoba

Department of Entrepreneurship, Training and Trade
Government of Manitoba
Winnipeg, MB
Telephone: (204) 945-3744 or (866) 626-4862 (toll-free)
E-mail: mgi@gov.mb.ca
Website: Manitoba Department of Entrepeneurship, Training and Trade

New Brunswick

Department of Intergovernmental Affairs, Trade Policy Division
Government of New Brunswick
Fredericton, NB
Telephone: (506) 453-2671
Fax: (506) 444-5299
Website: New Brunswick Department of Intergovernmental Affairs

Newfoundland and Labrador

Department of Innovation, Business and Rural Development
Government of Newfoundland and Labrador
St. John's, NL
Telephone: (709) 729-7000
Fax: (709) 729-0654
E-mail: IBRD@gov.nl.ca
Website: Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Innovation, Business and Rural Development

Northwest Territories

Department of Industry, Tourism and Investment
Investment and Economic Analysis
Government of Northwest Territories
Yellowknife, NT
Telephone: (867) 920-8696
E-mail: info@ITI.ca
Website: Northwest Territories Department of Industry, Tourism and Investment

Nova Scotia

Ministry of Economic and Rural Development and Tourism
Government of Nova Scotia
Halifax, NS
Telephone: (902) 424-0377
Fax: (902) 424-0500
E-mail: comm@gov.ns.ca
Website: Nova Scotia Ministry of Economic and Rural Development and Tourism

Nunavut

Department of Economic Development and Transportation
Government of Nunavut
Iqaluit, NU
Telephone: (867) 975-7800 or (888) 975-5999 (toll-free)
Fax: (867) 975-7870
E-mail: edt@gov.nu.ca
Website: Nunavut Department of Economic Development and Transportation

Ontario

Ministry of Economic Development, Trade and Employment
Ministry of Research and Innovation
Government of Ontario
Toronto, ON
Telephone: (416) 325-6666 or (866)-668-4249 (toll-free)
Fax: (416) 325-6688
E-mail: info@edt.gov.on.ca
Website: Ontario Ministry of Economic Development, Trade and Employment

Prince Edward Island

Department of Innovation and Advanced Learning
Government of Prince Edward Island
Charlottetown, PE
Telephone: (902) 368-4240
Fax: (902) 368-4242
Website: Prince Edward Island Department of Innovation and Advanced Learning

Quebec

Ministère des finances et de l’économie (MFEQ)
Gouvernement du Québec
City of Quebec, QC
Telephone: (418) 691-5950 or (866) 680-1884 (toll-free)
Fax: (418) 644-0118
Website: Ministère des finances et de l’économie du Québec

Saskatchewan

Executive Council (Intergovernmental Affairs – Trade Policy Branch)
Government of Saskatchewan
Regina, SK
Telephone: (306) 787-2172
Fax: (306) 787-7317

Yukon

Department of Economic Development
Government of Yukon
Whitehorse, YK
Telephone: (867) 393-7191
Fax: (867) 393-6412
E-mail: ecdev@gov.yk.ca
Website: Yukon Department of Economic Development

Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (DFATD)
125 Sussex Drive
Ottawa, Ontario  K1A 0G2
Telephone: 1-800-267-8376 (toll-free in Canada)
(613) 944-4000 (in the National Capital Region and outside Canada)
(613) 944-9136 (TTY)
Facsimile: (613) 996-9709

The following link will direct you to website where detailed information on Canada's Trade Policy can be found:

Canada's Trade Negotiations and Agreements
This site contains information on Canada's Trade Policy objectives and all trade agreements.