Statistical Report on International Assistance 2016-2017 – Appendix 5
- administrative costs (see also operations and management)
In 1979, OECD-DAC members agreed that ODA figures should include the administrative costs of extending assistance. This inclusion of administrative cost data was intended to improve the comparability of total ODA figures among donor countries.
In the present report, the term “administrative costs” represents funds provided by a government department to an executing agency specifically earmarked to cover part of the latter's operations and management costs. See also “operations and management”
- Anti-Crime Capacity Building Program
- Improves the capacity of beneficiary states to prevent and respond to threats posed by transnational organized criminal activity throughout the hemisphere, thereby contributing to the full range of Canada’s interests in the Americas. The ACCBP Human Smuggling Envelope is administered by the ACCBP to respond specifically to the global threat posed to Canada by human smuggling ventures abroad.
- assessed contributions
- Assessed contributions are payments made by the federal government as a result of Canada's membership in an international organization. In order to maintain our status as a member in good standing, Canada is required to provide its share of the total operations costs.
- bilateral assistance (as opposed to multilateral assistance)
Bilateral assistance is the disbursement of funds where the donor earmarks or controls the funds by specifying the recipient and/or other aspects of the initiative. Bilateral assistance can be undertaken:
- by a donor country directly with a developing country;
- with national and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) active in development and other internal development-related transactions such as interest subsidies, spending on promotion of development awareness, debt reorganization and administrative costs; or
- with a multilateral organization when the donor effectively controls the disposal of the funds by specifying the recipient or other aspects of the disbursement.
Table A shows the breakdown of Canada’s bilateral and multilateral assistance by source and by channel.
Table D-2 shows the breakdown of Canada’s bilateral assistance by recipient.
- Canada Fund for Local Initiatives (CFLI)
- The CFLI is a contributions program administered at Canadian missions abroad, which is used to advance Canadian interests and priorities in a targeted and flexible manner. It occupies a unique niche: distinct, yet complementary to other Global Affairs Canada programming (i.e., development, security, democracy, humanitarian responses). The CFLI funds small scale locally-developed projects of up to $50K, worth $25K on average.
- In the context of this report and international development statistics, the term “channel” is used to distinguish between bilateral and multilateral assistance (see definitions for bilateral assistance and multilateral assistance).
- civil society (as opposed to government institutions or private sector institutions of the market)
In this report, civil society includes:
- Canadian not-for-profit organizations that have a legal personality in Canada, including NGOs, international NGOs, volunteer cooperation agencies, cooperatives, unions and federations, faith-based organizations, professional associations, educational and policy research institutes;
- regional, national, and local institutions, not-for-profit organizations and agencies from developing countries and territories that have a legal personality; or
- international not-for-profit organizations that have a legal personality in the country in which their headquarters are located.
To be considered international, an organization must have an international membership and management, and its governing body must be elected regularly on an international basis.
To be considered international, an organization must have an international membership and management, and its governing body must be elected regularly on an international basis.
See Table C-1
- cost of refugees
Refers to costs for refugees during their first year in a donor country. It includes the estimated expenditures to bring refugees to a donor country and the costs associated with food, shelter, and training. The methodology used is consistent with the OECD-DAC directives: ODA Reporting of in-donor country refugee costs.
Note that only the costs covered by the federal government are considered ODA under the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act. See “About this report” at the beginning of this document.
See definition of “ODA-eligible imputed costs.”
- Counter-Terrorism Capacity Building Program
- Improves the capacity of beneficiary states to prevent and respond to threats posed by terrorist activity through the provision of training, equipment, and technical and legal assistance.
- country programs (as opposed to regional programs)
- Country programs are presented in Table D-1 and Table D-2, and cover a broad range of activities. These include programs carried out directly with government organizations, including direct budget support. Funds are also managed through an executing agent, or local or international NGOs or institutions, depending on program delivery, and the specific conditions and agreements reached with the recipient country.
- developmental food assistance
The term refers to the supply of edible human food under national or international programs, including transportation costs, cash payments made for food supplies, project food assistance, and food assistance for market sales, excluding emergency food assistance. See definition of “emergency food assistance.”
An example of developmental food assistance is the World Food Programme’s School Feeding Program. School meals encourage hungry children to attend school and help them concentrate on their studies.
- disaster prevention and preparedness
- Refers to a specific set of humanitarian assistance activities that support disaster risk reduction (e.g. developing knowledge, natural risks cartography, legal norms for construction); early warning systems; and emergency contingency stocks and contingency planning, including preparations for forced displacement.
- emergency food assistance
- This refers to a specific set of humanitarian assistance activities, including general free distribution or special supplementary feeding programs providing short-term relief to targeted population groups affected by emergency situations. The term excludes non-emergency food security assistance programs/food assistance. See “developmental food assistance.”
- encashment of notes, or cash basis (as opposed to issuance of notes)
- A note encashment is a disbursement against a note that has been issued.
The term “expenditures” refers to either:
- an amount spent (e.g. transfer payment in the form of a grant or contribution);
- a capital subscription or advance to an international financial institution in the form of a note issuance; or
- an estimated ODA-eligible cost (e.g. a cost for refugees in Canada).
- Export Development Canada (EDC)
Canada reports as ODA concessional credits that it grants through the Export Development Corporation under Section 23 of the Export Development Canada Act. These concessional credits, meeting approved development criteria, are not, however, considered part of the regular assistance program budget (International Assistance Envelope).
Starting in 2012-2013, EDC reports contributions to the HIPC debt initiative. These were previously reported by Finance Canada.
Note: The 2014-2015 Statistical Report is prepared on an expenditures basis and the loan repayments for previous ODA loans are no longer netted out of the totals. These loans are presented in Table A for information only. Annex 1 and 2 provide a detailed breakdown of Global Affairs Canada and EDC loan repayments by country.
- Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM)
- Any ODA expenditures are reported by the FCM on behalf of its members. Members of the FCM include Canada's largest cities, small urban and rural communities, and 17 major provincial and territorial municipal associations.
- Finance Canada
This refers to ODA flows reported by the Department of Finance Canada, which is responsible for delivering a major portion of Canada’s ODA including Official Debt Relief, that is, debt reorganisation that relieves the overall burden of debt in partner countries. Finance Canada also takes the lead in managing Canada’s relationship with the World Bank Group. The funding to the World Bank’s International Development Association and to the International Monetary Fund is reported to Parliament through the Main Estimates of the Department of Finance.
Note: Department of Finance Canada no longer reports contributions to the HIPC debt initiative. These are now reported by Export Development Canada.
- fiscal year
- This report is prepared on the fiscal-year basis adopted by the Government of Canada. The 2014-2015 fiscal year began April 1, 2014, and ended March 31, 2015.
- general budget support
- This refers to a particular category defined by the OECD-DAC as unearmarked contributions to the government budget, support for the implementation of macroeconomic reforms (structural adjustment programs, poverty reduction strategies), and general program assistance (when not allocable by sector).
- Geographic Programs
- This Global Affairs Canada Branch delivers the majority of Global Affairs Canada's bilateral assistance through programs for a given country (see definition for “country programs”) or through regional programs (see definition of “regional programs”).
- Global Affairs Canada
- Under this Department, Canada continues to advance its priorities abroad by undertaking diplomacy and programming in support of international peace and security, democracy, human rights and the rule of law. The development side of Global Affairs Canada remains dedicated to deliver tangible results for those most in need in the developing world and the Department continues to provide whole-of-government coordination in response to international crises and natural disasters.
- Global Issues and Development
This Global Affairs Canada Branch, formerly known as Multilateral and Global Programs Branch, manages the development aspects of Canada’s relations with multilateral organizations, provides financial support for these organizations, and helpes determine their policies and programs throughout the world.
Global Issues and Development deliveres bilateral and multilateral assistance. See related definitions of “bilateral assistance” and “multilateral assistance.”
- Global Partnership Program
- It is the main mechanism through which Canada supports international efforts through concrete projects to prevent the proliferation of weapons and materials of mass destruction (WMD) and their potential use by terrorists.
- Global Peace and Security Program
- Responds to increasing international demand for Canadian support and involvement in complex crises, including conflicts and natural disasters, and to coordinate whole-of-government engagements in fragile and conflict-affected states. The program also integrates policy, operations, coordination and programming in order to provide agile, timely and responsive programming to further advance the government's priorities in the important area of peace and security.
- Health Canada
- This refers to assistance expenditures incurred by the Department of Health Canada in support of the Pan-American Health Organization. Through PAHO, Canada advances multilateral and bilateral relations in health, and provides technical cooperation and capacity building (see Table A).
- imputed foreign student costs
- This refers to the cost of educating foreign students from ODA-eligible countries in Canada. It excludes tuition fees paid by foreign students or their sponsors. See definition of “ODA-eligible imputed costs.”
- international assistance
Canada's international assistance is composed of any financial resource provided by Canadian governments (federal, provincial, or municipal) in favour of development assistance. It is important to note that not all international assistance is considered official development assistance (ODA).
See section “Understanding this report” for more information.
- International Assistance Envelope (IAE)
- The International Assistance Envelope (IAE) is a dedicated pool of resources that enables the Government of Canada to deploy its international assistance nimbly and responsively. The envelope is used to fund the majority of Canada’s ODAAA-related activities, and other specific activities that do not meet the definition of ODA such as select peace and security efforts and non-concessional loans for international climate change initiatives.
- International Business Development and Innovation
- This Global Affairs Canada Branch supports private sector engagement and the management and administration of a number of international scholarship opportunities for Canadians and foreign students.
- International Development Association (IDA)
The IDA is the part of the World Bank that helps the world’s poorest countries. The IDA is funded largely by contributions from the governments of its developed member countries. The IDA lends money (known as credits) on concessional terms. This means that IDA credits have no interest charge, and repayments are stretched out over 35–40 years, including a 10-year grace period. The IDA also provides grants to countries at risk of debt distress.
Canadian funding to IDA is managed by the Department of Finance Canada, and is represented in the form of note encashments.
- International Development Research Centre (IDRC)
- Refers to ODA spent by IDRC, a Canadian Crown corporation funded through the IAE, that invests in knowledge, innovation, and solutions to improve lives and livelihoods in the developing world.
- international financial institution (IFI)
- IFIs are financial institutions that have been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and are therefore subject to international law. Their owners or shareholders are generally national governments, although other international institutions and other organizations occasionally figure as shareholders. The most prominent IFIs are creations of multiple nations, although some bilateral financial institutions (created by two countries) exist and are technically IFIs. Many of these are multilateral development banks. The best-known IFIs are the World Bank, the IMF, and regional development banks.
- international humanitarian assistance (IHA)
IHA is defined as assistance designed to save lives, alleviate suffering, and maintain and protect human dignity during emergencies and in their aftermath. Humanitarian assistance is delivered in a manner that is consistent with the principles of humanity, impartiality, neutrality, and independence.
Humanitarian assistance includes:
- disaster prevention and preparedness;
- the provision of shelter, food, water, sanitation, and health services, and other items of assistance for the benefit of the affected people, and to facilitate the return to normal lives and livelihoods; measures to promote and protect the safety, welfare, and dignity of civilians and those no longer taking part in hostilities; and
- rehabilitation, reconstruction, and transition assistance while the emergency situation persists.
- International Humanitarian Assistance Bureau
This Global Affairs Canada Bureau responds to funding requests from multilateral humanitarian organizations such as the United Nations World Food Programme, UNICEF and other experienced humanitarian partners, including the Red Cross Movement and NGOs, except in West Bank/Gaza where the country program also provides humanitarian assistance.
Please refer to table B2 for a detailed summary of Canada’s international humanitarian assistance.
- International Scholarship Program
- Attracts international students and researchers to Canada by offering scholarships to Canadian and foreign students and by promoting government funded awards.
- International Security and Crisis Response
- This branch is responsible for coordinating Canadian peace and security objectives within Global Affairs Canada.
- Investment Cooperation Program
- The objective of this program is to support responsible, developmentally beneficial, private sector engagement in developing countries leading to sustained economic growth and poverty reduction.
- Loan repayments
In this report, loan repayments are the repayments to Canada of development-related loans by developing countries, whether the loans were issued by Global Affairs Canada or other departments. A detailed breakdown by country/organization is available in Appendices 1 and 2.
bilateral loans – Refers to repayments of loans granted by Global Affairs Canada to developing countries prior to 1986.
multilateral loans – Refers to repayments of loans granted by Global Affairs Canada to the Andean Development Corporation, the African Development Bank and Inter-American Development Bank.
- Long-term institutional support
Long-term institutional support, also known as core funding, is the business delivery model that allows the government of Canada to provide financial support to entities (organizations, institutions, or recipient countries) whose actions achieve development results that reflect Canadian government goals and objectives.
In the Statistical Report on International Assistance, in accordance with international standards, long-term institutional support to multilateral organizations is counted as multilateral assistance, while long- term institutional support to NGOs is counted as bilateral assistance. In addition, long-term Institutional support to Multilateral Institutions includes ODA portion of assessed contributions. See definition of “assessed contributions.”
- material relief assistance and services
In Table B-2, this refers to a specific set of humanitarian assistance activities:
- the provision of shelter, water, sanitation, and health services; supply of medicines; and other non-food relief items; and
- assistance to refugees and internally displaced people in developing countries other than for food or protection.
- multilateral assistance (as opposed to bilateral assistance, also known as long-term institutional support to multilateral organizations)
Multilateral assistance is funding provided to a multilateral institution that:
- conducts all or part of its activities in favour of development;
- is an international agency, institution, or organization whose members are governments, or a fund managed autonomously by such an agency; and
- pools contributions so that they become an integral part of the financial assets.
- In this report, the term “multilateral assistance” includes both ODA and non-ODA elements.
In an effort to estimate/impute the portion of assistance going through those organizations to developing countries, the OECD has developed a series of coefficients based on flow of resources (on a calendar-year basis) disbursed by the organizations in the developing countries. This set of coefficients is used, in part, to estimate the disbursements shown in Table D-3.
It is important to note that any methodology for imputing multilateral flows will always be an approximation. Multilateral flows in a given year are not exactly imputable to donors’ contributions in that year, no matter what methodology is used. Among the reasons for this are:
General approximations and timing. The estimated country and sector amounts are counted when the government makes the payment to the organization and based on the totality of the programme, rather than when the payment is used by the ultimate recipient. Donors’ contributions to multilateral institutions are reportable in the year they are paid. Many trust funds aim to catalyze additional funding from other investors and donors. Such funds typically need to reach a certain funding threshold before disbursements begin, sometime after Canada’s contribution.
Limits of data on multilateral outflows. While a number of multilateral agencies report to the OECD on the use of their funding (by country, by sector, etc.) some do not. Therefore, the country and sector breakdowns of those organisations are estimated using others sources, such as annual reports.
Grants to lending institutions. Some institutions lend rather than grant funds. Their lending in any one year may be much greater than donors’ contributions, since it also draws on reflows of principal, interest receipts, and transfers of funds within the institution.
- multilateral organizations
The OECD-DAC defines multilateral organizations as international institutions with governmental membership that conduct all, or a significant part, of their activities in favour of development and assistance recipient countries. They include multilateral development banks (e.g. the World Bank and regional development banks), United Nations agencies, international public-private partnerships (PPPs), and regional groupings (e.g. certain European Union and Arab agencies).
Global Affairs Canada; Health Canada; Public Health Agency of Canada; Environment and Climate Change Canada; Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada; and the Canada Post Corporation made contributions toward regular budgets of certain multilateral organizations (also called long-term institutional support or core funding). These contributions can be considered as ODA either in whole or in part. The percentage value for each organization is provided by the OECD-DAC. See Table C-2
- National Defence (DND)
- This refers to ODA-eligible contributions on behalf of the National Defence and Canadian Armed Forces, such as the provision of humanitarian relief supplies. Military type interventions (for example, bilateral peacekeeping missions) and other activities that are not development focused are not included in this report.
- ODA-eligible imputed costs
- This describes a cost category that is eligible for ODA status under the OECD-DAC guidelines, but with no actual expenditure data readily available. Instead, an estimate is produced based on a statistical model and/or professional judgement. This includes the cost of refugees (first year), imputed foreign student costs, services provided without charge by other government departments and imputed interest on advance payments, for which definitions can be found in this glossary. The new Policy on Transfer Payments no longer requires departments to report the imputed interest costs on advance payments and therefore these costs no longer appear in the Statistical Report.
- Office of Religious Freedom
- The Religious Freedom Fund supports religious communities that are facing intolerance or persecution in their country outside Canada through projects in four areas: education on freedom of religion and pluralism, research and monitoring, interreligious dialogue, and legal and legislative support.
- official bilateral debt relief
- Official bilateral debt relief refers to debt-service relief negotiated through multilateral forums such as the Paris Club. The transfer of funds, administered by the Department of Finance Canada, is considered ODA-eligible. Starting in 2012-2013, EDC reports contributions to the HIPC debt initiative. These were previously reported by Finance Canada.
- official development assistance (ODA)
In Canada, “official development assistance” may refer to:
- the international definition created by the Development Assistance Committee of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD-DAC); or
- the definition established in the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act (ODAAA).
Unless otherwise specified, “official development assistance,” as used in this statistical report, refers to the definition in the ODAAA. ODA represents the vast majority of Canada’s international assistance. For more information, look in the section “Understanding this report” at the beginning of this document.
- Operations and management (see also administrative costs)
- In this report this term represents the operations and management costs directly incurred by the donor agency to cover the day-to-day costs of extending international assistance. See also “administrative costs”.
- other official assistance (also known as non-ODA)
- This refers to activities that do not meet the conditions for eligibility as Official Development Assistance because they are not primarily aimed at development (e.g. counter-terrorism capacity building, military observers). On the other hand, incremental costs incurred for the use of the donor’s military equipment to deliver humanitarian assistance or perform development services are ODA-eligible (for example, emergency assistance by the Disaster Assistance Response Team). Activities outside the IAE that are not ODA eligible are considered out-of-scope of this report and hence not reported (e.g., military-related training, supply of military equipment and services to peacekeeping missions, and the forgiveness of debts incurred for military purposes).
- Partnerships for Development Innovation
- This Global Affairs Canada Branch provides opportunities for Canadians to engage in international development and contributes to initiatives designed and delivered predominantly by Canadian civil society organizations, private sector, colleges, universities, research entities, provincial and regional councils and foundations. The Branch facilitates knowledge exchange across the department, with civil society and international partners to advance innovative approaches to international development.
- Payables at Year-End
- The recording against the current fiscal year of liabilities incurred but which have not been paid by the end of the accounting period.
- program assistance
- This term refers to international assistance spending by Global Affairs Canada's assistance programs, excluding operations and management costs, and changes in the value of investments in IFIs.
- provincial governments
- This refers to international assistance programs of the provinces of Quebec, Manitoba, Alberta and Saskatchewan. For example, the Government of Quebec provides long-term institutional support to certain multilateral institutions such as the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), and undertakes bilateral projects in a number of countries. The Official Development Assistance Accountability Act does not apply to these programs.
- Public Health Agency of Canada
- This refers to assistance expenditures incurred by the Public Health Agency of Canada in support of the Pan-American Health Organization (see Table A).
- regional development banks
- These are International Financial Institutions (IFIs) that are owned and operated by member nations. They are designed to extend development loans and provide other assistance to member nations. The world's five regional development banks are the African Development Bank Group, Asian Development Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Caribbean Development Bank, and Inter-American Development Bank.
- regional programs
- Refers to regional programs managed by Global Affairs Canada's Geographic Programs Bureau (see definition) that address the regional issues countries face together. In Table D-1 and Table D-2, these programs are reported separately from country programs. See definition of “country programs.”
- Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)
- This refers to ODA disbursements made by the RCMP for bilateral programs aimed at post-conflict peacebuilding and security system management and reform.
- sector codes (Table B-1)
Sector codes are used to describe the purpose of assistance. The list of sectors is compiled by the OECD-DAC. From time to time, modifications are made with the approval of donor countries. The OECD-DAC sector classification contains the following broad categories:
- social infrastructure and services – covering the sectors of education, health, population, water, government, and civil society;
- economic infrastructure and services – covering transport, communications, energy, banking and finance, and business services;
- production – covering agriculture, forestry, fishing, industry, mining, construction, trade, and tourism; and
- multi-sector – covering, for example, general environmental protection; other multi-sector assistance, including urban and rural development; and non-sector allocable assistance for contributions not susceptible to allocation by sector, such as general budget support, actions relating to debt, humanitarian assistance, and internal transactions in the donor country.
The sector of destination of a contribution provides the specific area of the recipient’s economic or social structure the transfer is intended to foster. The sector classification does not refer to the type of goods or services provided.
Due to differences in timing and methodology, the figures reported in Table B-1 will vary significantly from those reported in “Table 5: Official Bilateral Commitments by Sector of Destination” of the OECD-DAC’s questionnaire on ODA.
There are three main reasons for these discrepancies:
- fiscal year vs. calendar year – The Statistical Report on Official Development Assistance is based on the Government of Canada’s fiscal year; however, the DAC questionnaire is based on the calendar year.
- commitments vs. disbursements – The DAC’s Table 5 is prepared on a commitment basis rather than when funds are actually disbursed.
- proportionate coding – Global Affairs Canada's systems permit coding many sectors against any given contribution; however, the OECD’s reporting allows only for a single purpose code for each assistance project/program.
- services provided without charge by other departments
- This refers to costs incurred by other departments for accommodation, legal, and cheque-issuing services rendered to Global Affairs Canada. See definition of ODA-eligible imputed costs.
- Services rendered abroad
- Refer to the common services provided to Global Affairs Canada personnel, both Canada-based and locally-engaged, at Canada's diplomatic and consular missions abroad. These funds help to facilitate the presence of development officers in the field and support international assistance project implementation.
- Strategic Communications Bureau
- Amounts related to this bureau of Global Affairs Canada represent assistance program expenditures to promote development. The program supports the efforts of Canadians through mass media and educational initiatives.
- Strategic Policy and Summits
- This Global Affairs Canada Branch, formerly known as Strategic Policy and Performance Branch, represents ODA-eligible international assistance expenditures made by Global Affairs Canada for representing Canada at international forums on development and ensuring that international commitments are reflected in Canadian development policies.
- Unallocable or non-allocable assistance (as opposed to allocable assistance)
- When assistance disbursements cannot be assigned by country or sector, (e.g. costs of refugees in Canada) the disbursement is referred to as unallocable or non-allocable.
- Date Modified: