Global Affairs Canada implementation of Canada’s National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security

Table of Contents

Definitions:

Target: What would Canada like to accomplish by the end of the lifespan of the Action Plan OR by the proposed target date?

Baseline: A “baseline” is a clearly defined starting point (point of departure), thus as of April 1, 2017 from where implementation begins.   The baseline can be described in a quantitative or qualitative manner. 

Activity: What actions will Canada undertake in order to advance from the baseline to the target?

Indicator:  What are the quantitative or qualitative indicators that Canada is moving from the baseline to the target and/or accomplishing the proposed activities? 

Abbreviations

ACCBP
Anti-Crime Capacity Building Program
CFLI
Canada Fund for Local Initiatives
CSO
Civil society organizations
CT
Counter-terrorism
CTCBP
Counter-Terrorism Capacity Building Program
CVE
Counter-violent extremism
DRC
Democratic Republic of Congo
FARC
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia
FY
Fiscal year
GBA+
Gender-based Analysis Plus
GBV
Gender-based violence
GE
Gender Equality
ICRC
International Committee of the Red Cross
IGAD
Intergovernmental Authority on Development
IOF
International Organisation of La Francophonie
LGBTI
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex
NAP
National Action Plan
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NGO
Non-governmental organization
OECD
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
OSCE
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
P/CVE
Prevention and Countering of Violent Extremism
PSOPs
Peace and Stabilization Operations Program
SEA
Sexual exploitation and abuse
SGBV
Sexual and gender-based violence
SRHR
Sexual and reproductive health and rights
UNGA
United Nations General Assembly
UNSCR
United Nations Security Council Resolution
VAW
Violence against women
WMD
Weapons of mass destruction
WTRP
Weapons Threat Reduction Program
WPS
Women, Peace and Security

Thematic programs

1. Global Issues and Development Branch

Context: Through the Global Issues and Development Branch, Global Affairs Canada engages with multilateral and international organizations to advance Canadian development and humanitarian priorities. These partners have the capacity, expertise, and mandate to address global challenges, achieve sustainable development results, including in fragile and conflict-affected states, and respond effectively in humanitarian crises. Initiatives supported by this program help Canada shape international assistance policy, promote an effective and efficient multilateral development and humanitarian system, and address global issues – including GE and the empowerment of women and girls; environment, climate action and water; peace and security; human rights, governance, democracy and inclusion; health, education and nutrition; and inclusive and green economic growth.

Canada’s humanitarian assistance aims to save lives, alleviate suffering and maintain human dignity for people affected by humanitarian crises.  This includes providing financial support to experienced humanitarian partners responding to these crises, such as United Nations agencies, the Red Cross/Red Crescent movement and non-governmental organizations, founded on the humanitarian principles of human dignity, neutrality, impartiality and independence. It also includes engagement with humanitarian organizations and networks to support and strengthen the capacity of the humanitarian system. Canada’s increasing support to experienced humanitarian partners in SRHR in emergencies, is helping to address gender-based gaps in access to reproductive health services; to integrate comprehensive GBV response and treatment in reproductive health; and provide safe spaces for women and girls.

Priorities

Mainstream WPS and GE into Canada’s conflict prevention, relief and recovery efforts

1.1 TargetFootnote 1: The capacity, skills, knowledge and resources for GE, primarily among Global Affairs Canada officers, are increased.

Baseline:

Activity:

Indicator:

1.2 TargetFootnote 2: 80% of global humanitarian assistance funding integrate GE by 2021* to better meet the needs of women and girls in humanitarian settings.

Baseline: 53% of global humanitarian assistance funding integrates GE.

Activity: 

Indicator:

Realize women's and girls' human rights, particularly on preventing and responding to sexual and GBV in humanitarian settings

1.3 Target: Advocacy by Canada on preventing and responding to SGBV in emergencies is increased. 

Baseline: In FY 2017/18, 13 Canadian events, statements, speeches and interventions to UN Executive boards and other multilateral foraFootnote 3 that explicitly bring attention to GBV in emergencies.

Activity:

Indicator:

Reduce gender inequalities in access to and control over the resources and benefits of development

1.4 TargetFootnote 4Footnote 5: Canada demonstrates increased leadership on advancing SRHR in fragile and humanitarian settings.

Baseline: In FY 2017/18, Global Affairs Canada disbursed $215M to provide access to or increase use of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services in fragile and conflict-affected countries. Canada made 23 public interventions in international fora that explicitly promoted SRHR in fragile and conflict-affected countries and demonstrated Canada’s high-level commitment to this issue.

Activity:

Indicator:

2. Peace and Stabilization Operations Program Bureau (PSOPs)

Context: Canada is taking concrete actions to prevent and respond to conflicts abroad and to support UN peace operations in building a more peaceful and prosperous world. In 2018, Canada’s Peace and Stabilization Operations Program (PSOPs) became a permanent program within Global Affairs Canada (GAC).  This is an important step forward in how the Government of Canada is equipped and structured to prevent conflict, respond to peace and stability challenges, and support transformative changes in how political, economic and social power are negotiated, shared, and used by different actors in fragile and conflict-affected states. PSOPs is the Government of Canada’s principal platform for conflict prevention, stabilization and peacebuilding. It engages in Fragile and Conflict Affected States (FCAS) leveraging resources of, and partnerships with, multilateral institutions, NGOs, implementing partners, and like-minded nations. PSOPs contributes to improved peace, security, and stability for all people in FCAS. Its policy, operations, and programming are guided by GBA+ and principles of GE to ensure gender-responsive interventions and inclusive access to justice, social services, economic opportunity, political power and good governance. PSOPs also coordinates the implementation of Canada's NAP on WPS. It actively promotes the role of women in conflict resolution, prevention and post-conflict state building, and contributes to the prevention of and accountability for SGBV and SEA.

Priorities

Increase funding for the implementation of the WPS agenda

2.1 TargetFootnote 6,Footnote 7

  1. 15% of projects target GE as a specific objective (GE03) by the end of FY 2021/22 (corresponding to $13.5 million annually by the end of FY 2021/22)
  2. 80% of projects integrate GE (GE01 and GE02) by the end of the FY 2021/22
  3. Reduce to a minimum the number of projects that do not advance GE (GE00)
  4. Increased # of regional and local women’s organizations supported

Baseline:

In FY 2017/18, PSOPs produced the following results:

Activity:

Indicator:

Report on the implementation of the Action Plan

2.2 Target: Annual progress reports on implementation of the Action Plan are aimed to be tabled in Parliament every September.  In addition, an independent mid-term review and summative evaluation is conducted six (6) months after the end of the report in collaboration with civil society.

Baseline: Annual progress reports for the first Action Plan were often tabled 12 months after the end of the reporting year, both because it took a minimum of six months to finalize the report (to receive input from the Action Plan partners, draft, consult, approve, translate and edit), and due to operational requirements. A mid-term evaluation was conducted.

Activity:

Indicator:

2.3 Target: Tracking and reporting on Global Affairs Canada’s WPS-related funding is consistent and lends itself to year-over-year comparison by 2018/19.

Baseline: Global Affairs Canada began tracking and publishing department wide WPS-related funding in FY 2014/15. However, the results were inconsistent due to a variety of factors, including the differences in the project management systems and the subjective definition of WPS-related projects.

Activity:

Indicator:

2.4 Target: Robust, coherent, and clearly measureable indicators are established and used by 2018/19

Baseline: Some of the indicators in the GAC implementation plan are not robust or easily measureable.

Activity:

Indicator:

Mainstream WPS and gender into PSOPs standard policies and procedures

2.5 Target: By the end of FY 2021/22, all policies, strategies, and processes systematically integrate gender perspectives.

Baseline: WPS is a priority for PSOPs, gender is integrated in all aspects of the programs tools and templates to ensure that gender is mainstreamed in all PSOPs programming. PSOPs Interdepartmental Advisory Board will now also discuss WPS matters.

Activity:

Indicator: 

2.6 TargetFootnote 8: PSOPs will systematically consider the WPS agenda and gender and intersecting identity factors in its policy work, in its contributions to the planning for civilian, police and military deployments, and during its assessment and scoping missions to ensure that PSOPs’ interventions are gender-responsive and integrate and promote the WPS agenda.

Baseline:

In the FY 2016/17, GBA+ and the WPS agenda were not systematically applied by PSOPs policy officers. Of programming and deployment assessment and scoping missions, 11 out of 15 (73%) included meetings with women’s groups and women’s ministries.

Activity:

Indicator:

Strengthen WPS and gender capacity within PSOPs

2.7 TargetFootnote 9By the end of FY 2021/22, PSOPs significantly strengthens its gender expertise.

Baseline: In FY 2016/17, PSOPs had no gender advisors, but 3 gender focal points who were responsible for reviewing projects from a gender perspective. 60% (15) of PSOPs programming officers and their supervisors completed a gender (including GBA+) or WPS course. No reliable data exists for civilian deployees on GBA+ training prior to 2017-18 and the gender in in fragile and conflict-affected states training was first introduced to staff in 2017/18. Prior to that, only 2 PSOPs project officers and one civilian deployee had attended the course offered by the UK in London.

Activity:

Indicator:

2.8 TargetFootnote 10: By the end of FY 2021/22, all thematic training on working in fragile and conflict-affected states systematically integrates gender perspectives.

Baseline: Inconsistent integration of gender perspectives across training content.

Activity:

Indicator: 

Dedicate resources for the Action Plan

2.9 Target: By the end of the FY 2017/18, the management and coordination of the Action Plan’s implementation is supported with sufficient financial resources, and several officers FTEs.

Baseline: Two officers responsible for the WPS policy and coordination of the Action Plan in FY 2016/17. Operational budget is earmarked for expenses related to the Action Plan management.

Activity:

Indicator:

Address SEA (together with other implementing partners)

2.10 TargetFootnote 11: By the end of FY 2021/22, Canada demonstrates a substantial contribution to the implementation of the UN’s zero tolerance policy on SEA.

Baseline:  Allegations of SEA in UN operations continue to emerge, including incidents involving Canadian peacekeepers. From 2013 to 2017, six substantiated allegations of SEA, which involved Canadian police peacekeepers, were reportedFootnote 12. Canada’s existing reporting, investigating and accountability mechanisms are being used to their full extent. Nevertheless, gaps exist that preclude the UN and Canada from ensuring that perpetrators may be brought to justice in all appropriate cases.

Activity:

Note: Other important SEA activities are carried out as defined by other Action Plan partners and by Global Affairs Canada through Canada’s Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York.

Indicator:

Increase the number and role of women in peace operations

2.11 TargetFootnote 13: Canada takes concrete steps to help increase uniformed women’s meaningful participation in UN peace operations.

Baseline: Commitment by the Government of Canada to support the United Nations to achieve gender representation targets for uniformed women in peace operations.

Activity: 

Indicator: 

Target 2.12Footnote 14: By the end of FY 2021/22, Canada provides a substantial contribution to the global evidence of barriers to women’s meaningful participation in peace operations in uniformed military and police roles, which is made available to Elsie Initiative partner countries, UN member states, UN entities, civil society, academics and think tanks.

Baseline(s): Zero peer and non-peer reviewed research papers, policy papers, issues briefs and reports supported by the Elsie Initiative. Zero comprehensive assessments or related perception surveys on the issue of barriers to uniformed women’s meaningful participation in peace operations supported by the Elsie Initiative.

Activity: 

Indicator:

3. Canada Fund for Local Initiatives (CFLI)Footnote 15

Context: The Canada Fund for Local Initiatives (CFLI) is a contributions program, with an annual programming budget of $14.7 million to support small-scale, high impact projects, in countries which qualify for Official Development Assistance (ODA). The objectives of the program are to: 1) contribute to the achievement of Canada’s thematic priorities for international assistance; 2) assist in the advocacy of Canada’s values and interests and the strengthening of Canada’s bilateral relations with foreign countries and their civil societies; and 3) provide humanitarian assistance in the immediate aftermath of natural disasters and emergencies. The CFLI is a unique fund in that most projects are designed and implemented by local CSO that understand and respond to local needs and priorities. The CFLI is managed by Canada’s embassies and high commissions with projects being selected and monitored by Canadian diplomats. All CFLI projects must align with thematic priorities that are reviewed and updated on an annual basis. For FY 2018/19, the thematic priorities are:

Priorities

Strengthen the gender proficiency of CFLI program managers and coordinators at Canadian Embassies and High Commissions

3.1 Target: By the end of FY 2021/22, the CFLI significantly strengthens the gender proficiencyFootnote 16 of the managers and coordinators who implement the program at Canadian Embassies and High Commissions (also known as “missions”) in fragile and conflict affected states.

Baseline:  In the baseline year 2017-2018, 32 out of 80, or 40% of CFLI Program Managers and Coordinators   at missions accredited to fragile and conflict-affected states had completed gender training by the end of FY 2017/18.

Activity:

Indicator:

Enhance GE outcomes of CFLI projects

3.2 Target: By the end of FY 2021/22, the CFLI enhances the GE outcomes of projects in fragile and conflict affected states.

Baseline:  In the baseline year 2018-2019, 61% of CFLI projects in fragile and conflict-affected states were informed by a detailed gender-based analysis and 88% were informed by consultations with women and/or girls.

Activity:

Indicator:

4. Counter-Terrorism, Crime and Intelligence Bureau

ContextFootnote 17The work of the Counter-terrorism, Crime and Intelligence Bureau includes policy and programming components. The programming component is referred to as the Anti-Crime and Counter-Terrorism Capacity Building Programs (ACCBP and CTCBP). ACCBP and CTCBP have recently conducted a GBA+ of their programs to assess the impact of programming on gender and other intersecting factors.  Using the results of the analysis, ACCBP and CTCBP will continue to integrate gender and diversity issues where possible, with a focus on accounting for the differential impacts of security sector operations on women, men, girls and boys. They have also embedded a gender analysis and human rights section in all their project development and implementation tools. ACCBP and CTCBP are also responsible for developing, integrating and coordinating Canada’s international policies on CT, countering violent extremism and transnational criminal activity, in both bilateral and multilateral arenas. Gender is a key consideration in policy analysis and guidance, critical to understanding and responding to crime and terrorism issues, and a core competency of all policy and programming officers.

The Bureau is also responsible for developing, integrating, and coordinating Canada’s international policies and diplomacy on CT, addressing violent extremism and transnational criminal activity, in both bilateral and multilateral arenas. This includes fostering international cooperation to combat terrorism and crime, and representing Canada in various forums such as the G7 Roma-Lyon Group, the UN Office on Drugs and Crime, the UN Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs, Global Counterterrorism Forum and the Financial Action Task Force. The division is also responsible for CT/countering violent extremism and anti-crime partnerships with foreign governments and international, regional, and non-governmental organizations including the UN, the Organization of American States, the G7, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, and the OSCE.

Priorities

Strengthen WPS and gender analysis capacity within ACCBP/CTCBP

4.1 TargetFootnote 18: By the end of the FY 2021/22, 100% of officers in the Counter-Terrorism and Crime Program and Policy Teams have gender and/or WPS training at the end of each FY to increase the Programs’ capacity for gender-responsive interventions.

Baseline: In FY 2017/18, 20 out of 32 or 62.5% of officers from the Counter-Terrorism and Crime Program and Policy Teams completed gender and/or WPS related training at the end of FY 2017/18.

Activity:

Indicator:

4.2 Target: The officers in ACCBP and CTCBP have access to resources in order to integrate gender perspectives and WPS into their work.

Baseline: As of 2016/17, ACCBP and CTCBP offers did not have a place to access resources to assist in integrating gender into their work.

Activity:

Indicator:

Mainstream WPS and gender into CT policy and diplomacy

4.3 TargetFootnote 19: Canada demonstrates leadership in ensuring that gender and WPS considerations are integrated into CVE/CT and international crime policy, advocacy and diplomatic efforts.

Baseline: While no qualitative or quantitative measures are currently in place, officers are cognizant and mindful of referencing gender and WPS considerations.

Activity:

Indicator:  

Mainstream WPS and gender into CT and anti-crime programming

4.4 TargetFootnote 20: The officers of ACCBP and CTCBP integrate gender and WPS considerations into CT programming in a systematic manner, and increase programming that has a specific focus on gender and WPS

Baseline: There is an embedded gender and human rights section in all project development and implementation tools.

Activity:

Indicator:

5. Policy and Programming on Non-Proliferation, Arms Control and Disarmament

ContextFootnote 21:  Canada’s Non-Proliferation, Arms Control and Disarmament activities include both policy and programming elements.  Target 5.1 relates to the Weapons Threat Reduction Program (WTRP), which is the primary programming vehicle for Canada to globally address threats posed by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and related materials. The WTRP works with partner countries, regional and international organizations, and non-governmental organizations to implement programming to address WMD threats (nuclear and radiological; biological; chemical) as well as to support the universalization of treaties and conventions related to the proliferation of conventional weapons. Through the Program, Canada continues to play a leadership role globally in the area of weapons threat reduction. Target 5.2 relates to Canada’s non-proliferation, arms control and disarmament (NACD) policy activities within the context of Canada’s participation within the United Nations General Assembly’s First Committee, which is responsible for NACD issues.

Priorities

Mainstream WPS and gender into WTR programming

5.1 TargetFootnote 22: The WTRP integrates gender and WPS considerations into its programming in a systematic manner, with at least 20% of projects having GE01 or greater coding by the end of FY 2021/22.

Baseline: 0% of projects have GE01 or greater gender coding

Activities:

Indicator:

Mainstream WPS and gender into diplomacy on disarmament

5.2 TargetFootnote 23: A GBA+ carried out on all resolutions of the UN General Assembly’s First Committee (responsible for disarmament, global challenges and threats), proposed or considered by Canada, and gender perspectives integrated.

Baseline: While gender perspectives were integrated whenever possible in FY 2016/17, there was not yet a formal process to ensure they are applied to every resolution.

Activity:

Indicator:

6. Partnerships for Development Innovation BranchFootnote 24

ContextFootnote 25: The Partnerships for Development Innovation Branch is Global Affairs Canada’s key operational platform supporting the active engagement of Canadians in international development, notably by supporting Canadian civil society entities working in collaboration with developing country partners to reduce poverty through thematic programming as well as youth internships and the deployment of volunteers. Canadian entities in this context include non-governmental organizations; the private sector; colleges, universities, and research entities; provincial and regional councils; and foundations. Partnerships for Development Innovation leverages the expertise, knowledge, networks and resources of Canadian entities and their local partners. Its programming is able to operate in all Official Development Assistance-eligible countries, including in fragile and conflict-affected states. For example, Partnerships for Development Innovation has supported projects in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Colombia, Afghanistan, Haiti and South Sudan. For these and other projects, Partnerships for Development Innovation pays particular attention to the integration of GE. For example, it supported a project in South Sudan to empower conflict-affected rural youth to become more economically productive and engaged in their communities. This project promoted education for youth, especially girls.

Priorities

Strengthen the integration of GE into its programming, including the promotion and realization of women’s and girls’ rights, particularly in fragile and conflict-affected states.

6.1 Target: Canada will increase the percentage of Partnerships programming that targets GE (GE03) or fully integrates GE (GE02).

Baseline: In 2017-18, 1.42% of Partnerships programming targeted GE and 45.77% fully integrated GE.

Activity:

Indicator:

Explore programming opportunities with Canadian entities to support the WPS agenda. 

6.2 Target: Canada will increase Partnerships programming to support the WPS agenda.

Baseline: Partnerships programming has been implemented in many fragile and conflict-affected states. However, only a modest percentage of it has been directly related to WPS.

Activity:

Indicator:

Increase staff capacity on GE and promote staff engagement WPS policy and programming activities across the department.

6.3 Target: Canada will strengthen its GE capacity and WPS engagement

Baseline: In 2017/18, the Partnerships for Development Innovation Branch (Branch) had one GE specialist. A majority of Branch staff completed the Status of Women Canada’s GBA+ online course during GBA+ Awareness Week.

Activity:

Indicator:

Encourage and support partners to strengthen policies and procedures to prevent and respond to SEA in the delivery of international assistance.

6.4 Target: Canada’s partners will have stronger policies and procedures to prevent and respond to SEA.

Baseline: Currently, not all of Canada’s partners have Codes of Conduct or related policies/procedures to prevent, investigate and respond to SEA.

Activity:

Indicator:

Multilateral engagement

7. Permanent Mission of Canada to the United Nations

Context: The United Nations (UN) plays a significant role in the development of norms and guidelines pertaining to WPS. A wide array of New York-based UN bodies address WPS, including first and foremost the Security Council, but also the General Assembly (UNGA), the Peacebuilding Commission, as well as departments such as the Department of Political and Peacebuilding Affairs, the Department of Peace Operations, and funds and agencies such as UN Women and UNFPA. The WPS agenda has become increasingly institutionalized at the UN, with the adoption of nine UNSCRs pertaining directly to WPS, the completion of a Global Study on 1325, the establishment of an Informal Experts Group in the Security Council, Women’s Peace and Humanitarian Fund, and the appointment of gender and women protection advisors to key UN offices and field missions. That being said, a number of challenges remain for the full implementation of WPS commitments at the UN: WPS is not mainstreamed throughout the work of the organization; several key members of the UN, including permanent members of the Security Council, do not fully support the WPS agenda;  there are recurring incidents of SEA by UN peacekeepers and staff;  insufficient resources are dedicated to gender issues in the UN’s peace and security functions;  too few women are appointed to senior roles at the UN or serve as peacekeepers; and implementation of WPS commitments remains weak.

Canada is seen as a leader on WPS at the UN as a key architect of UNSCR 1325, the Chair of the 58-member Group of Friends of WPS, a major donor to WPS efforts, and a principled voice on this issue. Canada can help advance the WPS agenda at the UN through advocacy and information sharing with member states and the UN, leadership in the Security Council and UNGA negotiations, collaboration with civil society groups, and public messaging including through social media.

Priorities

Support the increased and meaningful participation of women in peace processes

7.1 Target: Canada demonstrates strong commitment at the UN to ensuring increased and meaningful participation of women in peace resolution processes, including in conflict prevention, mediation and post-conflict reconciliation, and more specifically delegations to peace resolution processes.

Baseline: Of the 504 agreements signed since the adoption of resolution 1325 in 2000, only 27% included references to women. In peace processes between 1992 and 2011, women made up only 2% of chief mediators, 4% of witnesses and signatories, and 9% of negotiators.

Activity:

Indicator:

Support the integration of gender into UN peacekeeping

7.2 Target: Canada demonstrates strong commitment to supporting gender-responsive UN peacekeeping missions, including aiming to double the number of women peacekeepers, in line with UNSCR2242.

Baseline: Women make up only 3% of UN military peacekeepers; several vacancies remain in gender advisor and women protection advisor positions in UN missions; and implementation of WPS guidelines is incomplete in UN peacekeeping missions.

Activity:

Indicator:

Support the prevention of sexual exploitation and abuse in UN peace-keeping operations

7.3 Target: Canada demonstrates strong commitment to strengthening the UN peacekeeping prevention efforts, accountability measures, transparency, and tangible victim support for SEA.

Baseline: The UN recorded 145 allegations of SEA involving UN peacekeepers and civilians in 2016. However, many more cases go unreported, the UN lacks support for survivors of SEA and there are loopholes in accountability for SEA by UN staff. Moreover, several Member States are actively seeking to weaken the UN’s response on SEA.

Activity:

Indicator:

Promote the increased representation of women in senior positions at the UN

7.4 Target: Canada demonstrates strong commitment to promoting greater representation of women in senior UN positions, especially those dealing with peace and security issues.

Baseline: As of January 2017, 21% of UN senior positions were filled by women.

Activity:

IndicatorFootnote 26:

8. Canada at the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Context: Canada is actively engaged in the advancement of the WPS agenda at NATO. The Joint Delegation of Canada works to mainstream GE and integrate gender and WPS considerations across committee work and in decisions taken at NATO. Canada is the largest contributor to the NATO 1325 Trust Fund, contributing $400,000 over FY 2017/18 to fund activities and programs run by the Office of the NATO Secretary General's Special Representative for WPS. Canada actively participated in shaping and developing the NATO WPS Policy and Action Plan. The Delegation of Canada promoted the organization of a meeting of the North Atlantic Council in March 2017 to review progress in the implementation of the NATO WPS Action Plan, which placed this issue on the Council's agenda on a periodic basis going forward. The North Atlantic Council is the principal political decision-making body of NATO. Canada pushed for language to strengthen the references to WPS in the Communiqué for the NATO Warsaw Summit in 2016, which was ultimately adopted into the text. In March 2016, Canada co-hosted with Iceland an event to mark International Women's Day, including a conference on GE with Permanent Representatives, Military Representatives, and senior NATO Representatives, and social media activities throughout the day. Canada is among the core group of the Friends of UNSCR 1325 at NATO and regularly convenes meetings of this group to push forward the WPS agenda at NATO. The Joint Delegation of Canada to NATO also published social media campaigns for the 16 days to Combat Violence Against Women and for International Women's Day, which have received pick-up internationally by prominent social media accounts. Canada provides financial assistance to the Office of the NATO Secretary General’s Special Representative for WPS, and also staffs the person who is now International Military Staff Office of the Gender Advisor at NATO headquarters; Canada works very closely with both of them on WPS issues at NATO.

Canada’s efforts are warranted because though progress has been made in integrating gender perspectives in NATO training, operations, and guidelines, women remain under-represented in the Alliance, particularly in decision-making positions. NATO Allies averaged 10.3% of women in their military ranks in 2014 with only 5.7% of women in NATO’s operations and missions. Furthermore, some Allies maintain restrictions for women in certain combat roles, a hurdle removed in Canada.

Priorities

Mainstream WPS and gender into NATO’s policies, activities and efforts on collective defence

8.1 TargetFootnote 27: Canada remains a recognized leader within the Alliance on advancing and promoting WPS, helping to ensure that NATO and Allies increasingly integrate gender perspectives and WPS in all NATO’s work.

Baseline: NATO has a good track record of integrating gender perspectives into military doctrine, pre-deployment training and planning for major NATO out-of-area operations. However, more work is needed to integrate gender into activities related to collective defence.

Activity:

Indicator:

Enhance cooperation between NATO, Allies and partners on WPS in NATO’s work

8.2 Target: Canada demonstrates strong commitment to ensuring that WPS priorities are systematically included in NATO cooperative security frameworks, including defence and capacity-building projects on a systematic basis.

Baseline: Partners’ WPS-related activities are increasing, but continue to be undertaken in an ad-hoc manner, and upon Partners’ requests, rather than as a requirement by NATO.

Activity:

Indicator:

Promote the increased representation of women in senior positions at NATO

8.3 Target: Canada supports the increased representation of women in senior positions at NATO.

Baseline: The increase in the number of women in NATO senior level positions is stagnating.

Activity:

Indicator:

9. Permanent Mission of Canada in Geneva

Context:  The mission participates in a range of Geneva-based UN bodies and other intergovernmental organizations that are active on security, human rights, humanitarian issues, migration, health, labour and disarmament, as well as trade and development, and that can effect change in the lives of women and girls in fragile and conflict-affected states. Among these organizations are the Human Rights Council; UN High Commissioner for Refugees; International Organization for Migration; International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies/ICRC; International Labour Organization; World Health Organization; and the Conference on Disarmament. The mission also engages on a number of additional Geneva-based processes that are relevant including on protection of medical missions and on standards for private military and security companies. In addition, Canada is a governing board member or participant in many relevant Geneva-based international CSO and advocacy groups. 

Priorities

Advance WPS in Geneva-based multilateral fora and other organizations

9.1 Target: By the end of FY 2018/19, the Mission develops key messages on WPS and uses them systematically in multilateral institutions and processes, governing boards and councils, and advocacy groups that can effect change in the lives of women and girls in fragile and conflict-affected states. 

Baseline: The Mission advances the WPS agenda on a consistent basis.

Activity:

Indicator:

9.2 Target Footnote 28:

  1. Geneva-based Group of Friends of WPS is established and Canada will lead it or actively participate in it.
  2. By 2022, the Group of Friends will contain at least 20 member states and work with at least four CSO, and it will support engagement on the WPS agenda in at least three Geneva-based forums.

Baseline: There is an informal network of friends of WPS that meets periodically to coordinate for the Human Rights Council.

Activity:

Indicator:

Support the increased and meaningful participation in Geneva-based fora of women from fragile and conflict-affected states

9.3 TargetFootnote 29:

  1. By the end of FY 2019/20, the mission has sponsored of partnered to support at least three activities related to women in FCAS per year.
  2. By the end of FY 2021/22, the mission supports at least 20 women or women’s groups per year.

Baseline: Canada supported two women’s groups in the FY 2015/16. A number of programs indicated that this was something that they are not presently doing, or are not consistently doing, but see this as a potential area for advancement.

Activity:

Indicator:

Strengthen WPS and gender analysis capacity within the Mission

9.4 TargetFootnote 30: By the end of the FY 2018/19, all Mission officers working with internationally-oriented institutions and organizations that have the ability to effect change in the lives of women and girls in fragile and conflict-affected states are trained in gender competence and develop, on an ongoing basis, gender expertise as it relates to their respective responsibilities.

Baseline: 12 out of 27 officers confirmed having taken departmental-organized training. Among those that had not taken the training, 2 had a relevant professional or academic expertise in gender analysis.

Activity:

Indicator:

10. Canada at the International Organization of La Francophonie

Context: One of the four major priorities of la Francophonie is peace, democracy and human rights. The International Organization of La Francophonie (OIF) programming in this area, which is directly supported by Canadian voluntary contributions, includes transitions and electoral processes; support for State and civil society actors in the areas of democracy, human rights, as well as crisis and conflict prevention and management; and the maintenance and consolidation of peace. WPS is addressed notably through the Francophone Women’s Network for Peace. Within the OIF, there are several opportunities to raise issues and promote solutions related to WPS: the various meetings of the OIF working groups and commissions; the meetings of the Permanent Council of La Francophonie and of the Ministerial Conference of La Francophonie; the Francophonie Summit and various thematic conferences; meetings of various boards and general assemblies of operators and of other institutions of La Francophonie (Association internationale des Maires francophones, Agence universitaire de la Francophonie , Senghor University, Institut de la Francophonie pour le développement durable); the preparation of the OIF’s strategic framework, programming, strategies; as well as the preparation of resolutions and statements by Heads of State and government.

Priorities

Advance the WPS agenda in La Francophonie

10.1 TargetFootnote 31: Key messages on WPS are used regularly in relevant OIF meetings that can effect change in the lives of women and girls in fragile and conflict-affected states.

Baseline: Canada advances the WPS agenda on an ad hoc basis.

Activity:

Indicator:

Strengthen gender analysis capacity within Global Affairs Canada’s La Francophonie-team

10.2 Target: By the end of FY 2021/22, two officers working on the OIF, one Ottawa-based and one Paris-based, are trained on gender to provide, on an ongoing basis, gender expertise as it relates to their respective responsibilities.

Baseline: 5 out of 5 officers identified as not having formal training.

Activity:

Indicators:

11. Canada at the Organization for Security and Co-operation In Europe

Context: Canada has been actively engaged in ensuring the adoption of several specific policies and measures in support of GE for the OSCE, both with participating States and within the Organization itself. Canada promotes the continued implementation of the 2004 OSCE Action Plan for the Promotion of Gender Equality (APPGE), advocates for the provision of more detailed data in its annual GE report, and helps identify ways for the Organization’ Secretariat, institutions and field operations to further integrate GBA+ in day-to-day operations. Canada also actively advances and promotes priorities such as:

Priorities

Mainstream gender and WPS in the OSCE Secretariat, Institutions, and Field Missions

11.1 TargetFootnote 32: Canada demonstrates strong commitment to supporting the OSCE Secretariat in promoting better integration of gender perspectives in its activities and operations.

Baseline: The OSCE Secretariat is demonstrating efforts to address its weak track record in integrating gender perspectives in all three dimensions of comprehensive security by establishing internal mechanisms and by completing the development of its 2017-2020 Road Map for the implementation of the Gender Action Plan, which sets priorities and an accountability framework for each department.  

Activity:

Indicator:

Mainstream WPS and gender into the politico-military efforts of the OSCE

11.2 TargetFootnote 33:  Canada demonstrates strong commitment to ensuring the systematic integration of gender perspectives into OSCE capacity-building initiatives and outreach activities such as training, conferences, workshops, etc., especially with defence forces, operational law enforcement agencies, and other security-related government entities.  

Baseline: The OSCE has a weak track record of integrating gender perspectives into its work in political-military affairs. In 2015, the number of gender projects at the OSCE increased, with a total of 81 projects reported within the political-military dimension that included gender perspectives. In the first dimension (political-military), only 11% of the projects reported had GE as a principal objective, 35% had GE as a significant objective or were fully gender mainstreamed, while the majority (54%) reported to have mainstreamed gender with regard to female participation only. Canada (RCMP/ Global Affairs Canada HQ/ VOSCE) participated in the first OSCE meeting on Gender Mainstreaming in Operational Responses to Violent Extremism and Radicalization that Lead to Terrorism in November 2016 and contributed to its main recommendations.

Activity:

Indicator:

Promote the increased representation of women at the OSCE

11.3 Target: By 2020, the 2004 OSCE Gender Action Plan is fully implemented by the OSCE Secretariat, with leadership by Canada.

Baseline: The 2004 OSCE Gender Action Plan has yet to be fully implemented, and requires updating. Women are systematically under-represented in political-military related positions, whilst over-represented in human rights and fundamental freedoms positions. Women are also present in low numbers amongst the heads of OSCE institutions and field operations. In 2015, for all non-HOM seconded posts to OSCE field missions, Canada nominated 42 women candidates as compared to 164 men (of which none of the eight DHoM candidates were women.)  Canada successfully advocated for an upgrade of the OSCE Special Monitoring Mission’s Gender Adviser in the 2017-2018 budget of the Special Monitoring Mission in Ukraine.

Activity:

Indicator

Bilateral engagement

Middle East

Middle East StrategyFootnote 34: On February 2, 2016, Cabinet approved the Whole of Government Strategy for Support to the Global Coalition Against Daesh, and Broader Engagement in Iraq, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon. The three-year Strategy (April 2016 – March 2019) integrates foreign policy, defence, and development so that Canada can make a modest but effective contribution to international efforts to help address the crises. The $2 billion commitment includes new funding of $1.5 billion, plus $0.6 billion in existing funding, to support Canada’s continuing efforts, to address immediate security threats while also providing support for the ongoing humanitarian crisis and longer-term development, security and stabilization needs in the region. Iraq and Syria are the main theatres of conflict and sources of instability in the region, while Jordan and Lebanon are the two neighbouring countries most at risk of destabilization, as they bear some of the greatest burden of the Syrian refugee crisis and face growing security concerns. In addition, Canada’s increasing support to experienced humanitarian partners in SRHR in emergencies, including in the Middle East, is helping to address gender-based gaps in access to reproductive health services; to integrate comprehensive GBV response and treatment in reproductive health; and provide safe spaces for women and girls. This whole-of-government Strategy is led by Global Affairs Canada, in partnership with the Department of National Defence, the Canadian Security Intelligence Service, the Communications Security Establishment, and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

12. Middle East Development Programming

ContextFootnote 35:  This section pertains to the coordination and integration of the whole-of-government Strategy in the Middle East. Thus some targets below pertain more broadly to Humanitarian Assistance, Security and Stabilization, Diplomatic Engagement as well as Development. In 2019, the Government of Canada renewed the whole-of-government Strategy in the Middle East for an additional 2 years to March 2021. 

The Middle East Development Program operates in Iraq, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan. Like most of Canadian development programming over the past two and a half decades, it has made a concerted effort to advance gender equality objectives through its programming to reduce poverty and improve economic development, accelerate human and social development, defend human rights, build the capacity of women’s rights organizations, and create more equitable societies. The Middle East Development Program operates in Iraq, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan.

Priorities

Increase mainstreaming of WPS and gender into development programming in Middle East

12.1 TargetFootnote 36: Canada will significantly increase the percentage of programming that integrates gender perspectives for the four countries under the Middle East Strategy (2016-2019).

Baseline:  At the beginning of FY 2016/17, 73% of development programming integrated GE at the GE01 to GE03 levels under the Middle East Strategy  

Activity:

Indicator:

Undertake a gender stocktaking of programming and diplomatic engagement under whole of government Strategy

12.2 TargetFootnote 37:

  1. Facilitate a common understanding of the GE context in the 4 Middle East Strategy countries, and provide a baseline inventory of GAC initiatives integrating GE.
  2. Changes to the baseline will be tracked.
  3. Identify options to improve the quality and effectiveness of GE efforts in a potential second phase of the Middle East Strategy after FY 2018/19, if approved by Cabinet. 

Baseline: Gender Stocktaking commenced in late June 2017.

Activity:

Indicator:

Support local women’s rights organizations and movements working to advance WPS and GE in the Middle East

12.3 TargetFootnote 38: Canada establishes a mechanism through which to provide direct support to women’s rights organization in the four countries of the Middle East Strategy.

Assuming at least another 4 years to undertake implementation:

Baseline: There is limited funding and institutional strengthening for women’s rights organizations and an absence of coordinated collective action on the part of women’s rights organizations in the four countries of the Middle East Strategy.

Activity:  

Indicator:

Context, PSOPs programming in Iraq: The PSOPs programming in Iraq is linked to Canada’s membership in the Global Coalition to Counter Daesh, as well as PSOPs country strategy. From a geographic perspective, its programming focuses on areas that have been liberated from Daesh in the governorates of Anbar and Ninewah. Since Canada serves as gender focal point for the Global Coalition’s Working Group on Stabilization, Canada leads by example and ensures that WPS is integrated into all PSOPs programming in Iraq. Currently, PSOPs programming is based on three thematic lines of effort:

Priorities

Mainstream WPS and gender into peace and security efforts in Iraq

12.4 Target: Canada, through PSOPs, demonstrates support for women’s increased and meaningful participation in improving peace and security in Iraq by ensuring that gender perspectives are integrated in 100% of projects.

Baseline: In FY 2016/17, four out of seven Iraq-PSOP projects (57%) integrated gender perspectives. Footnote 40 Five out of seven projects supported women in improving peace and stability in Iraq.

Activity:

Indicator:

Context, PSOPs programming in Syria: Syrian women’s political participation, in the best of cases, has been tokenized in politics over the past 50 years with little political space for women to be actively involved. Syrian women now more than ever have the opportunity to influence the transitional peace process and play a leading role in the UN-led Syria peace process negotiations. Currently, the ongoing conflict disproportionately affects women and girls. PSOPs programming in Syria will take into account the different needs of girls, women, boys and men as well as their opportunities to participate in decision-making in all peace and security activities and support women’s decision-making and leadership in peace-building. PSOPs programming is also taking an active role in supporting women’s active participation in the UN-led peace process and connecting women at the grassroots level with women playing a role in the peace process at the UN.

Priorities

Mainstream WPS and gender into peace and security efforts in Syria

12.5 TargetFootnote 41: Canada, through PSOPs, demonstrates support for women’s increased and meaningful participation in improving peace and security in Syria by ensuring that gender perspectives are integrated in 90% of projects.

Baseline: Out of the 12 Syria- PSOPs projects in the FY 2016/17, 6 (50%) of the projects in Syria integrate WPS principles and/or gender perspectives.Footnote 42

Activity:

Indicator:

13. Middle East Diplomatic Engagement

Iraq

ContextFootnote 43: The Government of Iraq’s implementation of its’ NAP on UNSCR 1325 (2014-2018) has been limited. Currently, Iraq is in the process of developing the new 5-year Action Plan, but it is unclear whether the newly-formed government will show greater commitment to its implementation than the last one. Canada has recently expanded its diplomatic presence in Iraq, in both Baghdad and Erbil, and has increased somewhat it’s capacity to engage with the Government of Iraq and the Kurdistan Regional Government on WPS issues. However, the security environment remains restrictive, posing challenges for Canadian diplomats to travel outside the main cities of Baghdad and Erbil to engage with local authorities and organizations.

Priorities

Advance WPS in Canadian diplomatic engagements in Iraq

13.1 TargetFootnote 44: Canada promotes its WPS position and priorities to Iraqi government officials and stakeholders to increase awareness of WPS.

Baseline: Canada raises topics with senior government interlocutors related to: protection of women and girls, special consideration for survivors of Daesh atrocities, women and policing/women’s inclusion in the security sector, women as part of reconciliation processes, female genital mutilation, and other WPS-related issues.

Activity:

Indicator:

Timeline:  Two years (to correspond with length of the Middle East Strategy, barring renewal)

Provide a platform for advancing WPS in stabilization efforts through the Global Coalition against Daesh’ Working Group on Stabilization

13.2 TargetFootnote 45: Canada maintains efforts to advance WPS in the Global Coalition against Daesh’ Working Group on Stabilization.

Baseline: Canada’s Chargé d’Affaires in Baghdad currently co-leads an informal diplomatic group with women Iraqi parliamentarians and PSOPs represents Canada as the Gender Focal Point of the Global Coalition against Daesh’ Working Group on Stabilization.

Activity:

Indicator:

Syria

Context: Canada works closely with like-minded partners and Syrian stakeholders towards reaching a political solution to Syria's protracted conflict. Seven tragic years of conflict have added significant challenges to, and led to a deterioration of, women rights and the situation of Syrian women and girls living in and outside the country (when displaced by the conflict). Canada has continued to be highly active in supporting the meaningful participation of women in Syrian peace negotiations, and meaningful participation of women’s organizations and networks in conflict prevention. Canada will continue to prioritize women’s empowerment and increased and meaningful participation in political dialogue and decision making as well as GE, inclusiveness and protection generally.

Priorities

Advance WPS in Canadian diplomatic engagements concerning Syria

13.3 TargetFootnote 46,Footnote 47: Canada promotes its WPS positions and priorities with Syrian stakeholders to increase awareness of WPS

Baseline: Canada has raised, with Syrian stakeholders, issues related to women’s empowerment and participation in Syrian representative and governing bodies; women participation in political transition and future reconciliation processes; the protection of women and girls, with special considerations for issues related to SGBV, child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation; and Canada is recognized as a strong advocate for the participation of women in Syrian peace talks. However, there are persisting complex challenges in improving GE, women’s empowerment, inclusiveness, protection, and participation in the peace process.

Activity:

Indicator:  

Timeline: Two years (to correspond with length of the Middle East Strategy, barring renewal)

Jordan

ContextFootnote 48: Jordan has demonstrated support for and is implementing strategies that focus on women’s empowerment (National Strategy for Women and Government's Vision 2025). However, women still do not have the same legal status and rights as men. Discrimination, domestic violence, and child, early and forced marriage are enduring concerns, both in host communities and especially among Syrian refugees. Diplomatic advocacy continues to support Canada’s efforts to prioritize GE, women’s economic and political empowerment, inclusion, and protection.

Priorities

Advance WPS in Canadian diplomatic engagements in Jordan

13.4 TargetFootnote 49: Canada promotes its WPS position and priorities to Jordanian government officials and Jordanian stakeholders  to increase awareness of  WPS.

Baseline: Canada has raised, with senior Jordanian interlocutors and stakeholders, issues related to women’s empowerment and participation in Jordanian representative and governing bodies; women and policing/women’s inclusion in the security sector; the protection of women and girls, with special consideration for SGBV, child, early and forced marriage; and other WPS-related issues. However, challenges in improving GE, women’s empowerment, inclusiveness and protection persist.

Activity:

Indicator:

Lebanon

ContextFootnote 50: Lebanon continues its slow and fragile transition from the civil war, addressing its many structural challenges including lack of good governance, high levels of corruption, limited economic growth, human rights limitations, and recurrent security challenges due notably to the presence of armed groups. While Lebanon appears fairly progressive compared to many other Arab countries with respect to many rights, some fundamental rights are still not fully recognized and respected. While the Lebanese government has remained focused on political and security issues, such efforts have slowed progress in a number of other areas, such as the improvement of women’s status in society, GE, human rights and good governance. While being one of the most vulnerable communities in the country, facing all of these challenges, including the influx of Syrian refugees, women have become advocates for social cohesion within and between communities. Under its Middle East Strategy, Canada has put GE, women’s protection, empowerment, and inclusiveness at the top of programming and advocacy efforts in Lebanon.

Priorities

Advance WPS in Canadian diplomatic engagements in Lebanon

13.5 TargetFootnote 51: Canada promotes its WPS position and priorities to Lebanese government officials and stakeholders to increase awareness of WPS.

Baseline: Canada has raised with senior Lebanese interlocutors and stakeholders, topics related to women’s empowerment and participation in Lebanese representative and governing bodies; women and policing/women’s inclusion in the security sector; the protection of women and girls, with special consideration for SGBV violence, child, early and forced marriage; and other WPS-related issues. However, challenges in improving GE, women’s empowerment, inclusiveness and protection persist.

Activity:

Indicator:

Africa

14. South Sudan

Context:  South Sudan is one of the world’s most fragile states and women and girls remain one of the most marginalized groups. Conflict continues to impact women and girls differently and disproportionately, and continues to violate their rights. Women are also consistently excluded from conflict prevention and peace activities. The South Sudanese government has a NAP on UNSCR 1325 (2015-2020), but its implementation capacity is limited. Given South Sudan’s extreme fragility, the political and security environment presents numerous challenges for programming and diplomatic engagement related to the WPS agenda.

Canada’s bilateral development assistance in South Sudan is focused on meeting the basic needs of the poorest and most vulnerable, particularly women and girls. Empowering women and girls and reducing gender inequalities is also at the core of Canada’s development approach. Canada’s programming supports the delivery of gender-sensitive basic health services, including maternal, newborn and child health, with increasing attention to SRHR. In particular, Canada is working with local partner organizations to empower women and girls to make their own decisions about their sexual and reproductive health, free from discrimination, coercion and violence, and to positively influence attitudes and social norms related to SRHR. Canada is also supporting efforts to improve food security by boosting food production, protecting livelihoods, and strengthening community resilience to hunger, including by working directly with women farmers to increase their participation in production and marketing activities. Canada regularly engages with the Government of South Sudan to advocate for the needs and rights of women and children affected by the conflict. This includes an emphasis on protecting women and girls from high levels of SGBV, including the use of rape as a weapon of war. Canada also monitors the human rights situation for women and girls and actively engages advocates for the meaningful inclusion of women leaders in the peace process.

The PSOPs programming is taking into account the different needs of girls, women, boys and men, as well as their opportunities to participate in decision-making in all peace and security efforts. PSOPs is supporting women’s decision-making and leadership in peacebuilding and the efforts aimed at addressing the underlying root-causes of conflict and violence, particularly addressing unequal power relations and discrimination against women and girls.

Priorities

Increase the support to local women’s rights organizations in South Sudan

14.1 TargetFootnote 52: Canada increases targeted support to local women’s rights organizations and movements working to empower women and girls and advance GE. By 2021/22, 15 women’s rights organizations and movements are supported by the bilateral development program and through CFLI.

Baseline: One women’s rights organization and/or movement  received support via  the bilateral development program and through the CFLI in FY 2016/17

Activity:

Indicator:

Advance WPS in Canadian diplomatic engagements in South Sudan

14.2 TargetFootnote 53: Canada increases advocacy on the WPS agenda in diplomatic engagement with South Sudan.

Baseline: No advocacy specific to the WPS agenda in diplomatic engagement with South Sudan.

Activity:

Indicator:

Mainstream WPS and gender into peace and security efforts in South Sudan

14.3 Target: Canada, through PSOPs, demonstrates support for women’s increased and meaningful participation in improving peace and security in South Sudan by ensuring that WPS principles and gender perspectives are integrated into 100% of projects.

Baseline: In FY 2016/17, there were 2 (100%) projects that supported women to participate in improving peace and security in South Sudan. Both projects integrated WPS principles, and both projects increased the budget to integrate more WPS elements.Footnote 54

Activity:

Indicator:

15. Burundi

Context: In April 2015, President Nkurunziza of Burundi announced that he would be running for a third term in the election planned later that year. Burundian authorities engaged in systematic and brutal repression of any form of dissent to President Nkurunziza’s decision, and this crackdown intensified following the May 2015 coup attempt. Large segments of Burundi’s population, the political opposition, and many members of the international community deemed his decision unconstitutional and in contravention of the 2000 Arusha Agreement. According to reports from the UN, local and international NGOs such as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International, the violence orchestrated by President Nkurunziza’s regime has targeted many groups and individuals perceived as opponents of the regime. Women and girls have been the target of SGBV, notably rape, principally from the Imbonerakure youth militia.

As Canada does not have a physical diplomatic presence in Burundi, visits to the country and information-gathering from bilateral and multilateral partners on the political and humanitarian situation are a significant part of how Canada scopes out opportunities for diplomatic or programmatic action and advocacy on Burundi. Therefore, in order to ensure that the needs, interests and challenges of Burundian women and girls are taken into consideration in the development of Canada’s plans and actions in Burundi, Canadian officials reporting on Burundi will ensure that their conflict analysis integrates gender perspectives and gender-based concerns, specifically those related to women and girls

Priorities

Increase Canada’s knowledge of issues pertaining to women and girls in the context of the conflict in Burundi

15.1 TargetFootnote 55: Canada increases its understanding of the differential impact of the conflict on Burundian women, men, boys and girls. At least half  (50% per FY) of reports and analytical products, produced by the mission in Kigali and/or Global Affairs Canada headquarters, relating to the situation in Burundi, will integrate and/or address gender-based perspectives.

Baseline: Owing to the nature of the conflict, Global Affairs Canada reporting on the situation in Burundi already captures gender-based concerns. However, this approach to reporting is not fully integrated into routine practice. Also, there is currently no systematic tracking of reporting and analysis that comprise gender-based and women’s issues.

Activity:

Indicator:

16. Democratic Republic of Congo

Context: Canada provides humanitarian and development assistance to the DRC to address the needs of the poorest and most vulnerable, including those affected by the country’s ongoing conflict and state fragility.  Canada’s development assistance aims to improve the health of women and children, advance their rights, increase their political, economic and social empowerment, and support democratic governance and peaceful pluralism. Canada’s programming in the DRC includes efforts to combat SGBV at the national and regional levels, with a focus on provinces affected by conflict in the Eastern region. Programming is aligned with the DRC’s National Strategy to Combat GBV (2009). Through projects and policy dialogue, Canada advocates for the rights of women and girls, women’s empowerment and the end to impunity for perpetrators of sexual and gender-based crimes and promotes social behavioural change. Projects provide health, psychosocial and legal services and assistance to survivors of SGBV, strengthen key national institutions, and support local women’s organization to advance gender equality and women’s rights. More broadly, Canada engages in policy dialogue with the DRC government, the donor community and other stakeholders on a broad range of issues related to women’s rights and participation in society, including the fight against SGBV. This includes advocating for greater commitment by the DRC government on the prevention of SGBV and the fight against impunity, improving donor collaboration, promoting coherent efforts and approaches, and increasing protection measures for women and girls affected by the country’s regional conflicts.

Priorities

Increase the number of leaders committed to and engaged in the fight against all forms of sexual and GBV in the DRC

16.1 TargetFootnote 56: Canada engages with key DRC stakeholders in the prevention and behavioural change efforts in order to strengthen their commitment to address the root causes of SGBV

Baseline: Some awareness of root causes but little is translated into action.

Activity:

Indicator:

Increase the availability and use of health, psychosocial and protection services for survivors of SGBV in the DRC

16.2 TargetFootnote 57:  Canada supports the measures outlined in DRC’s National Strategy to Combat GBV (2009) to increase national leadership and coordination and make services available to survivors of SGBV.

Baseline: Plan exists but it requires updating, as well as a dedicated budget.

Activity:

Indicator:

Support the empowerment of women and girls in preventing/addressing SGBV in the DRC

16.3 TargetFootnote 58: Canada continues to advance a portfolio of projects to advance the rights of women and girls, women’s empowerment, and the implementation of the WPS agenda in DRC.

Baseline: Many women’s organizations are dedicated to advancing women’s empowerment and rights but lack capacity and the means to advance their objectives.

Activity:

Indicator:

17. Mali

ContextFootnote 59: Since 2012, Mali has been facing profound governance, development and security challenges. Instability is persistent and is progressing, while the security context is becoming more complex. While Mali’s fragility is more noticeable in the north and increasingly so in the centre of the country, the country as a whole is still in a very precarious situation. In the north and centre, humanitarian and development organizations’ access to civilian populations remains a challenge. The government and most armed groups in the north signed a Peace and Reconciliation Agreement in June 2015, but there has been slow and uneven implementation of the accord and increasing attacks by terrorist groups. Despite the presence of the French CT force, and a large UN peacekeeping mission, the country continues to face serious threats to its stability and security. Traditionally, women in Mali have been active behind the scenes in resolving conflict in their communities. However, very few women and women’s groups have participated in peacebuilding activities and fewer still have been actively involved in the formal peace process in Mali.

In FY 2018/19, Mali was the second-largest recipient of Canadian international assistance in Sub-Saharan Africa.  Canada is engaged in policy dialogue with the Government of Mali, the donor community and other stakeholders on a broad range of issues related to women’s rights and participation in society, and Canadian development assistance is intended to help the country build a brighter future for its people by concentrating on access to sexual and reproductive health care services; nutrition; improving the quality of education and vocational training; increasing agricultural productivity; and better governance and accountability. This also includes support to Mali’s transitional justice and national reconciliation process.  Canada is an active member of the donor coordination groups in Mali and maintains an ongoing and open dialogue with Malian authorities. Canada is also co-leading the GE donor coordination group and uses this platform to promote the rights and empowerment of women and girls.  Canada also uses other platforms and networks (e.g. International Women’s Day, VIP visits, sector committees and working groups, the Francophonie) to show its support for the implementation of UNSCR 1325 in Mali and also the implementation of the Mali national gender plan, which was developed with Canada’s assistance.

Priorities

Support the increased and meaningful participation of women in reconciliation and conflict prevention and enhance women’s access to justice in Mali

17.1 TargetFootnote 60:

  1. Increased access for women and girls to justice services and legal representation for the promotion and protection of their human rights.
  2. Increased participation of women, youth and others affected by the crisis, to reconciliation and conflict prevention. 

Baseline:   Limited capacity of CSOs to promote human rights and support women leaders in their reconciliation and conflict prevention efforts.  Justice, prevention and reconciliation for women, minors and other persons affected by the crisis in Mali (JUPREC) [2014-2021].

Activity:

Indicator:

Advance WPS in Canadian diplomatic engagements in Mali

17.2 TargetFootnote 61: Increased advocacy and engagement with interlocutors, including government officials, on Canada’s WPS position and priorities on WPS in Mali.

Baseline: Canada raises issues with Malian authorities and other donors related to: the protection of women and girls and representation of women in the security sector (as part of reconciliation processes), female genital mutilation, SGBV, peacebuilding activities (including economic empowerment), and other WPS-related issues.

Activity:

Indicator:

Support women’s political, social and economic empowerment in Mali

17.3 TargetFootnote 62: Canada’s development initiatives promote the empowerment of women and girls, including increasing women’s political, social and economic empowerment.

Baseline: Operational development projects that integrate GE and support to women’s political, social and economic empowerment in Mali (2017-2018).Out of 28 operational development projects: 20 projects are coded GE02 (71%) and 2 projects are coded GE03 (7%)

Activity:

Indicator:

Mainstream WPS and gender into peace and security efforts in Mali

17.4 TargetFootnote 63:  Canada, through its PSOPs, demonstrates support for women’s increased and meaningful participation in improving peace and security in Mali by ensuring that WPS principles and/or gender perspectives are integrated in 80% of projects.

Baseline: In the FY 2016/17, there were 3 (75%) projects that included WPS principles and/or gender perspectives.Footnote 64

Activity

Indicator:

Latin America and the Caribbean

18. Guatemala

Context:  In 2016, Guatemala commemorated the 20th anniversary of the signing of the Peace Accords formally ending a 36-year internal armed conflict that left over 200,000 people dead and over one million people displaced, the majority of whom were Mayan Indigenous Peoples. Unfortunately, many of the underlying causes of the armed conflict are yet to be resolved. Achieving GE and the full exercise of women’s and girls’ rights remain a significant challenge in Guatemala’s society that is largely dominated by men. Discrimination and racism particularly affect Indigenous women and girls. VAW is widespread: Guatemala has the third highest rate of femicide in the world. The promotion, protection and respect for the rights of women and girls are at the centre of Canada’s development programming in Guatemala.  Canada seeks to strengthen:

Canada will develop specific GE initiatives to meet its objectives on advancing the rights of women and girls in Guatemala and will also ensure a high level of GE integration in all projects. 

Canada will use all programming channels and diplomatic tools available to advance this work including policy dialogue with Guatemalan state officials, civil society, especially women’s organizations, and with the international donor community. 

Priorities

Support a gender-responsive approach to transitional justice, reconciliation and security sector reform in Guatemala

18.1 TargetFootnote 65: Canada improves institutional capacity for gender-sensitive criminal investigations in Guatemala.

Baseline: As of April 2017, Canada had one project approved but no advances on gender-sensitive criminal investigations.  Six women’s rights and gender-justice projects with criminal investigation strengthening components were in the design and/or seeking approval stages.

Activity:

Indicator:

18.2 TargetFootnote 66: Canada increases women’s and girls’ access to justice and use of justice support services, particularly in cases related to SGBV.

Baseline: As of April 2017, Canada had no operational projects providing support services to women survivors of SGBV. Three new projects were in the design, planning and/or seeking approval stage to support this target.

Activity:

Indicator:

Promote respect for women’s and girls’ human rights in Guatemala

18.3 TargetFootnote 67: Canada increases the knowledge and exercise of women’s and girls’ human rights, including SRHR.

Baseline: As of April 2017, Canada had two operational small initiatives working on SGBV and one operational multilateral project on SRHR. Four new projects were in the design, planning and/or seeking approval stage to support this target.

Activity:

Indicator:

19. Haiti

ContextFootnote 68: Despite the absence of conflict, Haiti remains a fragile state marked by weak institutions, political volatility, control of the economy by a handful of private interests, and vulnerability to natural disasters and external shocks.

Addressing issues relating to women’s rights, GE, and women's participation in decision-making spheres is a stark challenge within Haitian society. The promotion, protection and respect for the human rights of women and girls and for issues relating to WPS take on special importance in this context, and will be an important part of Canada’s development programming in Haiti in each of its priority sectors. In this context, Canada will continue its efforts to strengthen:

As women and girls play a key role in their communities’ development, the programs’ and projects’ focus on those priorities (i.e. ongoing projects and planned projects that will be submitted for approval) will help to improve the economic, social and political well-being of women and girls so that they can fully play their role in the Haitian society. Canada will promote and support the empowerment of women in meaningful decision-making spheres and will develop specific initiatives for the promotion and protection of and respect for the rights of women and girls

Canada will continue to foster sectoral initiatives in which GE will be strongly integrated, and will also engage in a policy dialogue with the government of Haiti, Haitian civil society (especially women’s organizations), and the donor community, on the rights of women and girls, chiefly in the three priorities mentioned above. The Haitian state has a weak capacity to address SGBV, Canada thus supports initiatives that address SGBV issues and that encourage the presence of women in decision-making platforms relating to such issues. The achievement of objectives associated with these priorities depends in large part on the approval of projects currently in the planning stage.  The following indicators, baselines and targets will be considered, and further indicators, baselines and targets will also be provided following consultations with civil society.  Moreover, efforts will be undertaken to identify these indicators, baselines and targets and ensure their measurability.

Furthermore, Canada, through its PSOPs, will engage in efforts designed to strengthen Haiti’s public governance institutions in the security and justice sectors and proactively target violence prevention efforts to effectively enforce security and protect the human rights of its citizens. For example, PSOPs will support the engagement and participation of women/girls at all levels of decision-making; prevent VAW/girls and promote women’s rights; provide gender-sensitive training; and give women and girls access to and control over resources.

Priorities

Women’s socio-economic empowerment through economic and civic engagement of women in decision-making spheres

19.1 TargetsFootnote 69 :

  1. Canada supports local women’s rights organizations and movements;
  2. Canada helps to increase the number of women who engage in political life; and
  3. Canada helps to promote and support the empowerment of women and girls, including by increasing women’s political, social and economic empowerment

Baseline: Capacities of Haitian CSO are weak; women’s political engagement is low. Currently, only 4 out of 148 parliamentarians are women.

Activities:

Indicator:

Support women’s and girls’ access to health services, including for sexuality and reproduction, and education

19.2 TargetFootnote 70:

  1. Canada helps to build the capacity of health institutions to take care of women and girl survivors of sexual violence and exploitation;
  2. Canada increases the level of knowledge on the part of women, girls and communities related to reproductive and sexual health and associated rights.
  3. Canada contributes to increasing the net secondary enrolment rate for girls. 

Baseline: Weak capacity of health care and education institutions; Weak level of knowledge on the part of women, girls and communities related to reproductive and sexual health and associated rights. The net secondary enrolment rate for girls is 16.5% (2015-2016).

Activities:

Indicator:

Promote and protect the human rights of women and girls, their access to justice and security, and take special measures to protect them from SGBV  

19.3 TargetsFootnote 71:

  1. Promote and safeguard the human rights of women and girls and take special measures to protect them from sexual and GBV;
  2. Canada supports Haitian institutions and civil society to address SGBV issues; and
  3. Canada supports the improvement of the legal framework for women, particularly with regard to the protection of women, girls and boys from SGBV.

Baseline: Ability of the Haitian state to address SGBV is low. Haitian legislations protecting women from sexual harassment, domestic violence and sexual violence in several sectors are lacking.

Activity:

Indicator:

Mainstream WPS and gender into peace and security efforts in Haiti

19.4 TargetFootnote 72: Canada, through PSOPs, demonstrates support for women’s increased and meaningful participation in improving peace and security in Haiti by ensuring that WPS and gender are integrated in 80% of projects.

Baseline: In the FY 2016/17, there were 2 (50%) projects that supported women to participate in improving peace and stability in Haiti. The 2 projects integrated WPS considerations in the logic model and performance measurement frameworks.Footnote 73

Activity:

Indicator:

20. Colombia

ContextFootnote 74: Colombia’s internal armed conflict with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) was the longest running armed conflict in the Americas. It killed over 220,000 people; displaced more than 7.1 million and resulted in 60,000 disappearances. Although there is no official data, it is estimated that at least 500,000 women were targeted with sexual violence. Colombia has the second highest number of landmine victims in the world (after Afghanistan), and Colombians have suffered grave human rights violations and destabilization in rural areas.  In 2016, the Government of Colombia and the FARC signed a peace agreement that ended over 50 years of internal armed conflict. The implementation of this agreement brings great opportunities for Colombia. However, challenges remain related to violence at the hands of other armed and guerilla groups, criminality, poverty, corruption, and human rights abuses, including an increase in the number of assassinations of human rights defenders (343 people between January 2017 and August 2018). The peace agreement with FARC includes specific provisions related to: advancing women’s rights to rural economic development and political participation; illicit drugs; victims’ assistance; and demobilization, disarmament and reintegration of former combatants. Canada is supporting these efforts.

Canada has a strong record of advancing GE, human rights and empowerment of women and girls in Colombia through international assistance, the CFLI, and PSOPs programming.  In 2016, Canada announced $78 million in funding for initiatives to support Colombia’s peace implementation, including $20 million to the UN Multi-Partner Trust Fund for Post-Conflict in Colombia. This programming aims to empower women as agents of peace. Investments in rural development are supporting women’s increased and meaningful participation, including as decision-makers, in rural cooperatives and associations; as well as enabling equal access to and control over resources such as credit, infrastructure and land. Canadian supported initiatives acknowledge and address the differential impact of conflict on women and girls, and analyze the factors that support women to succeed in the marketplace and increase their skills, which is important in the post-conflict context. Canada also focused on education and youth programming to protect Colombian children and youth (particularly girls) from violence, exploitation and abuse. This work is supporting efforts to transform unequal gender relations among youth in conflict zones, and create educational opportunities for vulnerable girls and teenage mothers. In 2017-2018, Canada chaired Colombia’s International Cooperation Gender Coordination Group, coordinating the efforts of more than 40 organizations to advocate and advance GE and women's rights in Colombia. The Group has been instrumental in promoting the participation of women in Colombia’s peace negotiations.

Priorities

Support the increased and meaningful participation of women in peacebuilding, recovery and conflict resolution

20.1 Target:  Canada increases the capacity of women engaged in peacebuilding, recovery and conflict resolution activities.

Baseline:  In FY 2016/17, Canada’s development program in Colombia supported two gender sensitive initiatives that increased meaningful participation of women and girls in peacebuilding, recovery and conflict resolution, as well as the reintegration of women combatants.

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Enhance access to justice, compensation services and protection for women and girls

20.2 Target: Canada enhances access to justice, protection and compensation services for women and girls survivors of violence caused by the conflict.

Baseline:  In 2016/17, Canada’s bilateral development program in Colombia supported three projects that promoted women’s and girls’ access to victims’ services in conflict-affected areas.

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Support women’s empowerment and the advancement of GE, including through the engagement of men and youth

20.3 Target:  Canada enhances access to quality education and sustainable livelihoods for girls and women as key components for a sustainable peace.

Baseline:  In FY 2016/17, Canada’s development program in Colombia economically empowered 3,600 women through financial education and provided access to quality education in conflict affected rural areas to 2,109 boys and girls.

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Mainstream WPS and gender into peace and security efforts in Colombia

20.4 Target: Canada, through PSOPs, demonstrates support for women’s increased and meaningful participation in improving peace and security in Colombia by ensuring that WPS principles and/or gender perspectives are integrated in 75% of projects

Baseline: In the FY 2016/17, there were 7 out of 11 projects (63%) that included WPS and/or gender perspectives.Footnote 75

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Asia

21. Afghanistan

Context: Decades of conflict and fragility have deepened and legitimized the practices that deny women and girls their human rights, mobility and opportunity, and ultimately their equal status with men and boys. Women and girls throughout Afghanistan are disadvantaged by: their low participation in politics and governance; un-implemented laws that protect women; limited access to justice; pervasive SGBV; cultural practices that undermine women’s and girls' rights; poor access to health services; poverty and economic dependence on men; and inadequate access to education and high female adult illiteracy. In addition, women continue to face major obstacles regarding economic opportunities, as well as norms that discourage women from working outside of the home and seeking financial independence. Most women lack literacy and financial management skills. Most Afghan businesswomen are unable to access credit or financing. Though laws protect women’s rights to property and inheritance, in reality many women still struggle to claim their economic and property rights. Despite modest gains over the past decade, ongoing conflict hampers the overall progress of women’s economic, political and social rights.

Development programming in Afghanistan is focused on empowering women and girls through increased support to women organizations and improved access to education and health care services. Canada will continue supporting the delivery of reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health care to women and girls living in hard-to-reach communities.

Priorities

Support the increased representation of women in the Afghan National Defence and Security ForcesFootnote 76

21.1 TargetFootnote 77: Canada actively supports the implementation of Afghanistan’s NAP on UNSCR 1325. Afghan National Defence and Security Forces have targets for recruitment of qualified women, particularly at the low and middle management level, as part of the Afghan National Defence and Security Forces sustainment. The goal is to reach the targets set for women within the Afghan National Police and the Afghan National Army: 5% for the police and 0.75% for the army.

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Support women’s rights organizations in advancement of Afghanistan’s NAP on WPS

21.2 TargetFootnote 78: In direct support of the goals outlined in Afghanistan’s NAP on WPS, 35 Afghan women’s rights organizations are supported through the Women’s and Girls’ Rights and Empowerment sector programming.

Baseline: In FY 2016/17, Canada supported one women’s rights organization through policy dialogue and Women’s and Girls’ Rights and Empowerment sector programming.

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22. Myanmar

ContextFootnote 79: Since August 25, 2017, the grave humanitarian and security crisis that continues to unfold in Myanmar stands as a global tragedy, which has led more than 730,000 Rohingya to flee their homes in Rakhine State and seek refuge in neighbouring Bangladesh. SGBV has featured significantly in this conflict and Canada will continue to advocate for the human rights of the Rohingya and on the need to bring perpetrators of violence to account.

The Rohingya crisis starkly underscores the importance of pursuing GE in Myanmar. To date, Myanmar’s progress in GE includes equality in legal and policy frameworks, such as constitutional guarantees for equal rights without discrimination against any Myanmar citizen on the basis of sex. Myanmar has ratified and endorsed the major international conventions and agreements on GE and women’s and children’s rights, and its National Strategic Plan for the Advancement of Women (2013–2022) is based on the priority areas of the Beijing Platform for Action. Significant challenges remain despite this progress, including limited public sector capacity, policy implementation gaps, varied performance among and within sectors, traditional cultural values related to women’s roles and responsibilities that shape familial relationships, limited women’s participation in decision making and access to resources, and allowing GBV to occur with impunity. Moreover, Myanmar’s peace process has largely excluded gender concerns and women’s participation in both process and substance. The level of women’s inclusion during peace agreement negotiations has been low.

In response, Canada’s bilateral development program will work with partners to integrate GE results across development programs, increase support for SRHR, including ending SGBV, and increase support for women and girls’ and GE through the support of local organizations. PSOPs programming in Myanmar will support and strengthen the capacities of various groups, including women’s groups, to increase their participation and capacity to influence decisions on the peace process. In addition, PSOPs programming opportunities in Myanmar will take gender perspectives into account when deciding which initiatives to fund.

Priorities

Support local women’s rights organizations and movements working to advance GE and WPS

22.1 TargetFootnote 80: Canada strengthens the integration of GE and women and girls’ empowerment in bilateral development programming to 90% of funding by the end of the FY 2021/22 to increase GE and meaningful participation of women in public life in Myanmar

Baseline: 73% of funding integrates GE in results (FY 2017/18).

Activity: 

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Increase the support for SRHR and rights including ending SGBV

22.2 Target: The support for (SRHR) and ending SGBV in bilateral development programming is increased by 2021/22.

Baseline: No projects target SRHR in the FY 2017/18.

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Mainstream WPS and gender into peace and security efforts in Myanmar

22.3 TargetFootnote 81: Canada, through its PSOPs, demonstrates support for women’s increased and meaningful participation in improving peace and security in Myanmar by ensuring that WPS principles and gender perspectives are integrated in 75% of projects.

Baseline: In the FY 2016/17, there was 1 project (50%) that integrated WPS principles and gender perspectives in Myanmar.Footnote 82

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