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Regional and Bilateral Initiatives

Canada - Korea

Initial Environmental Assessment Report – Canada Korea Free Trade Agreement


Product (HS4 Codes)20042005
2701 - Coal and Solid Fuels Manufactured from Coal230,191555,126
4703 - Chemical Woodpulp - Soda or Sulphate310,178274,468
1001 - Wheat75,695218,286
2905 - Acyclic Alcohols and their Halogenated, Sulphonated, Nitrated or Nitrosated Derivatives183,902173,842
2603 - Copper Ores and Concentrates111,806152,586
7601 - Unwrought Aluminium141,06995,026
8517 - Electrical Apparatus for Telephonic Line Use (Including Telephones and Modems)74,07791,450
0203 - Meat of Swine - Fresh, Chilled or Frozen34,69180,558
7502 - Unwrought Nickel59,21467,193
4705 - Semi-Chemical Wood Pulp110,15759,162
4101 - Raw Hides and Skins of Bovine or Equine Animals9,09032,426
4403 - Wood in the Rough27,33431,737
4407 - Lumber (Thickness > 6mm)37,46030,043
2601 - Iron Ores and Concentrates9,30329,771
8542 - Electronic Integrated Circuits and Microassemblies31,74325,656
2844 - Uranium and Other Radioactive Elements, Isotopes, Residues and Compounds17,33824,784
7108 - Gold--22,366
2608 - Zinc Ores and Concentrates13,08221,796
4301 - Raw Fur Skins14,91221,668
8543 - Other Electrical Machines and Apparatus NESOI1411,64421,006
0306 - Crustaceans - Live, Fresh, Chilled, Frozen, Dried, Salted or in Brine23,70720,483
9030 - Instruments/Apparatus for Measuring/Detecting Radiation and Electrical Phenomena7,02819,848
1502 - Rendered Fats of Bovine Animals, Sheep or Goats20,90318,454
0206 - Edible Offal - Bovine, Swine, Sheep, Goat, Horse, Ass, Mule, Hinny – Fresh, Chilled or Frozen7,74917,981
4804 - Uncoated Kraftliner Paper or Paperboard22,27117,740
TOTAL (All products)2,268,5982,805,898

Source: Statistics Canada


Product (HS4 Codes)20042005
8703 - Motor Vehicles for Passenger Transport (other than Buses/Public Transport)1,680,8781,573,716
8525 - Transmission Apparatus for TV/Radio Broadcasting708,872677,106
8542 - Electronic Integrated Circuits and Microassemblies329,730305,313
8471 - Computers and Computer Peripherals200,935129,072
8708 - Motor Vehicle Parts (Excluding Body, Chassis and Engines)109,883117,673
4011 - New Pneumatic Tires of Rubber108,665110,327
8429 - Self-Propelled Bulldozers, Scrapers, Graders, Levellers, Shovel Loaders, Taping         Machines and the Like58,31393,570
8481 - Taps, Cocks, Valves and Similar Appliances for Pipes, Boiler Shells, Tanks, Vats and   the Like66,26884,260
8473 - Parts and Accessories for Computers and Other Office Machinery104,09882,265
8528 - Television Receivers; Video Monitors and Projectors63,12574,904
3903 - Polymers of Styrene in Primary Forms32,34457,388
7210 - Flat-Rolled Products of Iron/Non-Alloy Steel (Width > 600mm) - Clad, Plated or     Coated59,05056,942
7306 - Other Tubes, Pipes and Hollow Profiles NESOI Of Iron or Steel31,78953,706
8501 - Electric Motors and Generators (Excluding Electric Generating Sets)60,76747,441
7216 - Angles, Shapes and Sections of Iron or Non-Alloy Steel44,66145,910
8418 - Refrigerators and Freezers; Heat Pumps other than for Air Conditioning32,87644,926
8413 - Pumps for Liquids; Liquid Elevators31,50044,342
8450 - Washing Machines - Household or Laundry-Type28,43141,351
9013 - Other Optical Devices, Appliances and Instruments (Including Telescopes and Lasers)22,37640,870
8415 - Air Conditioning Machines (Air Conditioners)90,40339,322
4002 - Synthetic Rubber and Factice Derived from Oils35,50436,656
8516 - Electric Domestic Heating Apparatus22,09936,361
8901 - Ferry Boats, Cruise Ships and Excursion Boats; Tankers and Other Cargo Vessels--33,872
8527 - Radio Receivers (Including Combined with Cassette Recorders); Pagers37,61530,420
7312 - Stranded Wire, Ropes and Cables (Not Electrically Insulated) of Iron or Steel41,09730,077
Total (All products)5,825,6995,374,661

Source: Statistics Canada


Below is a non-exhaustive list of federal, provincial and territorial legislation15 and regulations that may enhance positive environmental impacts or mitigate against negative environmental impacts of the WTO Doha Round of trade negotiations.

Laws of General Application


Antarctic Environmental Protection Act
Auditor General Act
Canada Shipping Act
Canada Transportation Act
Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA)
Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA)
Canadian Food and Drugs Act
Canadian Nuclear Safety and Control Act16
Department of the Environment Act
Emergencies Preparedness Act
Energy Efficiency Act
Hazardous Materials Information Review Act
Hazardous Products Act
National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy Act
Pilotage Act
Railway Safety Act
Resources and Technical Surveys Act
Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act


Environmental Protection Act, Environmental Assessment Act, Dangerous Goods Transportation Act, Environmental Bill of Rights

Environment Quality Act, Ministry of the Environment Act, Transport Act

Nova Scotia
Environment Act, Environmental Assessment Regulations

New Brunswick
Clean Environment Act, Environmental Impact Assessment Regu-lation, Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act

Sustainable Development Act, Environment Act, Dangerous Goods Transportation and Handling Act

British Columbia
Environmental Management Act, Environmental Assessment Act, Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act

Prince Edward Island
Environmental Protection Act

Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act, Environmental Assessment Regulation, Dangerous Goods Transportation and Handling Act

Environmental Assessment Act, Environmental Management and Protection Act, Dangerous Goods Transportation Act

Newfoundl and Labrador
and Environmental Protection Act, Environmental Assessment Regulations, Dangerous Goods Transportation Act

Northwest Territories
Environmental Protection Act, Environmental Rights Act, Trans-portation of Dangerous Goods Act

Environment Act, Environmental Assessment Act and Regulations, Dangerous Goods Transportation Act, Yukon Environmental and Socio-Economic Assessment Act, Yukon Act

Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act

Laws impacting air


Aeronautics Act
Alternative Fuels Act
Weather Modification Information Act
Canadian Aviation Regulations
Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards


Environmental Protection Act

  • Regulation 419/05 – Air Pollution – Local Air Quality
  • Regulation 194/05 – Industry Emissions – Nitrogen Oxides and Sulfur Dioxide
  • Regulation 127/01 – Air Contaminant Discharge Monitor-ing and Reporting
  • Regulation 397/01 – Emissions Trading
  • Ozone-depleting Substance Regulations

Nova Scotia
Air Quality Regulations, Ozone Layer Protection Regulations

New Brunswick
Clean Air Act, Air Quality Regulation, Ozone-depleting Sub-stances Regulation

Ozone-depleting Substances Act

British Columbia
Ozone-depleting Substances and Other Halocarbons Regula-tion, BC Cleaner Gasoline Regulation, Sulphur Content of Fuel Regulation

Prince Edward Island
Transboundary Pollution (Reciprocal Access) Act

Clean Air Act, Ozone-depleting Substances Regulation

Clean Air Act and Regulations, Ozone-depleting Substances Control Regulations

Newfoundland and Labrador
Air Pollution Control Regulations, Halocarbon Regulations

Laws impacting flora and fauna


Arctic Wildlife Act
Canada Wildlife Act
Fertilizer Act
Fisheries Act
Health of Animals Act
Migratory Birds Convention Act
Migratory Birds Regulations
National Wildlife Week Act
Pest Control Products Act
Pesticide Residue Compensation Act
Plant Protection Act
Species at Risk Act (2002)
Wild Animal and Plant Protection and Regulation of International and Interprovincial Trade Act


Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act, Forestry Act
Crown Forest Sustainability Act, 1994
Pesticides Act
Endangered Species Act
Wilderness Areas Act

Wildlife Conservation and Development Act, Natural Heritage Conservation Act, Act Respecting Threatened or Vulnerable Species, Pesticides Act, Tree Protection Act

Nova Scotia
Wildlife Habitat and Watercourses Protection Regulations, En-dangered Species Act, Fisheries and Coastal Resources Act, Forests Act, Forest Sustainability Regulations

New Brunswick
Endangered Species Act, Fish and Wildlife Act,

Forest Act, Wildlife Act, Fisheries Act, Fishermen’s Assistance and Polluters’ Liability Act, Endangered Species Act

British Columbia
Wildlife Act, Fisheries Act, Freshwater Fish Regulation, Farming and Fishing Industries Development Act, Fish Protec-tion Act

Prince Edward Island
Wildlife Conservation Act, Fisheries Act

Forest Resources Management Act, Wildlife Act, Wildlife Habitat Protection Act , Fisheries Act

Northwest Territories
Wildlife Act

Wildlife Act, Migratory Birds Convention Act, Fisheries Act, Forest Protection Act

Laws impacting water and fisheries


Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act
Canada Marine Act
Canada Water Act
Coastal Fisheries Protection Act
Coasting Trade Act
Fisheries Act
International Boundary Waters Treaty Act
International Rivers Improvements Act
Lac Seul Conservation Act
Lake of the Woods Control Board Act
Navigable Waters Protection Act
Northwest Territories Water Act
Oceans Act
Yukon Waters Act


Ontario Water Resources Act
- Regulation 387/04 - Water Taking and Transfer
- Water Well Regulation (Regulation 903)
Nutrient Management Act, 2002
Safe Drinking Water Act, 2002
Clean Water Act, 2006
Lakes and Rivers Improvement Act
Sustainable Water and Sewage Systems Act
Pesticides Act

Watercourses Act, Water Resources Preservation Act

Nova Scotia
Water Resources Protection Act, Wildlife Habitat and Water-courses Protection Regulations,

New Brunswick
Clean Water Act, Water Quality Regulations, Watercourse Al-teration Regulations

Conservation Agreements Act, Ground Water and Water Well Act, Water Protection Act, Water Resources Conservation and Protection Act

British Columbia
Water Act, Water Protection Act, Groundwater Protection Regulation

Prince Edward Island
Water and Sewage Act
Alberta Water Act, Surface Water Quality Guidelines

Water Regulations, Groundwater Conservation Act

Newfoundland and Labrador
Water Resources Act

Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories Waters Act, Water Resources Agree-ments Act

Water Act

Nunavut Waters and Nunavut Surface Rights Tribunal Act

Laws impacting land and non-renewable resources


Agricultural and Rural Development Act
Canada Agricultural Products Act
Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Resources Accord Implementation Act
Canada-Newfoundland-Atlantic Accord Implementation Act
Canada Oil and Gas Operations Act
Canada Petroleum Resources Act
Energy Supplies Emergency Act
Fertilizer Act
First Nations Land Management Act
Indian Oil and Gas Act
James Bay and Northern Québec Native Claims Settlement Act
Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act
Manganese-Based Fuel Additives Act
Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumptions Standards (Not in Force)
National Energy Board Act
Northern Pipeline Act
Territorial Lands Act


Environmental Protection Act
- Regulations 101-104
- Regulation 153 – Record of Site Condition (Brownfields)
- Deep Well Disposal Regulation (Regulation 341)
- Regulation 347 – Waste Management – General
- Waste Management – PCBs Regulation (Regulation 362)
Waste Diversion Act, 2002
Waste Management Act
Planning Act
Greenbelt Act, 2005
Nutrient Management Act
Oak Ridges Moraine Conservation Act, 2001
Places to Grow Act, 2005
Aggregate Resources Act
Mining Act
Oil, Gas and Salt Resources Act

Mining Act

Nova Scotia
Asbestos Waste Management Regulations, PCB Management Regulations, Wilderness Areas Protection Act, Petroleum Management Regulations, Energy Resources Conservation Act

New Brunswick
Topsoil Preservation Act, Petroleum Product Storage and Han-dling Regulation, Regional Solid Waste Commissions Regula-tion, Energy Conservation Act, Mining Act, Oil and Natural Gas Act

Natural Resources Act, Waste Reduction and Prevention Act, Habitat Heritage Act, Natural Resources Transfer Act

British Columbia
Environment and Land Use Act, Contaminated Sites Regula-tion, Special Waste Regulation, Waste Discharge Regulation, Hazardous Waste Regulation, Forest Act, Forest and Range Practices Act

Prince Edward Island
Oil and Natural Gas Act

Release Reporting Regulation, Release Regulation, Waste Con-trol Regulation, Conservation and Reclamation Regulation, Coal Conservation Act, Energy Resources Conservation Act, Oil and Gas Conservation Act, Oil Sands Conservation Act, Pipeline Act

Environmental Spill Control Regulations, Hazardous Sub-stances & Waste Dangerous Goods Regulations, Mineral In-dustry Environmental Protection Regulations, Conservation and Development Act, Oil and Gas Conservation Act

Newfoundland and Labrador
Well Drilling Regulations, Waste Management Regulations, Waste Reduction and Recovery Act

Northwest Territories
Forest Protection Act, Waste Reduction and Recovery Act
Yukon Oil and Gas Act, Yukon Surface Rights Board Act

Laws impacting trade

Canada-Chile Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act
North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act
Wild Animal and Plant Protection and Regulation of International and Interprovincial Trade Act


Agriculture and Agri-food Canada’s Agricultural Policy Framework (APF): A strategy that aims to position Canada as the world leader in food safety, innovation and environmen-tally responsible agricultural production.

Allocative efficiency: Allocative efficiency is improved if production is shifted to lower-cost producers and/or if consumers gain access to lower-cost goods. If the cost to the environment of this production is adequately reflected in the price (e.g., through appropriate environmental regulation), and if allocative efficiency improves globally, one would expect the overall quality of the global environment to improve due to the more effi-cient allocation of resources.

Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC): An intergovernmental forum dedi-cated to promoting free trade and investment, economic growth and development, and coop-eration in the Asia-Pacific region. It operates on the basis of non-binding commitments and open dialogue.

APEC Climate Centre (APCC): Research centre whose goal is to facilitate the sharing of high-cost climate data and information, to build capacity in prediction and in sustainable so-cial and economic applications of climate information, and accelerate and extend socio-economic innovation.

APEC Climate Network (APCN): Aims to establish a climate network for the exchange of real-time climate information among APEC member economies and to reduce natural disas-ters related to unusual climate in the Asian-Pacific region by enhancing emergency prepared-ness and capacity building in climate monitoring.

Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate (APP): Founding partners Australia, China, India, Japan, Republic of Korea, and the United States have agreed to work together and with private-sector partners to meet goals for energy security, national air pollu-tion reduction, and climate change in ways that promote sustainable economic growth and poverty reduction. The Partnership will focus on expanding investment and trade in cleaner energy technologies, goods and services in key market sectors.

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE): or “Mad Cow Disease”: A degenerative disease of the central nervous system found in cattle.

Canadian direct investment abroad (CDIA): Canadian capital that is invested in foreign resources.

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD): One of the key agreements adopted at the Earth Summit in Rio in 1992. This pact among the vast majority of the world’s governments sets out commitments for maintaining the world’s ecological underpinnings as we go about the business of economic development. The Convention establishes three main goals: the con-servation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equi-table sharing of the benefits from the use of genetic resources.

Computable general equilibrium (CGE): A class of economic model that seeks to explain the economic-wide changes in production, consumption, and price. It uses actual economic data to estimate how an economy might react to changes in policy or other external factors. It is widely used to analyze the aggregate welfare and distributional impacts of policies whose effects may be transmitted through multiple markets, or different policy instruments. A CGE model usually consists of equations describing economic behaviour of economic agents and a database that is consistent with the model equations.

Economic modelling simulation: To simulate the impact of policy changes on the economy using economic models.

Environmental impact assessment: Refers to the environmental assessment of projects pur-suant to the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA), and describes the process undertaken to predict the environmental effects of proposed initiatives before they are carried out. Project-level environmental assessment identifies possible environmental effects, pro-poses measures to mitigate adverse effects, and predicts whether there will be significant ad-verse environmental effects, even after the mitigation is implemented.

Ethylene glycol (EG): A clear, colourless, odourless liquid with a syrup-like consistency. Globally, approximately two thirds of ethylene glycol is used as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of polyesters for fibres, films, bottles, etc., with a further one quarter used as an antifreeze in engine coolants. Ethylene glycol is also used for runway de-icing (the main source of high local concentrations in the environment), as plasticizer for adhesives, as sof-tener for cellulose film, as glycoborates in electrolytic condensers, as glycol dinitrate in ex-plosives, for various heat transfer applications, as humectant in inks, as antifreeze and plasti-cizer in paints.

Export and Import of Hazardous Wastes Regulations (EIHWR): Regulations whose main goal is to implement a control system for transboundary movements of hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable materials. The Regulations include requirements for prior notifica-tion and consent of the importing and transit jurisdictions; the existence of contracts between importers and exporters; insurance for Canadian importers and exporters and their carriers; and tracking of the movement from its point of origin to its final destination through the use of manifests and certificates of recycling/disposal.

Foreign direct investment: Investing directly in production in another country, either by establishing an enterprise, expanding operation of its existing business, or acquiring owner-ship or control of an existing enterprise.

Free trade area: A designated group of countries that have agreed to eliminate tariffs, quo-tas and preferences on most (if not all) goods between them.

General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS): The creation of the GATS was one of the landmark achievements of the Uruguay Round, whose results entered into force in Janu-ary 1995. The GATS was inspired by essentially the same objectives as its counterpart in merchandise trade, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT): creating a credible and reliable system of international trade rules; ensuring fair and equitable treatment of all participants (principle of non-discrimination); stimulating economic activity through guaran-teed policy bindings; and promoting trade and development through progressive liberaliza-tion.

General Preferential Tariff (GPT): During the 1970s, most industrialized countries insti-tuted tariff preferences (referred to as the Generalized System of Tariff Preferences (or GSP) for developing countries to encourage their economic growth through increased trade. On July 1, 1974, Canada introduced its version of the GSP called the General Preferential Tariff (GPT).

Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP): A global network of researchers and policy mak-ers conducting quantitative analysis of international policy issues using a CGE model devel-oped by Purdue University.

Greenhouse gas (GHG): Components of the atmosphere that contribute to the greenhouse effect. Some greenhouse gases occur naturally in the atmosphere, while others result from human activities such as burning of fossil fuels such as coal. Greenhouse gases include water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone.

Gross domestic product (GDP): The market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time. It is also considered the sum of value added at every stage of production of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time.

Information and communications technology (ICT): Deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information, securely. Recently it has become popular to broaden the term to explicitly in-clude the field of electronic communication.

Korean Meteorological Administration (KMA): Korean government body responsible for improving public welfare through the prevention and mitigation of meteorological disasters, as well as the provision of meteorological support in industrial activities.

Memorandum of understanding (MOU): A legal document describing a bilateral or multi-lateral agreement between parties. It expresses a convergence of will between the parties, in-dicating an intended common line of action and may not imply a legal commitment. It is a more formal alternative to a gentlemen’s agreement, but in some cases, depending on the ex-act wording, lacks the binding power of a contract.

Meteorological Service Canada (MSC): Part of Environment Canada, the MSC is Canada’s source for meteorological information. The MSC monitors water quantities, provides infor-mation and conducts research on climate, atmospheric science, air quality, ice and other envi-ronmental issues.

MFN duty rate: The rate of duty applied to goods originating from all countries, except North Korea and Libya, unless it can be proved that the imported good originates from a country that benefits from a preferential tariff.

Mine plan: Description of the development plans for a mine.

Sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures: Measures put in place by governments to protect human, animal (sanitary) and plant (phytosanitary) life or health.

Shelterbelt planning: Shelterbelts are linear plantings of trees and shrubs designed to block winds that can enhance crop production, protect buildings, people and livestock, trap snow and/or prevent soil and water erosion. Shelterbelts may also be a source of valuable timber and non-timber products as well providing habitat for wildlife. Shelterbelt planning is the process of clearly identifying, defining and determining the design and placement of a shelterbelt. This includes the systematic consideration of the physical environment, cli-mate, tree and shrub species, time, maintenance and management necessary to achieve prede-termined goals and objectives of the proposed shelterbelt.

Silviculture: The art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health and quality of forests and woodlands to meet the diverse needs and values of land-owners and society on a sustainable basis.

Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Used synonymously with Environmental As-sessment (EA) in the 2001 Framework for Conducting Environmental Assessments of Trade Negotiations, an SEA is a systematic process of identifying and evaluating likely environ-mental impacts from an initiative to ensure they are integrated and addressed at the earliest stage of decision making. The term “strategic” is added to distinguish the activity from pro-ject-level environmental assessment.

Summerfallow: Cropland left idle in order to restore productivity, mainly through accumula-tion of water, nutrients, or both. The soil is tilled for a growing season to control weeds, to aid in decomposition of plant residues, and to encourage the storage of moisture for the suc-ceeding crop. Summerfallow exposes soil to a high risk of erosion from extreme weather events (high winds and heavy rains).

Supply-managed (agricultural products): Refers to those agricultural products subject to supply management, which aims to balance production with the needs of the domestic market for each of the five commodities with supply-managed schemes (dairy, chicken, eggs, turkey, and broiler hatching eggs).


AAFC - Agriculture and Agri-food Canada
APCC - APEC Climate Centre
APCN - APEC Climate Network
APEC - Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation forum
APF - Agricultural Policy Framework
APP - Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate
CBD - Convention on Biological Diversity
CCME - Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment
CDIA - Canadian direct investment abroad
CEAA - Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency
CEPA - Canadian Environmental Protection Act
CGE - Computable general equilibrium
CKFTA - Canada-Korea Free Trade Agreement
DFAIT - Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada
EA - Environmental assessment
ECA - Environmental cooperation agreement
ECM - Environmentally conscious manufacturing
EG - Ethylene glycol
EIHWR - Export and Import of Hazardous Wastes Regulations
FDI - Foreign direct investment
FTA - Free trade agreement
GATS - General Agreement on Trade in Services
GATT - General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GDP - Gross domestic product
GHG - Greenhouse gas
GNI - Gross national income
GTAP - Global trade analysis project
ICT - Information and communications technology
KMA - Korean Meteorological Administration
KNOC - Korea National Oil Corporation
MFN - Most favoured nation
MOU - Memorandum of understanding
MSC - Meteorological Service Canada
NGO - Non-governmental organization
PFRA - Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration
SME - Small and medium-sized enterprise
SPS - Sanitary and phytosanitary measures
WTO - World Trade Organization

14. Not elsewhere specified or included.

15. Electronic copies of the actual legislation can be obtained online at (federal) and (provincial/territorial).

16. This has replaced the Atomic Energy Control Act.