CETA benefits already visible a year after its entry into force

In just one year since taking effect, CETA has generated significant benefits, with increases in trade between Canada and the EU.

Table of contents

Country profiles

Canada – European Union Goods and Services Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Canadian Services Exports to the EU by Major Category (Q4 2017 to Q2 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Commercial Services8,55264.1%6.1%
Transportation Services2,50618.8%5.1%
Travel Services2,11215.8%0.0%
Government Services1741.3%-1.1%
Total13,344100.0%4.8%
* (Q4 2017 to Q2 2018)/(Q4 2016 to Q2 2017)
Canadian Services Imports from the EU by Major Category (Q4 2017 to Q2 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Commercial Services9,88565.4%6.4%
Travel Services3,8767.4%1.9%
Transportation Services3,8375.7%9.4%
Government Services2052.0%0.0%
Total17,803100.0%5.9%

Canada – European Union Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to European Union (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Precious stones & metals10,815.029.9%-6.9%
Mineral fuels & oils3,566.29.9%45.8%
Machinery3,152.28.7%4.1%
Mineral ores, etc.2,591.07.2%-8.3%
Aircraft & parts 2,357.96.5%-10.4%
Other13,650.437.8%9.7%
Total36,132.7100.0%3.3%
* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from European Union (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Machinery11,238.118.6%14.2%
Motor vehicles & parts8,675.114.3%15.5%
Pharmaceuticals6,003.79.9%6.2%
Mineral fuels & oils4,098.96.8%21.9%
Electrical machinery & equipment3,497.75.8%-6.5%
Other27,002.144.6%14.9%
Total60,515.6100.0%12.9%

Country profiles

Canada - Austria Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to Austria (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Aircraft & parts 159.553.3%19.4%
Machinaery36.812.3%74.8%
Precesion & technical instruments20.66.9%20.6%
Electrical machinery & equipment15.05.0%9.4%
Paper & paper board10.83.6%**
Other56.518.9%-28.9%
Total299.1100.0%12.6%

* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
** very large increase from a small base

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from Austria (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Machinery465.427.4%21.9%
Pharmaceuticals195.311.5%2.8%
Electrical machinery & equipment140.88.3%12.4%
Iron and steel products122.07.2%15.1%
Motor vehicles and parts104.86.2%16.7%
Other672.139.5%15.2%
Total1,700.5100.0%15.2%

Canada - Belgium Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to Belgium (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Precious metals & stones929.532.4%-10.2%
Pharmaceuticals363.212.7%135.5%
Mineral ores353.512.3%-8.8%
Nickel and related215.67.5%79.5%
Motor vehicles140.04.9%187.7%
Other865.530.2%-14.7%
Total2,867.2100.0%3.9%

* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
** very large increase from a small base

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from Belgium (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Organic chemicals882.022.7%206.2%
Motor vehicles850.821.9%**
Pharmaceuticals636.716.4%97.0%
Mineral fuels and oils352.79.1%-36.5%
Machinery206.75.3%16.1%
Other950.524.5%13.6%
Total3,879.4100.0%72.2%

Canada - Bulgaria Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to Bulgaria (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Mineral ores, etc.182.073.5%1.6%
Copper & related17.67.1%-51.4%
Fish & seafood10.34.2%120.6%
Books, newspapers  & magazines7.53.0%52.0%
Electrical machinery & equipment5.42.2%-22.4%
Other24.810.0%-86.2%
Total247.6100.0%-39.8%
* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from Bulgaria
(October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Woven apparel19.915.9%15.8%
Machinery17.213.7%20.8%
Knitted apparel12.510.0%29.7%
Precision & technical instruments9.17.2%46.4%
Electrical machinery & equipment8.87.1%16.0%
Other57.646.0%6.0%
Total125.1100.0%14.5%

Canada - Croatia Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to Croatia (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Mineral fuels & oils14.734.4%**
Machinery6.615.5%157.6%
Aircraft & parts 5.212.3%10.8%
Vegetables5.011.7%-4.0%
Precision & technical instruments1.74.0%-13.4%
Other9.422.1%14.2%
Total42.7100.0%87.4%

* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
** very large increase from a small base

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from Croatia (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Ships & boats50.352.3%**
Pharmaceuticals8.79.0%26.0%
Electrical machinery & equipment4.54.7%-36.3%
Aluminum & related4.24.4%-2.5%
Furniture & bedding3.13.3%47.7%
Other25.426.4%11.5%
Total96.3100.0%123.0%

Canada - Cyprus Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to Cyprus (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Machinery2.320.7%1.4%
Pharmaceuticals2.119.3%-12.2%
Plastics & related1.412.5%-26.9%
Vegetables1.09.4%2.6%
Electrical machinery & equipment0.98.4%-42.5%
Other3.329.7%-6.7%
Total11.0100.0%-13.1%
* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from Cyprus (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Fruits & nuts1.441.9%14.3%
Dairy & related0.618.1%5.8%
Machinery0.412.5%212.3%
Fish & seafood0.39.7%15.8%
Electrical machinery & equipment0.25.6%119.9%
Other0.412.2%-23.5%
Total3.3100.0%18.1%

Canada - Czech Republic Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to the Czech Republic (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Aircraft & parts 82.139.2%50.3%
Machinery23.911.4%7.8%
Mineral fuels & oils14.46.9%**
Motor vehicles & parts11.95.7%163.6%
Electrical machinery & equipment10.75.1%1.6%
Other66.631.8%-3.1%
Total209.6100.0%30.4%

* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
** very large increase from a small base

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from the Czech Republic (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Machinery188.231.1%58.4%
Electrical machinery & equipment88.914.7%19.0%
Iron & steel products47.07.8%-9.7%
Rubber & related39.36.5%-5.2%
Motor vehicles & parts24.34.0%8.8%
Other217.435.9%21.0%
Total605.1100.0%23.7%

Canada - Denmark Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to Denmark (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Aircraft & parts 145.737.8%325.0%
Fish & seafood61.215.9%14.2%
Electrical machinery & equipment27.37.1%138.2%
Mineral fuels & oils23.66.1%-31.7%
Precision & technical instruments20.75.4%8.4%
Other106.727.7%-19.2%
Total385.2100.0%35.2%
* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from Denmark (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Pharmaceuticals365.232.6%16.9%
Machinery188.816.8%8.6%
Precision & technical instruments133.111.9%9.2%
Electrical machinery & equipment118.510.6%-50.2%
Beverages, etc.30.22.7%-1.8%
Other285.525.5%20.9%
Total1,121.3100.0%0.7%

Canada - Estonia Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to Estonia (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Electrical machinery & equipment3.717.8%-20.8%
Fish & seafood3.315.7%313.4%
Misc. base metals 2.511.9%-11.3%
Motor vehicles & parts2.411.6%382.9%
Machinery and Equipment2.311.3%-35.6%
Other6.631.9%-8.7%
Total20.7100.0%6.0%

* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
** very large increase from a small base

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from Estonia (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Electrical machinery & equipment108.156.8% ** 
Mineral fuels and oils32.116.9%-37.4%
Furniture and bedding9.44.9%14.0%
Miscellaneous food preparations8.64.5%33.9%
Machinery and equipment 7.33.8%102.7%
Other24.713.0%44.0%
Total190.3100.0%100.4%

Canada - Finland Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to Finland (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Mineral ores, etc.302.547.7%122.7%
Mineral fuels & oils142.322.4%18.4%
Motor vehicles & parts52.38.2%-31.3%
Machinery22.63.6%-7.3%
Plastics & related18.72.9%73.8%
Other95.915.1%-43.7%
Total634.3100.0%18.0%
* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from Finland (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Machinery225.222.5%-0.6%
Mineral fuels & oils190.919.1%48.2%
Motor vehicles & parts120.812.1%36.4%
Electrical machinery & equipment70.37.0%29.9%
Pharmaceuticals69.36.9%2.8%
Other322.432.3%-14.1%
Total998.8100.0%6.1%

Canada - France Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to France (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Machinery557.619.9%-5.7%
Mineral ores, etc.460.316.4%-13.8%
Aircraft & parts 407.714.6%2.5%
Electrical machinery & equipment182.36.5%-11.8%
Oilseeds159.35.7%-49.7%
Other1,033.236.9%-0.3%
Total2,800.3100.0%-9.2%
* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from France
(October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Machinery927.915.9%13.2%
Aircraft & parts 689.211.8%48.6%
Preserved foods677.411.6%15.3%
Pharmaceuticals463.57.9%7.3%
Electrical machinery & equipment367.56.3%-1.7%
Other2,709.746.4%16.4%
Total5,835.2100.0%16.6%

Canada - Germany Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports from Germany (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Machinery786.020.5%24.5%
Motor vehicles & parts330.98.6%168.1%
Mineral ores, etc.329.58.6%-13.7%
Precision & technical instruments260.06.8%9.0%
Precious stones & metals247.26.4%11.3%
Other1,884.649.1%-5.2%
Total3,838.2100.0%7.1%
* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports to Germany (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Motor vehicles & parts4,228.126.9%3.0%
Machinery3,783.924.1%17.2%
Pharmaceuticals1,758.511.2%-0.1%
Electrical machinery & equipment1,072.56.8%-4.9%
Precision & technical instruments925.55.9%-0.6%
Other3,955.225.2%13.6%
Total15,723.6100.0%7.4%

Canada - Greece Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to Greece (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Fur & related22.922.0%-20.5%
Oilseeds18.918.2% **
Vegetables12.211.8%-20.0%
Machinery7.47.1%9.6%
Paper & paperboard6.66.4%137.7%
Other35.734.4%30.6%
Total103.7100.0%27.6%

* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
** very large increase from a small base

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from Greece (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Preserved foods49.921.5%7.3%
Salts, sulfur, earth, stone & cement23.510.1%88.5%
Fats & oils18.78.0%3.2%
Ships & boats14.46.2%**
Fish & seafood12.85.5%6.2%
Other112.848.6%6.7%
Total232.1100.0%19.2%

Canada - Hungary Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to Hungary (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Machinery17.527.2%-7.3%
Electrical machinery & equipment11.818.3%-12.8%
Precision & technical instruments7.010.9%-10.8%
Motor vehicles & parts7.010.8%108.0%
Books, newspapers  & magazines5.89.0%47.1%
Other15.423.8%-18.0%
Total64.5100.0%-2.8%

* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
** very large increase from a small base

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from Hungary (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Motor vehicles & parts170.525.2%11.3%
Machinery140.320.8%11.4%
Electrical machinery & equipment123.618.3%12.4%
Pharmaceuticals57.78.5%1.0%
Precision & technical instruments28.44.2%-4.8%
Other155.223.0%28.2%
Total675.7100.0%13.2%

Canada - Ireland Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to Ireland (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Cereals120.022.9%173.9%
Pharmaceuticals112.321.4%-38.2%
Mineral fuels & oils62.211.9%**
Food byproducts & feed44.28.4%105.6%
Organic chemicals38.67.4%163.1%
Other147.028.0%-22.2%
Total524.3100.0%16.3%

* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
** Very large increase from a small base

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from Ireland
(October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Organic chemicals829.133.1%160.2%
Pharmaceuticals720.128.8%-11.5%
Precision & technical instruments259.110.3%3.6%
Mineral fuels & oils234.09.3%354.0%
Beverages, etc.119.74.8%15.5%
Other342.413.7%29.4%
Total2,504.4100.0%39.0%

Canada - Italy Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to Italy (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Pharmaceuticals734.729.4%99.1%
Mineral fuels & oils408.216.4%-11.5%
Oilseeds222.38.9%152.7%
Machinery204.78.2%0.1%
Cereals94.13.8%-61.6%
Other831.333.3%23.5%
Total2,495.3100.0%22.3%
* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from Italy
(October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Machinery1,679.422.9%0.9%
Motor vehicles & parts566.87.7%12.1%
Beverages, etc.547.57.5%7.8%
Pharmaceuticals442.86.0%15.9%
Electrical machinery & equipment284.63.9%7.1%
Other3,817.052.0%16.9%
Total7,338.1100.0%11.3%

Canada - Latvia Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to Latvia (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Aircraft & parts 303.494.8%-49.3%
Electrical machinery & equipment3.71.2%189.8%
Machinery3.51.1%-27.7%
Plastics & related1.30.4%294.6%
Food byproducts & feed1.00.3%-2.8%
Other7.02.2%-41.3%
Total319.9100.0%-48.2%
* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from Latvia (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Beverages, etc.10.223.4%9.3%
Precision & technical instruments5.111.6%32.9%
Prepared meat & fish4.39.9%700.7%
Electrical machinery & equipment4.29.6%52.2%
Machinery3.27.3%29.3%
Other16.638.1%5.9%
Total43.7100.0%26.0%

Canada - Lithuania Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to Lithuania (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Machinery35.338.6%7.1%
Motor vehicles & parts13.614.8%16.2%
Aircraft & parts 9.510.4%**
Fish & seafood4.04.3%1.7%
Electrical machinery & equipment3.74.1%-23.9%
Other25.427.7%126.3%
Total91.5100.0%40.9%

* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
** very large increase from a small base

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from Lithuania (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Mineral fuels & oils102.654.5%154.8%
Furniture & bedding38.420.4%14.5%
Fish & seafood6.33.4%160.8%
Fertilizers5.12.7%-60.0%
Precision & technical instruments3.92.1%-16.2%
Other32.117.0%26.5%
Total188.4100.0%58.2%

Canada - Luxembourg Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to Luxembourg (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Machinery27.951.4%-21.6%
Woven apparel5.29.6%**
Motor vehicles & parts4.88.8%40.9%
Aircraft & parts 2.95.3%-69.2%
Precision & technical instruments2.44.5%-14.8%
Other11.120.5%-47.1%
Total54.4100.0%-25.1%

* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
** very large increase from a small base

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from Luxembourg (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Iron & steel66.949.0%23.4%
Rubber & related20.715.2%17.6%
Iron & steel products14.210.4%54.2%
Machinery9.87.2%-36.0%
Copper & related5.64.1%61.1%
Other19.214.1%-4.8%
Total136.5100.0%13.7%

Canada - Malta Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to Malta (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Aircraft & parts 52.587.5%-73.2%
Machinery0.81.4%-68.7%
Cereals0.61.1%17.7%
Electrical machinery & equipment0.61.0%65.8%
Precision & technical instruments0.60.9%126.8%
Other2.23.6%2.4%
Total60.0100.0%-70.3%
* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from Malta (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Pharmaceuticals10.128.8%-33.1%
Electrical machinery & equipment9.727.6%65.2%
Precision & technical instruments6.418.2%33.0%
Motor vehicles & parts1.95.4%103.2%
Toys & sports equipment1.64.7%62.1%
Other5.315.2%26.5%
Total34.9100.0%9.8%

Canada - Netherlands Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to Netherlands (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Mineral fuels & oils957.628.1%71.1%
Mineral ores, etc.286.58.4%-32.4%
Machinery282.68.3%2.1%
Aluminum & related271.58.0%496.5%
Inorganic chemicals177.85.2%110.9%
Other1,437.742.1%12.9%
Total3,413.6100.0%28.2%

* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
** very large increase from a small base

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from Netherlands (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Mineral fuels & oils1,782.445.9%34.8%
Machinery482.112.4%19.1%
Electrical machinery & equipment153.03.9%17.1%
Beverages, etc.132.23.4%9.3%
Motor vehicles & parts118.93.1%32.5%
Other1,214.031.3%6.8%
Total3,882.5100.0%21.1%

Canada - Poland Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to Poland (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Machinery226.736.3%-2.0%
Mineral fuels & oils138.522.1%14.8%
Motor vehicles & parts38.06.1%130.1%
Precision & technical instruments32.45.2%35.3%
Electrical machinery & equipment31.85.1%21.8%
Other157.825.2%8.3%
Total625.2100.0%10.8%
* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from Poland (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Machinery626.735.7%7.7%
Fur & related175.010.0%0.8%
Furniture & bedding149.38.5%18.9%
Electrical machinery & equipment146.78.4%22.7%
Precious stones & metals52.83.0%-8.7%
Other604.034.4%-4.4%
Total1,754.5100.0%3.8%

Canada - Portugal Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to Portugal (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Mineral fuels & oils112.235.2%**
Oilseeds60.719.1%-35.4%
Cereals42.513.4%16.9%
Aircraft & parts 26.98.4%-72.9%
Vegetables10.63.3%4.0%
Other65.620.6%25.2%
Total318.4100.0%9.0%

* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
** very large increase from a small base

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from Portugal (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Beverages, etc.59.911.7%10.0%
Knitted apparel58.611.5%38.8%
Footwear40.78.0%21.2%
Electrical machinery & equipment36.97.2%22.5%
Furniture & bedding36.17.1%15.7%
Other278.254.5%3.8%
Total510.4100.0%11.1%

Canada - Romania Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to Romania (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Mineral fuels & oils59.837.4%56.8%
Machinery25.816.2%25.1%
Inorganic chemicals19.011.9%-19.7%
Mineral ores, etc.7.74.8%**
Motor vehicles & parts7.14.5%664.6%
Other40.425.3%18.5%
Total159.8100.0%36.1%

* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
** very large increase from a small base

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from Romania (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Iron & steel113.127.2%58.6%
Machinery48.011.5%6.4%
Woven apparel44.310.7%5.4%
Iron & steel products31.97.7%44.7%
Electrical machinery & equipment28.46.8%31.5%
Other149.936.1%-49.8%
Total415.6100.0%-17.0%

Canada - Slovakia Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to Slovakia (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Machinery8.228.5%126.1%
Electrical machinery & equipment4.716.3%-39.0%
Misc. foods2.89.8%70.8%
Precision & technical instruments1.76.1%67.8%
Motor vehicles & parts1.55.2%-67.8%
Other9.834.2%-18.9%
Total28.7100.0%-6.4%

* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
** very large increase from a small base

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from Slovakia (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Motor vehicles & parts358.468.5%5.6%
Machinery80.715.4%65.6%
Electrical machinery & equipment19.23.7%-42.6%
Furniture & bedding17.93.4%-7.7%
Rubber & related5.11.0%-32.0%
Other42.08.0%21.1%
Total523.2100.0%8.3%

Canada - Slovenia Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to Slovenia (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Mineral ores, etc.39.754.4%-8.4%
Nickel & related10.814.8%704.0%
Woodpulp4.86.6%**
Machinery2.63.5%-73.0%
Mineral fuels & oils2.43.2%65.8%
Other12.717.5%15.4%
Total73.0100.0%9.4%

* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
** very large increase from a small base

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from Slovenia (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Pharmaceuticals45.729.3%11.1%
Electrical machinery & equipment27.617.7%7.0%
Machinery20.913.4%-23.3%
Toys & sports equipment9.46.0%-0.3%
Precision & technical instruments9.15.8%55.3%
Other43.527.9%16.8%
Total156.1100.0%6.5%

Canada - Spain Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to Spain (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Mineral ores, etc.333.818.8%-5.1%
Aircraft and parts302.717.1%35.7%
Mineral fuels & oils290.616.4%-4.5%
Oilseeds139.27.8%84.6%
Machinery112.66.3%-14.4%
Other596.233.6%22.4%
Total1,775.0100.0%12.8%
* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from Spain (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Pharmaceuticals296.712.2%-0.5%
Motor vehicles & parts252.710.4%14.1%
Machinery192.77.9%11.3%
Mineral fuels & oils148.76.1%21.9%
Beverages148.56.1%19.6%
Other1,394.157.3%4.8%
Total2,433.4100.0%7.2%

Canada - Sweden Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to Sweden (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Aircraft & parts 104.021.0%44.3%
Machinery84.917.1%0.3%
Electrical machinery & equipment58.611.8%-2.3%
Nickel & related37.07.5%366.3%
Motor vehicles & parts29.05.8%92.0%
Other182.736.8%-28.6%
Total496.2100.0%0.1%

* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
** very large increase from a small base

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from Sweden (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Machinery505.326.2%15.0%
Motor vehicles & parts322.616.7%36.8%
Pharmaceuticals268.813.9%-5.6%
Electrical machinery & equipment132.96.9%-54.2%
Mineral fuels & oils109.75.7%73.4%
Other588.630.5%8.1%
Total1,927.9100.0%3.8%

Canada - United Kingdom (UK) Merchandise Trade (Canadian Statistics, CAD $)

Overview

Sector detail

Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Exports to UK (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Precious stones & metals9,567.967.5%-7.0%
Mineral fuels & oils1,093.07.7%173.2%
Machinery522.13.7%8.3%
Aircraft & parts 357.72.5%-11.7%
Wood & related282.02.0%-8.5%
Other2,350.516.6%-8.2%
Total14,173.2100.0%-1.9%
* (October 2017 to July 2018)/(October 2016 to July 2017)
Top 5 Canadian Merchandise Imports from UK (October 2017 to July 2018)
Description$M%∆% *
Machinery1,324.617.7%22.6%
Motor vehicles & parts1,273.217.0%-7.0%
Mineral fuels & oils938.612.5%-0.6%
Aircraft & parts 749.910.0%4.2%
Pharmaceuticals537.07.2%6.7%
Other2,656.135.5%-2.7%
Total7,479.3100.0%1.8%

Canada’s Merchandise Trade Performance with the EU under CETA

Background

The Canada-European Union Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) entered into force on September 21st 2017.  CETA is by far Canada’s most ambitious trade agreement since NAFTA, both due to the importance of the EU as a Canadian trading partner (the EU is Canada’s second largest trading partner after the U.S.) and also in the scope of the agreement; which sets new standards in trade of goods and services, non-tariff barriers, investment, government procurement, as well as other areas like labour and environment.

Due to the wide coverage of CETA, the agreement will impact more than just Canadian merchandise trade, such as services and FDI. However, given the short span of time CETA has been in force, the analysis below only looks at the performance of Canadian merchandise trade and the impact of tariff elimination and reduction on Canadian merchandise exports to the EU. Currently merchandise trade data is the only data produced with the frequency and timeliness to currently investigate the impacts of CETA. And even then, due to the lag in merchandise trade data, only ten monthsFootnote 1 of Canadian-EU trade under CETA are available for analysis. In time more data will allow a more thorough investigation of the impact of CETA on merchandise trade as well as other areas of Canadian EU commerce such as FDI and services.

Overview of Canada - EU merchandise trade

The EU is a significant trading partner for Canada. In 2017, Canada exported    $41.6 billion in merchandise to the EU and imported $66.3 billion from the EU, placing the EU as the second largest destination for Canadian exports (after the U.S.), and Canada’s third largest source for imports (after the U.S. and China).

While both Canadian exports and imports to and from the EU have seen strong growth since 2000, Canadian export growth to the EU has slowed in recent years. Since 2012, Canadian exports to the EU have grown at an annual average of 1.3%, putting export growth significantly below the 3.7% growth rate of Canadian exports to the world. Canadian imports from the EU, on the other hand, have seen average annual growth of 5.6% over the past five years, stronger than the 4.0% growth seen in overall Canadian imports over this period.

The slow export growth in recent years is likely due to a variety of factors, including lower demand from Europe due to slower economic growth in the region resulting from a slow recovery following the global financial crisis, which has been compounded by the sovereign debt crisis in several EU countries. In the past 5 years, EU annual real GDP growth has averaged 1.7%, compared to 2.2% average growth in both Canada and the U.S.  

The slow Canadian export growth is also a function of the type of merchandise Canada exports to the EU. Over the past 5 years, on average more than a third of Canadian exports to the EU were accounted for by precious stones and metals (HS 27), and most of these exports were unwrought gold destined to the United Kingdom. These exports are very susceptible to gold prices, which can see large fluctuations from year to year. Over the past 5 years gold prices have declined 24.7%.  If precious metal exports are excluded, we find that Canadian exports to the EU have grown at an average annual rate of 2.3%. over the past five yearsFootnote 2.

Canadian Export Performance since CETA

As of writing, monthly statistics provide ten months of data for Canadian exports to EU in which CETA was in force, October 2017 to July 2018. Compared to the same period a year earlier, Canadian exports have risen 3.3%. However, there are some sectors where Canadian exports to the EU have seen much greater gains, with the five largest being aluminum (up 206%), motor vehicles and parts (up 96%), inorganic chemicals (78%), pharmaceuticals (46%) and mineral fuels and oil (45%)Footnote 3.

The following analysis looks at the impact of tariff eliminations and reductions on Canadian exports to the EU since CETA entered into force.  As this analysis is undertaken using EU tariff lines, it is necessary to use EU import data in euros, instead of Canadian export data which is discussed above. It should also be noted that with only nine months of available import data, it is impossible to fully assess the impact of tariff reductions, as these will take time to fully impact Canadian trade. Fuller time series data is also required to control for many other factors that impact trade, such as exchange rates, import demand, product mix, country competition, and many other external factors. As such, this analysis should be considered preliminary.

Tariff reduction and EU imports from Canada

A preliminary analysis shows that for the first nine months CETA was in force, those EU imports from Canada that had tariff reductions or eliminations (affected) saw a decrease of 5.3% over the equivalent pre-CETA period. While those imports without tariff reductions (unaffected) saw a decrease of 3.6%. Over all, the imports coveredFootnote 4 in this tariff analysis saw a 4.0% decrease when comparing the first 9 months of CETA with the equivalent 9 month pre-CETA period.

Growth in EU Imports from Canada by Level of Tariff Reduction (October 2017 to June 2018)
Tariff Reduction Percentage pointValue of Imports (millions euros)Percent of TotalChange since CETA *
Affected4,757.223.4%-5.3%

0 to 5 pp decline

3,879.219.1%-10.2%

5 to 10 pp decline

632.03.1%26.9%

More than 10 pp decline

246.01.2%17.4%
Unaffected15,543.976.6%-3.6%
Total20,301.1100.0%-4.0%
* (October 2017 to June 2018)/(October 2016 to June 2017)

Zero to five percentage point tariff decline

For those products that had a 0 to 5 percentage point decline in tariff rates, EU imports from Canada decreased 10.2% since CETA entered into force.  This decline was mainly due to a Euro 477.8 million decline in aeroplanes (HS88024000), which was partly offset by gains in EU imports of  turbojets  and unwrought aluminum, which saw EU imports increase by €217.1 million and  €111.7 million, respectively.  The pre-CETA most favoured nation (MFN) tariff on  turbojets (HS84111230) fell from a pre-CETA MFN tariff of 2.7% to 0% under CETA while unwrought aluminum (HS76011000) was 3.0% pre-CETA and was reduced to 0% in under CETA. If the large decline in aeroplanes is excluded from this group, EU imports would have increased 1.1%.

Five to ten percentage point tariff decline

EU imports of Canadian merchandise with a tariff decline between 5 and 10 percentage points increased by 26.9% since CETA entered into force. This gain was led by a €50.7 million or 55.2% increase in imports of live lobsterFootnote 5 and a €19.3 million or 204% increase in imports  of linear alkylbenzene, an organic compound mainly used in producing biodegradable detergents. The tariff rate on live lobster (HS03063210) fell from a pre-CETA MFN rate of 8.0% to 0% under CETA. While the tariff on linear alkylbenzene (HS38170050) fell from a pre-CETA MFN rate of 6.3% to 0% under CETA.

More than a 10 percentage point decline

Merchandise with more than a 10 percentage point decline in tariffs saw EU imports from Canada increase by 17.4%. The largest gain was seen in unspecified food preparations (HS21069092) which rose by €8.3 million or 37.6% since CETA entered into force. The tariff for unspecified food preparations fell from a pre-CETA MFN rate of 12.8% to 0%.  Cranberries (HS20089391) saw the second largest gain in this section, rising by €7.6 million or 42.5%. EU tariffs of cranberries fell from a MFN rate of 17.6% to 0% under CETA. Many areas of clothing imports also saw impressive gains, men’s jackets (HS62019300), women’s pullovers (HS61103099), overcoats (HS62021390) and men’s pullovers (HS61102091) were the next 4 largest gainers increasing by a combined €17.1 million or 110.7%. Tariffs on these goods all saw a tariff elimination from a MFN rate of 12.0% to 0% under CETA.

Unaffected

As seen in the table, a large amount of EU imports from Canada were not affected by CETA tariff reductions. According to EU data, these imports declined 3.6% since CETA entered into force. Of  the €15.5 billion in unaffected imports in the first 9 months of CETA, €5.1 billion or 33.8% were accounted for by gold bars/rods/etc. (HS71081310), which declined by €913.7 million or 15.1%. Another large decrease was in gas oils (HS27090090), which declined €248.3 million. However there were also areas of gains that partly offset some of these losses, imports of Nickel (HS75021000) increased by €126.1 million or 70.2% and imports of crude oil (HS27090090) increased by €660 million or 95.2%

Conclusion

Nine months of data is by no means a long-term perspective. Yet, in this short time we do see significant increases in many areas of Canadian exports. The large increase in EU imports from Canada in the 5 to 10 percentage and more than 10 percentage point tariff decline groups is especially encouraging. It seems to suggest that Canadian exporters are taking advantage of significant tariff reductions. However, further time and data is needed to see the full impact of CETA on both Canada and EU trade as well as other sectors of the economy such as services and FDI.

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