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Minister of International Development - Briefing book

July 2023
Published: October 19th, 2023

Table of contents

A. Key portfolio responsibilities

Strategic overview



As Minister of International Development, you have the lead responsibility for delivering Canada’s international development assistance in a department that brings together Canada’s foreign policy, trade and international assistance capabilities in an integrated way under the rubric of Canada’s Feminist Foreign Policy. You will be focused on implementing the Feminist International Assistance Policy so that Canada’s international assistance fosters sustainable development and poverty reduction in developing countries. You are also accountable for Canada’s response to humanitarian crises.

Canadian international assistance is guided by the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, a landmark global agreement centred around 17 Sustainable Development Goals. 2023 is the halfway point of the 2030 Agenda, and a Leader-level summit is scheduled to take place this fall in New York to take stock of progress made and assess required adjustments to achieving the Goals.

The majority of Canadian international assistance is composed of Official Development Assistance (ODA) and is subject to Canada’s Official Development Assistance Accountability Act (2008). This Act requires Canadian aid to support poverty reduction efforts, respond to the perspectives of the poor and align with international human rights standards.

International assistance enables Canada to effect long-term, transformative change in countries that qualify for development assistance due to their low GDP per capita. Canada has been an active and engaged international donor since the 1950s. Our contributions over the past decades have extended life expectancy, reduced poverty, increased gender equality, improved health and education outcomes, built better government systems, and strengthened developing countries’ resilience to external shocks.

Canada’s international assistance programming includes initiatives to advance peace, security and governance that requires close collaboration with the Minister of Foreign Affairs. Canada’s international assistance also complements the work of the Minister of International Trade, by strengthening and stabilizing the economies of low and middle-income countries, creating opportunities for mutually beneficial trading partnerships and contributing to wider sharing of trade benefits.

Canada's international assistance

In June 2017, Canada adopted a Feminist International Assistance Policy, which guides Canada’s delivery of its international assistance. The Policy seeks to eradicate poverty and emphasizes that promoting gender equality and empowering women and girls is the most effective way to build a more peaceful, inclusive and prosperous world (see brief on the Feminist International Assistance Policy for details).

Canada works with governments, civil society organizations, international organizations and private sector entities to implement its international assistance. Your regular engagement with local, international and Canadian civil society organizations will provide opportunities both to shape the international development agenda and advance Canada’s international assistance and foreign policy priorities.

Canada engages through its international assistance with emerging economies in Asia, Africa, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean. Canada disbursed $7.9 billion dollars in 2021-2022 to meet global needs through diverse channels and partners. For the past few years, Canada’s assistance has been driven by several targets and commitments, all stemming from the Feminist International Assistance Policy:

Important progress has been achieved towards meeting the targets. For example, the department surpassed the 95% gender equality target (combined targeted and integrated gender equality programming) in 2021-22, reaching 99%, and this target has been met multiple times. At present, Canada is shifting to a more responsive partnership model where programs are tailored to respond to specific needs and opportunities in partner countries with a push toward locally led development.

In addition to focusing on reducing poverty in developing countries, Canada’s international assistance contributes to protecting “global public goods” (such as reducing carbon emissions, improving food security and addressing health emergencies) that have long-term benefits for Canadians. International assistance is an important tool, helping to strengthen Canada’s relations with bilateral partners and facilitating collaboration with stakeholders in key multilateral forums such as the UN system, G7/G20, the Commonwealth and La Francophonie.

With a focus on gender equality and women’s empowerment, Canada’s international assistance supports global health, including sexual and reproductive health and rights and nutrition; education and skills training; promotes inclusive governance and human rights; improves food systems; and addresses environmental, biodiversity, and climate change issues. Canada is also recognized for its leadership and commitment to women, peace and security.

In 2019, Canada committed to increase its funding for global health and sexual reproductive health and rights, including nutrition around the world to $1.4 billion annually for 10 years up to 2030. It also publicly recognized that urgent action is needed to address the interconnected crises of climate change and biodiversity loss, which disproportionally affect the poorest and most vulnerable, and doubled its international climate finance commitment from $2.65 billion to $5.3 billion over 5 years from 2021-2026, to support developing countries’ transition to low-carbon, climate-resilient, nature-positive, and inclusive sustainable development. In line with the Feminist International Assistance Policy, at least 80% of climate finance projects will integrate gender equality considerations, in recognition that women and girls are powerful agents of change.

In addition to investments in long-term sustainable development, Canada is a significant contributor to global humanitarian action. Canada is seen as an engaged and constructive partner in the international humanitarian system and has played a role in developing key international agreements to strengthen the global humanitarian response to crisis, including the “Grand Bargain” (an agreement between the biggest donors and aid organizations that aims to get more means into the hands of people in need) and the Global Compact on Refugees. Canada was the 5th largest humanitarian donor in 2022, providing more than $1 billion in humanitarian assistance – including $400 million to respond to Sub-Saharan Africa, $277 million to Ukraine, and over $143 million to Afghanistan and the region. Canada’s contributions also helped provide humanitarian assistance and protection to more than 100 million refugees and internally displaced persons through the UN Refugee Agency.

Parts of the Middle East, Africa, and Asia have endured protracted armed conflict resulting in significant humanitarian crises and displacement of populations. These conflicts strain international assistance efforts as humanitarian organizations face challenges accessing affected areas and providing aid to vulnerable communities. Fragility, conflict and instability in Afghanistan, Haiti, Ethiopia and Sudan have highlighted that international development assistance efforts on their own are insufficient to achieve stability, peace and prosperity. Development efforts must be well-coordinated with humanitarian assistance and peacebuilding activities through a “triple nexus” approach to stabilize fragile and conflict-affected states, build resilience, and safeguard development gains over time.

The evolving global development landscape

In addition to traditional donors and private sector and philanthropic actors, emerging donors are challenging how international assistance is delivered. Countries such as China, Brazil and India are bringing their own perspectives and approaches that are not always aligned with Canada’s values and interests. This increasingly dynamic landscape presents challenges, but also occasionally opportunities to continue to evolve our engagement and forge common ground with a broader spectrum of development partners.

China’s extensive outreach via the Belt and Road Initiative, Global Development Initiative, and Global Security Initiative have made it a welcome economic partner for many states. In particular, China has developed a strong track record over the past decade in responding to the infrastructure priorities (including digital) of developing countries. That said, there has been criticism that these projects have exacerbated corruption in already corrupt places and added significantly to the debt burden of developing countries. Canada and likeminded donors have been slower to respond, partly because our tools are less well adapted for this purpose. However, new initiatives such as the EU’s Global Gateway and the G7 Partnership for Infrastructure and Investment (PGII) aim to address this imbalance and narrow the infrastructure investment gap in low- and middle-income countries. Through the PGII, for example, the G7 aims to collectively mobilize US$600 billion in public and private investments with a focus on quality infrastructure over the next five years (2022-2027).

To respond to new and emerging partner needs, Canada’s international assistance is increasingly focused on responding to needs in health, climate, education, and food security. On-going policy work is reinforcing Canada’s capacity for strategic planning, feminist approaches to aid delivery, and locally led development while integrating broader Government of Canada priorities such as reconciliation and decolonization.

Canada delivers its international assistance in line with internationally agreed development effectiveness principles. Several new mechanisms have been created in recent years, including Canada’s development finance institution, FinDev Canada, and two new mechanisms that use blended finance and repayable contributions to mobilize and leverage private sector investments in sustainable development (the International Assistance Innovation Program and Sovereign Loans Program).

The UN estimates that developing countries face a $4 trillion annual Sustainable Development Goal investment gap, up from $2.5 trillion in 2015 when the 2030 Agenda was adopted. ODA alone is nowhere near enough to fill this gap, meaning that funding will need to be mobilized from all public and private sources in addition to reforming the international financial architecture to gain efficiencies.

Canada recognizes that reforms to the multilateral system and ODA modernization are also needed to respond to calls for greater inclusiveness, and a stronger voice for the Global South – including reforms to international financial institutions and the UN Security Council. Failure to respond to developing countries’ priorities at scale could fuel growing global resentment and contribute to an increasingly fractured global community that undermines efforts for collective action on a range of priority issues for Canada.

In the face of evolving global challenges, Canada is updating and strengthening its capacity to engage globally through the implementation of the Future of Diplomacy initiative launched in May 2023. Canada is also moving forward with a 5-year Grants and Contributions Transformation initiative from 2023 to 2028. This transformation will minimize the administrative burden on partner organizations by building modern client relationship management systems that are more efficient, transparent, and responsive.


Canada’s international assistance is critical to advancing Canadian interests, priorities, and influence abroad, while improving the lives of the poor and most marginalized in developing countries. The overarching goals of international assistance align with Canadian values such as respect for the rule of law, democratic governance, human rights, diversity and inclusion, economic security and environmental sustainability. Canadians expect that their government will defend these values both at home and internationally, and generally agree that supporting the poorest and most marginalized is the right thing to do.

Canada’s experience demonstrates the value-for-money of international assistance in terms of development impact and influence on the global stage. International assistance enables Canada to engage and support a wide range of partners in ways that complement trade and diplomatic assets, build trust, respect and collaboration with country partners on a variety of foreign policy issues, that result in strategic gains for Canada internationally, while at the same time promotes a more equitable, safer and prosperous world for all.

Key portfolio responsibilities



International assistance is a key part of how Canada engages in the world and is an essential element of our Global Affairs toolkit. As Minister of International Development, your role is to lead on overseeing Canada’s development and humanitarian assistance investments, as part of a wider team of ministers focused on Canada’s role and influence in a dynamic global context.

With continued growth in funding for long-term international development, Canada has maintained its focus on key commitments such as climate, global health, gender equality, and innovative finance. Global Affairs Canada’s baseline development and humanitarian resources – which excludes time-limited and exceptional resources for the COVID-19 pandemic and Ukraine – have been on an upward trend since 2018-19, rising from $3.66 billion to $4.84 billion in 2023-24, with Canada’s International Assistance Envelope is projected to be $6.88 billion in 2023-24.Global Affairs Canada receives the majority of the International Assistance Envelope (87% in 2023-24), with additional allocations to the Department of Finance, the International Development Research Centre, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Public Safety, and Natural Resources Canada.

Supported by the Deputy Minister of International Development, your key responsibilities include:

You will work with ministers, deputy ministers and other senior officials across the department to implement Canada’s Feminist International Assistance Policy and promote Canadian values including democracy and inclusion, development effectiveness and innovation as well as actively engage with Canadian, international, regional and local stakeholders.

You will also work with other Cabinet colleagues to advance joint portfolio responsibilities, such as the Minister of Families, Children and Social Development on implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the Minister of Finance on international financial institutions (IFIs), the Minister of Environment and Climate Change on international climate action, and the Minister for Women and Gender Equality and Youth and the Minister of Foreign Affairs to expand Canada’s efforts to advance gender equality abroad.

You will also interact with Canada’s international assistance partners in developing countries and meet with government officials, members of the development community, civil society organizations and private sector stakeholders. At home, you will play a lead role in engaging Canadians on global issues and in mobilizing their participation in international development initiatives.

International Assistance Envelope

The IAE is the Government of Canada’s dedicated pool of resources and main budget planning tool to support international assistance objectives. The IAE funds most of Canada’s official development assistance (ODA) and non-combat security and stabilization activities in support of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

As per its Cabinet-approved management framework, the IAE is co-managed by the Ministers of Foreign Affairs, International Development and Finance. Alongside your colleagues, you will exercise a leadership role in developing consensus on policy direction for the IAE in consultation with central agencies. IAE ministers have specific spending authorities that are related to the IAE pools for which they/you are responsible.

Programming Responsibilities

As Minister of International Development, you will play an important role in guiding the allocation of Canada’s international assistance funding for programs and specific initiatives, based on Cabinet decisions and government priorities.

Global Affairs Canada follows a rigorous due diligence assessment process when preparing projects that includes a Gender-Based Analysis Plus assessment and ensures they are in line with the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act (2008). The ODAAA requires that, with the exception of humanitarian assistance, projects contribute to poverty reduction, take into account the perspectives of the poor, and are consistent with international human rights standards. Projects must also be in line with the Impact Assessment Act (2019) and the Cabinet Directive on Strategic Environmental Assessments to ensure they protect the environment and do not result in adverse environmental effects.

Governorship of development banks

The Minister of International Development is Canada’s governor to the:

These regional IFIs have been established to support international cooperation and help manage the global financial system, in particular innovative finance. For other IFIs like the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), the Minister of Finance is the Canadian governor.

IFI programs and projects aim to reduce poverty, support sustainable economic and social development, and promote regional cooperation and integration, through loans to middle-income countries and concessional loans and grants to the poorest countries, including fragile states.

As a governor, you are responsible for Canada’s oversight and overall governance of these institutions, including their strategic policy direction, accountability, institutional effectiveness, and financial and programming decisions. Executive directors represent Canada on the boards of directors of these institutions, which are responsible for overseeing their general operations.

International Development Research Centre

The IDRC is a Crown corporation established by an act of Canada’s Parliament in 1970 (the IDRC Act) with a mandate “to initiate, encourage, support and conduct research into the problems of the developing regions of the world and into the means for applying and adapting scientific, technical and other knowledge to the economic and social advancement of those regions,” with gender equality as a cross-cutting theme.

IDRC is governed by a board of up to 14 governors, whose chairperson reports to Parliament through the Minister of International Development. As per the IDRC Act, you receive the Auditor General’s annual audit report of IDRC, which you then table in Parliament, as part of the centre’s annual report. You are also responsible for tabling the annual report on IDRC’s administration of the Access to Information Act and the Privacy Act and making recommendations on Board of Governors appointments to the Governor-in-Council.

FinDev Canada

Canada’s Development Finance Institution (FinDev Canada), launched in February 2018, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Export Development Canada (EDC). FinDev Canada expands Canada’s development finance toolkit by investing in the private sector in developing countries using a gender lens approach to promote economic growth and reduce poverty. Addressing and mitigating the impacts of climate change is also a key priority.

As of April 2023, FinDev Canada has signed commitments for 39 investments worth over US$768 million (approximately Can$1 billion). Starting in 2023-24, FinDev Canada will receive a $300 million recapitalization over 3 years as announced in Budget 2021. In November 2022, Canada launched its Indo-Pacific Strategy and announced an additional $750 million in capital for FinDev Canada. These capital increases are to be funded from EDC retained earnings.

As per the Export Development Act, the Minister of International Trade is accountable for EDC, but works in consultation with the Minister of International Development on matters related to FinDev Canada’s mandate. As such, you will review and provide advice on FinDev’s strategic priorities, corporate planning and annual reporting, and legislative and regulatory matters.

Ministerial high-level events

August 2023

Other events for the year

September 2023

PM level events

Global Affairs Canada ministers may be asked to participate in the events with the Prime Minister

B. The department

The department at a glance



What We Do

Global Affairs Canada manages Canada’s relations with foreign governments and international organizations, engaging and influencing international players to advance Canadians’ security, and prosperity. It advances a coherent approach to Canada’s political (i.e., diplomatic), trade and international assistance goals. The department’s work is focused on five core responsibilities:

  1. International advocacy and diplomacy: promote Canada’s interests and values through policy development, diplomacy, advocacy and engagement with diverse stakeholders. This includes building and maintaining constructive bilateral and multilateral relationships to Canada’s advantage; taking diplomatic leadership on select global issues and negotiations; and supporting efforts to build strong international institutions and respect for international law, including through the judicious use of sanctions.
  2. Trade and investment: support increased trade and investment to raise the standard of living for all Canadians. This includes building and safeguarding an open and inclusive rules‑based global trading system; support for Canadian exporters and innovators in their international business development efforts; negotiation of bilateral, plurilateral and multilateral trade agreements; administration of export and import controls; management of international trade disputes; facilitation and expansion of foreign direct investment; and support to international innovation, science and technology.
  3. Development, humanitarian assistance, peace and security programming: contribute to reducing poverty and increasing opportunity for people around the world. This includes alleviating suffering in humanitarian crises; reinforcing opportunities for inclusive, sustainable and equitable economic growth; promoting gender equality and women’s empowerment; improving health and education outcomes; and bolstering peace and security through programs that counter violent extremism and terrorism, support anti-crime capacity building, peace operations and conflict management.
  4. Help for Canadians abroad: provide timely and appropriate travel information and consular services for Canadians abroad, contributing to their safety and security. This includes visits to places of detention; deployment of staff to evacuate Canadians in crisis situations; and provision of emergency documentation.
  5. Support for Canada’s presence abroad: deliver resources, infrastructure and services to enable a whole-of-government and whole-of-Canada presence abroad. This includes the management of our missions abroad and the implementation of a major duty of care initiative to ensure the protection of Government of Canada personnel, overseas infrastructure and information.

Legal responsibilities

The department is the principal source of advice on public international law as well as international trade and investment law for the Government of Canada. Global Affairs Canada lawyers advise the Government on its international legal obligations, on the negotiation and interpretation of treaties, and advocate in international litigation. In addition, Department of Justice lawyers provide legal services to the department with respect to domestic law issues, including on litigation and regulations.


The department has approximately 13,900 active employees; 8,300 of them are Canada‑based staff (CBS), serving either in Canada or at our missions abroadFootnote 1. The remaining 5,600 employees are locally engaged staff (LES), usually foreign citizens hired in their own countries to provide support services at our missions. Approximately, 56% of CBS are women (compared to 59% of LES) and 61% of the CBS population has English as their first official language (39% French).

Global Affairs Canada staff work in some of the most difficult places on earth, including in active conflict zones. The Canada-based workforce includes a cadre of rotational employees (about 26% of the workforce) which supports delivery of the department’s mandate through assignments typically ranging between 2 to 4-year periods, alternating between missions abroad and headquarters or Canadian regional offices. Heads of mission are responsible for Canada’s “whole of government” engagement in their countries of accreditation and for the supervision of all federal programs present at mission. This important work would not be possible without the contribution of the traditional workforce (about 74% of the workforce) located at headquarters, providing policy direction, guidance, tools and internal services support to deliver on the department’s mandate.


The department’s total funding requested in the 2023-24 Main Estimates was $7.6 billion. This amount includes:

The budget distribution by core responsibility of the department in the 2023-24 Main Estimates was reported as follows:

Text version

Chart summarizing 2023-24 planned spending by core responsibility:

International Advocacy and Diplomacy: $880 million

Trade and Investment: $352 million

Development, Peace and Security Programming: $4729 million

Help for Canadians abroad: $67 million.

Support for Canada’s presence abroad: $1256 million

Internal services: $293 million


The department’s extensive network abroad counts 178 missions in 110 countries. These range in type and status from large embassies to small representative offices and consulates. This network also supports the international work of government departments, agencies and Crown corporations, and provinces.

The department has six regional offices in Canada, notably to engage with Canadian businesses, located in Vancouver, Calgary, Winnipeg, Toronto, Montreal and Halifax.

Senior leadership and corporate governance

In support of ministers, the department’s most senior officials are the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs (USS); the Deputy Minister of International Trade (DMT); the Deputy Minister of International Development (DME); and the Associate Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs (DMA). Sixteen branches, headed by assistant deputy ministers, report to the deputy ministers and are responsible for providing integrated advice across all portfolios, ranging from geographic regions to functional and corporate issues.

The department’s corporate governance framework features specific committees for audit, evaluation, security, financial operations, corporate management, policy and programs, and diversity and inclusion.

Planning and reporting

The department’s annual planning and reporting process is structured around its Departmental Results Framework, which itself is built around the five core responsibilities outlined earlier in this note.

A Departmental Plan then provides an overview of policy priorities, planned results and associated resource requirements for the coming fiscal year. The document is approved by the ministers and tabled in Parliament (usually in February/March). The plan also presents the performance targets against which the department will report results at the end of the fiscal year through a Departmental Results Report, tabled in Parliament in the fall.

Deputy ministers

Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, David Morrison

David Morrison

On October 12, 2022, the Prime Minister appointed David Morrison as Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs.

Prior to this, David’s roles included Deputy Minister of International Trade and Foreign and Defence Policy Advisor to the Prime Minister. He has also been the Personal Representative of the Prime Minister for the G7 Summit.

Previously at Global Affairs Canada, David held the positions of Associate Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2017 to 2018 and Assistant Deputy Minister (Americas) from 2013 to 2017. In 2012-2013, he was Senior Vice-President at the Canadian International Development Agency.

David also served as the Executive Secretary of United Nations Capital Development Fund, from 2008 to 2012, and Spokesperson and Director of Communications at the United Nations Development Programme, from 2004 to 2008. He was also Founding President of NetAid, a partnership between the UN and Cisco Systems to use the Internet to fight global poverty, from 2000 to 2004.

David began his career with the UN Development Programme in North Korea in the late 1980s. He served as a political officer at the Canadian Embassy in Havana from 1991 to 1994, and as a Director and Member of the Executive Board at the World Economic Forum in Geneva from 1995 to 1999, where he was responsible for the program of the annual summit in Davos.

David holds a Master’s of Philosophy in international relations, from the University of Oxford, and a Bachelor of Arts in history from Yale University.

Deputy Minister of International Trade, Rob Stewart

Rob Stewart

Rob Stewart was appointed deputy minister of international trade effective October 17, 2022.

Prior to his appointment, Mr. Stewart served as deputy minister of public safety for 3 years. During this time, he provided leadership on a variety of issues related to national security, community safety and countering crime, Indigenous policing, firearms, border security and emergency management, including requests for federal assistance related to the pandemic and major natural disasters.

Mr. Stewart has spent most of his public service career at the Department of Finance Canada, starting in 1993. He held the role of the Government of Canada's finance deputy for the G7 and G20 and for the Financial Stability Board from 2016 to 2019. He provided leadership and policy advice to the government on a wide range of financial sector and international trade and finance matters. He was previously the assistant deputy minister of financial sector policy for 2 years, prior to which he held the position of assistant deputy minister, international trade and finance for 4 years. Before joining the Department of Finance Canada, Rob worked at Export Development Canada and in the Canadian sport system.

He holds a BA from Carleton University (1981) and an MBA from the University of Ottawa (1987).

Deputy Minister of International Development, Christopher MacLennan

Christopher MacLennan

Since January 2022, Christopher MacLennan has been deputy minister of international development where he leads on the international assistance and humanitarian response mandate of the Government of Canada. He is also the personal representative of the prime minister for the G20 Summit, a position he has occupied since 2020.

Prior to his current role, Mr. MacLennan was the associate deputy minister of foreign affairs where he supported the Deputy Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs. Previously, as assistant deputy minister (ADM) at Global Affairs Canada, Mr. MacLennan led Canada’s international development assistance efforts through multilateral and global partners, humanitarian assistance and priority foreign policy relationships with the United Nations, the Commonwealth and La Francophonie. In addition to this role, he served concurrently as Canada’s G7 foreign affairs sous-sherpa.

Mr. MacLennan has also served in a number of roles in Canada’s Privy Council Office (Cabinet Office) including acting Assistant Secretary for priorities and planning and ADM of policy innovation. Before this, Mr. MacLennan occupied numerous executive roles in the former Canadian International Development Agency, focusing largely on global health, democratic governance and food security.

Mr. MacLennan holds a Ph.D. from Western University specializing in constitutional development and international human rights. From 2012 to 2013, he was Fulbright Visiting Scholar at Stanford University’s Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law. Mr. MacLennan has written numerous publications, including Toward the Charter: Canadians and the Demand for a National Bill of Rights, 1929–1960.

Associate Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs and G7 Sherpa, Cindy Termorshuizen

Cindy Termorshuizen

On January 5, 2022, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau appointed Cynthia (Cindy) Termorshuizen as associate deputy minister of foreign affairs. Since May 31, 2023, she serves concurrently as Personal Representative of the Prime Minister (Sherpa) for the G7 Summit.

From October 2020 to January 2022, Ms. Termorshuizen was assistant deputy minister, consular, security and emergency management, at Global Affairs Canada.

Ms. Termorshuizen previously served in a range of roles at Global Affairs Canada, including director general, international security policy; deputy head of mission at the Embassy of Canada to China; and deputy head of mission at the Embassy of Canada to Afghanistan.

Ms. Termorshuizen also held a number of positions earlier in her career at the Privy Council Office and the Department of National Defence.

Ms. Termorshuizen holds a Master of Arts, Political Science, from Carleton University and a Bachelor of Arts, International Development and French, from the University of Guelph.

Organizational structure

Text version

Global Affairs Canada Executive (EX) Organizational Structure:

Level 1 – Deputy Ministers and Coordinator

Deputy Minister of International Development – Christopher MacLennan (DME)

Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs – David Morrison (USS)

Associate Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs – Cindy Termorshuizen (DMA)

Deputy Minister of International Trade – Rob Stewart (DMT)

Level 2 – Assistant Deputy Ministers and Directors General

Reports to the Deputy Minister of International Development:

Chief Economist – M.F. Paquet (XED)

Reports to all Deputy Ministers:

Senior ADM People and International Platform – Stéphane Cousineau (DMPP)

Assistant Deputy Minister Corporate Planning, Finance and IT (Chief Financial Officer) – Shirley Carruthers (SCM)

Assistant Deputy Minister Public Affairs – Stéphane Levesque (LCM)

Assistant Deputy Minister Strategic Policy – Catherine Jobin (A) (PFM)

Assistant Deputy Minister Global Issues and Development – Peter MacDougall (MFM)

Assistant Deputy Minister International Security and Political Affairs (Political Director) – Heidi Hulan (IFM)

Assistant Deputy Minister Partnership for Development Innovation – Patricia Pena (KFM)

Assistant Deputy Minister International Business Development and Chief Trade Commissioner – Sara Wilshaw (BFM)

Assistant Deputy Minister Trade Policy and Negotiations and Chief Trade Negotiator NAFTA – Bruce Christie (TFM)

Assistant Deputy Minister Consular, Security and Emergency Management (Chief Security Officer) – Julie Sunday (CFM)

Legal Advisor – Alan Kessel (JFM) – Special Deployment Position

Assistant Deputy Minister Sub-Saharan Africa – Cheryl Urban (A) (WGM)

Assistant Deputy Minister Europe, Arctic, Middle East and Maghreb – Alexandre Lévêque (EGM)

Assistant Deputy Minister Americas – Glen Linder (A) (NGM)

Assistant Deputy Minister Asia Pacific – Weldon Epp (A) (OGM)

Executive Director and General Counsel – P. Hill (JUS)

Chief Audit Executive – N. Lalonde (VBD)

DG Umbud Workplace well-Being and Inspector General – A. Rekhi (ZID)

Corporate Secretary and Director General – C. Calvert (DCD)

Chief of Protocol and PM Sherpa for the Francophonie – S. Carrière (A) (XDD)

Ambassador for Women, Peace and Security – J. O’Neill (WPSA)

ADM, Chief Transformation Officer – Antoine Chevrier (DFMT)

Reports to the Senior ADM People and International Platform:

Associate ADM, Real Property and Infrastructure – R. Dubeau (A) (ACM)

Associate ADM, People and Talent Management – Vera Alexander (A) (HCM)

Level 3 – Directors General

Reports to the Associate ADM People and Talent Management

Corporate Strategies and Operational Services – M. P. Jackson (HSD)

Assignments and Executive Management – J.P. Lemieux (A) (HFD)

Workplace Relations and Corporate Healthcare – C. Houde (HWD)

Canadian Foreign Service Institute – S. Jobin (CFSI)

Foreign Service Directives – M. Cameron (A) (HED)

Locally Engaged Staff – P. Lundy (HLD)

Reports to the Associate ADM Real Property and Infrastructure

Client Relations and Mission Operations – L. Almond (AFD)

Planning and Stewardship – F. Hounzangbé (ARD)

Platform Corporate Services – A. Jane (AAD)

Project Delivery, Professional and Technical Services – D. Stewart (A) (AWD)

Reports to the Assistant Deputy Minister Corporate Planning, Finance and IT (Chief Financial Officer)

Financial Planning and Management – A. Boyer (SWD)

Financial Operations and Systems – S. Lamoureux (A) (SMD)

Grants and Contributions Management – S. Bainsbridge (SGD)

Information Management and Technology (CIO) – J.P. Donoghue (SID)

Corporate Procurement, Asset Management and National Accommodation – D. Pilon (SPD)

Corporate Planning, Performance and Risk Management – L. Smallwood (SRD)

Senior IM/IT Project Executive – R. Dussault (SED)

Reports to the Assistant Deputy Minister Public Affairs

Development Communications – R. Perreault (LCA)

Public Affairs – M.E. Rancourt (LCD)

Corporate and E Communications – C. Brisebois (LDD)

Trade Communications – V. Samaan (A) (LCC)

Reports to the Assistant Deputy Minister Strategic Policy

Evaluation and Results – N. Ahmad (PRD)

Foreign Policy – Vacant (POD)

International Assistance Policy – A. Smith (PVD)

International Economic Policy – M. J. Langois (PED)

Reports to the Assistant Deputy Minister Global Issues and Development

International Humanitarian Assistance – S. Salewicz (MHD)

Economic Development – M. Tabi (MED)

Food Security and Environment – B. Curran (MSD)

Health and Nutrition – J.B. Parenteau (MND)

Social Development – L. Holt (MGD)

International Organizations – E. Furuya (A) (MID)

Innovative and Climate Finance Bureau – C. Do (MLD)

Reports to the Assistant Deputy Minister International Security and Political Affairs (Political Director)

International Security Policy – A. Grant (IGD)

Peace and Stabilization Operations Program – U. Shannon (A) (IRD)

Intelligence and Chief Intelligence Officer – [REDACTED] (IND)

Human Rights, Freedom and Inclusion – T. Denham (IOD)

International Crime and Counter-Terrorism – J. Loten (ICD)

Reports to the Assistant Deputy Minister Partnership for Development Innovation

Engaging Canadians – J. Parsons (A) (KED)

Inclusive Growth, Governance and Innovation Partnerships – M. Montrat (KGD)

Canadian Partnership for Health and Social Development – M. Paradis (KSD)

Program Executive – B. Lee (KFMT)

International Assistance Operations – M. Cain (A) (DPD)

Reports to the Assistant Deputy Minister International Business Development and Chief Trade Commissioner

Trade Portfolio Strategy and Coordination – D. Hutchinson (BPD)

Trade Commissioner Service - Operations – S. Goodinson (A) (BTD)

Trade Sectors – J. Reeves (A) (BBD)

Investment, Innovation and Education – N. Dubé (BID)

Regional Trade Operations and Intergovernmental Relations – F. Rivest (BSD)

Reports to the Assistant Deputy Minister Trade Policy and Negotiations and Chief Trade Negotiator NAFTA

Associate Assistant Deputy Minister, Trade Policy and Negotiations – A. Fowler (TFMA)

Trade Negotiations – J. Allen (TCD)

North America, Trade Policy and Negotiations – A. Renart (TND)

Market Access – D. Forsyth (TPD)

Chief Air Negotiator and Director General for Services, Intellectual Property and Investment – M. Shendra (TMD)

Trade and Exports Control – S. Anand (TID)

Reports to the Assistant Deputy Minister Consular, Security and Emergency Management

Consular Policy – A. Mackenzie (A) (CPD)

Consular Operations – V. Fuller (A) (CND)

Security and Emergency Management (Departmental Security Officer) – S. Beaulieu (A) (CSD)

Security & Emergency Management Strategy and Policy – K. Rex (CED)

Reports to the Legal Adviser

Trade Law – S. Spelliscy (JLT)

Legal Affairs – L.M. Aumais (JLD)

Reports to the Assistant Deputy Minister Sub-Saharan Africa

West and Central Africa – M. Lebleu (WWD)

Southern and Eastern Africa – C. Delany (A) (WED)

Pan-Africa – S. Steffen (WFD)

Reports to the Assistant Deputy Minister Europe, Arctic, Middle East and Maghreb

European Affairs – M. Bonser (EUD)

Middle East – J. Dutton (ESD)

Maghreb, Egypt, Israel and West Bank and Gaza – A. Flanagan Whalen (ELD)

Senior Arctic Official and Director General, Polar, Eurasia and European Affairs – R. Sinclair (ECD)

Reports to the Assistant Deputy Minister Americas

North America Strategy – M. Allen (A) (NGD)

South America and Inter-American Affairs – J. Tolland (A) (NLD)

Central America and Caribbean – S. Bédard (NDD)

Geographic Coordination and Mission Support – S. Thissen (NMD)

Reports to the Assistant Deputy Minister Asia Pacific

Southeast Asia – A. Bowman (A) (OSD)

North Asia and Oceania – J. Donnelly (A) (OPD)

South Asia – M.L. Hannan (A) (OAD)

Level 4 – Outside of Main Organizational Structure

Canadian Ombudsperson for Responsible Enterprise – S. Meyerhoffer (CORE)

Source of information: Human resources Management System (HRMS)

In some cases, adjustments have been made by HFR to reflect the most current employee or positional information

Link to Global Affairs Canada Corporate Governance Structure

Network map

Text version

Missions / Points of Service by Geographic Portfolio and Category

Europe & Middle-East



Abu Dhabi

The Embassy of Canada to the United Arab Emirates


The Embassy of Canada to Algeria


The Embassy of Canada to Jordan


The Embassy of Canada to Turkey


The Embassy of Canada to Kazakhstan


The Embassy of Canada to Greece


The Embassy of Canada to Iraq


The Embassy of Canada to Lebanon


The Embassy of Canada to the Republic of Serbia


The Embassy of Canada to Germany


The Embassy of Canada to Switzerland


The Embassy of Canada to Belgium


The Embassy of Canada to Romania


The Embassy of Canada to Hungary


The Embassy of Canada to Egypt


The Embassy of Canada, Copenhagen, Denmark


The Embassy of Canada to Syria


The Embassy of Canada to Qatar


The Embassy of Canada, Dublin, Ireland

Hague, The

The Embassy of Canada to the Netherlands


The Embassy of Canada to Finland

Kuwait City

The Embassy of Canada to Kuwait


The Embassy of Canada to Ukraine


The Embassy of Canada to Portugal


The Embassy of Canada to Spain


The Embassy of Canada to Russia


The Embassy of Canada to Norway


The Embassy of Canada to France


The Embassy of Canada to the Czech Republic


The Embassy of Canada to Morocco


The Embassy of Canada to Iceland


The Embassy of Canada to Latvia


The Embassy of Canada to Saudi Arabia


The Embassy of Canada to Italy


The Embassy of Canada to Sweden

Tel Aviv

The Embassy of Canada to Israel


The Embassy of Canada to Libya


The Embassy of Canada to Tunisia

Vatican City

The Embassy of Canada to the Holy See


The Embassy of Canada to Austria


The Embassy of Canada to Poland


The Embassy of Canada to Croatia

High Commissions


The High Commission of Canada to the United Kingdom



The Office of the Embassy of Canada, Bratislava


The Office of the Embassy of Canada, Tallinn


The Office of the Embassy of Canada, Vilnius


The Consulate and Trade Office of Canada, Barcelona


The Office of the Canadian Embassy, Erbil

Representative Offices


Representative Office of Canada, Ramallah


Brussels EU

The Mission of Canada to the European Union

Brussels NATO

Canadian Joint Delegation to the North Atlantic Council

Genava UN & CD

The Permanent Mission of Canada to the Office of the United Nations and to the Conference on Disarmament

Geneva WTO

The Permanent Mission of Canada to the World Trade Organization

Paris OECD

The Permanent Delegation of Canada to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development


The Permanent Delegation of Canada to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

Vienna OSCE

Canadian delegation to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe

Vienna PERM

The Permanent Mission of Canada to the International Organizations (IAEA, CBTBO, UNODC/UNOV)

Consulates General


The Consulate General of Canada, Istanbul


The Consulate General of Canada, United Arab Emirates



The Consulate of Canada, Dusseldorf


The Consulate of Canada, Munich

Asia Pacific




The Embassy of Canada to Thailand


The Embassy of Canada to China


The Embassy of Canada to Vietnam


The Embassy of Canada to Indonesia


The Embassy of Canada to Afghanistan


The Embassy of Canada to the Philippines


The Embassy of Canada to the Republic of Korea


The Embassy of Canada to Japan


The Embassy of Canada to Mongolia


The Embassy of Canada to Burma

High Commissions

Bandar Seri Begawan

The High Commission of Canada to Brunei Darussalam


The High Commission of Canada to Australia


The High Commission of Canada to Sri Lanka


The High Commission of Canada to Bangladesh


The High Commission of Canada to Pakistan

Kuala Lumpur

The High Commission of Canada to Malaysia

New Delhi

The High Commission of Canada to India


The High Commission of Canada to Singapore


The High Commission of Canada to New Zealand


Phnom Penh (1 Sept 2015)

The Office of the Embassy of Canada, Thailand

Vientiane(1 Sept 2015)

The Office of the Embassy of Canada, Laos


The Canadian Trade Office, Ahmedabad


The Canadian Trade Office, Hyderabad


The Canadian Trade Office, Karachi


The Canadian Trade Office, Kitakyushu


The Canadian Trade Office, Kolkata


The Canadian Trade Office, Sapporo

Representative Office


The Canadian Trade Office, Taipei


ASEAN (1 August 2015)

Association of Southeast Asian Nations

Consulates General


The Consulate General of Canada, Bangalore


The Consulate General of Canada, Chandigarh


The Consulate General of Canada, Chongqing


The Consulate General of Canada, Guangzhou

Ho Chi Minh City

The Consulate General of Canada, Ho Chi Minh City

Hong Kong

The Consulate General of Canada, Hong Kong


The Consulate General of Canada, Mumbai


The Consulate General of Canada, Shanghai


The Consulate General of Canada, Sydney



The Consulate and Trade Office of Canada, Auckland


The Consulate of Canada, Chennai


The Consulate of Canada, Nagoya


MissionDesignation / Title



The Embassy of Canada to Côte d'Ivoire

Addis Ababa

The Embassy of Canada to Ethiopia


The Embassy of Canada to Mali


The Embassy of Canada to Senegal


The Embassy of Canada to Zimbabwe


The Embassy of Canada to South Sudan


The Embassy of Canada to Sudan


The Embassy of Canada to the Democratic Republic of Congo


The Embassy of Canada to Burkina Faso

High Commissions


The High Commission of Canada to Nigeria


The High Commission of Canada to Ghana

Dar es Salaam

The High Commission of Canada to Tanzania


The Deputy High Commission of Canada to Nigeria


The High Commission of Canada to Mozambique


The High Commission of Canada to Kenya


The High Commission of Canada to South Africa


The High Commission of Canada to Cameroon



Office of the Embassy of Canada to Benin


Office of the High Commission of Canada to the Republic of Rwanda


Office of the High Commission of Canada to Zambia


Trade Office of the High Commission of Canada, Johannesburg


MissionDesignation / Title



The Embassy of Canada to Colombia


The Embassy of Canada to Brazil

Buenos Aires

The Embassy of Canada to Argentina


The Embassy of Canada to the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela

Guatemala City

The Embassy of Canada to Guatemala


The Embassy of Canada to Cuba


The Embassy of Canada to Peru

Mexico City

The Embassy of Canada to Mexico, Mexico City


The Embassy of Canada to Uruguay

Panama City

The Embassy of Canada to Panama


The Embassy of Canada to Haiti


The Embassy of Canada to Ecuador

San José

The Embassy of Canada to Costa Rica

San Salvador

The Embassy of Canada to El Salvador


The Embassy of Canada to Chile

Santo Domingo

The Embassy of Canada to the Dominican Republic

Washington, DC

The Embassy of Canada to the United States of America, Washington

High Commissions


The High Commission of Canada to Barbados


The High Commission of Canada to Guyana


The High Commission of Canada to Jamaica

Port of Spain

The High Commission of Canada to Trinidad and Tobago


La Paz

Office of the Canadian Embassy, La Paz


Office of the Canadian Embassy, Managua


Office of the Embassy of Canada, Tegucigalpa

Belo Horizonte

The Canadian Trade Office, Belo Horizonte

Palo Alto (California)

The Canadian Trade Office, Palo Alto

Porto Alegre

The Canadian Trade Office, Porto Alegre


The Canadian Trade Office, Recife


New York PERM

The Permanent Mission of Canada to the United Nations

Washington OAS

The Permanent Mission of Canada to the Organization of American States

Consulates General

Atlanta (Georgia)

The Consulate General of Canada, Atlanta

Boston (Massachusetts)

The Consulate General of Canada, Boston

Chicago (Illanois)

The Consulate General of Canada, Chicago

Dallas (Texas)

The Consulate General of Canada, Dallas

Denver (Colorado)

The Consulate General of Canada, Denver

Detroit (Michigan)

The Consulate General of Canada, Detroit

Los Angeles (California)

The Consulate General of Canada, Los Angeles

Miami (Florida)

The Consulate General of Canada, Miami

Minneapolis (Minnesota)

The Consulate General of Canada, Minneapolis


The Consulate General of Canada, Monterrey

New York (New York)

The Consulate General of Canada, New York

Rio de Janeiro

The Consulate General of Canada, Rio de Janeiro

San Francisco (California)

The Consulate General of Canada, San Francisco

Sao Paulo

The Consulate General of Canada, Sao Paulo

Seattle (Washington)

The Consulate General of Canada, Seattle



The Consulate of Canada, Guadalajara

Houston (Texas)

The Consulate of Canada, Houston

Punta Cana

The Consulate of Canada, Punta Cana

San Diego (California)

The Consulate of Canada, San Diego

Consular Agencies


The Consular Agency of Canada, Acapulco


The Consular Agency of Canada, Cancun


The Consular Agency of Canada, Mazatlan

Playa del Carmen

The Consular Agency of Canada, Playa del Carmen

Puerto Vallarta

The Consular Agency of Canada, Puerto Vallarta

San José del Cabo

The Consular Agency of Canada, San José del Cabo


MissionDesignation / Title

Regional offices


The Embassy of Canada to Colombia


Alberta and Northwest Territories Regional Office of the Trade Commissioner Service (TCS)


Regional Office Atlantic


Regional Office Quebec and Nunavut


Regional Office Ontario


Regional Office Pacific


Manitoba and Saskatchewan Regional Office of the Trade Commissioner Service (TCS)

Global Affairs Canada Transformation




Phase 1 of the initiative identified 4 primary action areas to transform the department in delivering on all 4 of the department’s business lines:

  1. Build new policy expertise in areas critical to Canada’s future: new capacity to shape international debates around the climate change, energy, security and critical minerals nexus, as well as cyber and digital issues; and stronger capacity to anticipate and manage whole-of-government responses to prolonged crises (humanitarian, security, consular and diplomatic).
  2. Increase presence abroad: in key multilateral missions, where new rules are being written; in rising G20 and other strategically important countries; through non-traditional means, including virtual; and through strategic communications and digital presence.
  3. Invest in its people: revamped recruitment, training, career management; increased diversity through lateral entry and new recruitment; strengthened bilingualism and foreign-language competencies; better conditions and support for locally engaged staff; greater recognition that entire families (not just employees) are sent abroad; and greater support in times of crisis.
  4. Invest in tools, processes and departmental culture: digital, data and knowledge management fundamentals; grants and contributions modernization to deliver international assistance more efficiently and effectively; and incentives to take smart risks in order to increase innovation and efficiency.


Response to international emergencies



Political violence, armed conflict and natural hazards are a prevalent feature of the current international context. Where the intensity demands a comprehensive global response, notably if catastrophic in nature or if the impact is transnational, Canada must be ready to react and contribute.

From 2010-2019 the number of active violent conflicts in fragile contexts has increased 128%. Absent political solutions, many of these conflicts are protracted with significant social, economic and security consequences. In addition, natural disasters, which affect some 350 million people each year, are increasing in magnitude and frequency due to climate change. In 2020, this resulted in $210 billion in financial losses. This type of emergency is highly visible and requires a timely response. These events have led to a near tripling in humanitarian need over the last decade and continue to rise. The United Nations estimates that US$54.2 billion is required to provide assistance to 240 million people in need in 2023—the highest global appeal to date.

At the same time, Canadians are increasingly mobile, and are living and travelling in areas of the world where civil and political instability, or the threat of natural disasters, is prevalent. The demand for emergency consular assistance is growing, as are Canadians’ expectations.

Coordination of international crises

Canada draws on a range of tools to respond to international emergencies, including: the network of Canadian offices abroad; deployment of financial resources; or technical surge capacity and expertise as needed. In exercising its mandate to coordinate Government of Canada response to international crises, Global Affairs Canada provides a broad platform of facilities and personnel to enable a robust “all hazards” approach in preparing for, and mitigating against, impacts to Canadian interests overseas.

Global Affairs Canada monitors international incidents 24/7 to plan and prepare for international emergency response. When emergencies occur, Global Affairs Canada leads the coordination of interdepartmental task force groups and carries out cooperation with international and non-governmental entities, allies and partners.

Global Affairs Canada supports Canadians abroad through the delivery of consular services, including the provision of up-to-date travel advice and advisories for more than 230 destinations to ensure that Canadians are prepared for safe and responsible international travel. The Emergency Watch and Response Centre provides after-hours support to missions and consular clients through 24/7 operations. During a crisis, the centre may act as the first line of communication with Canadians abroad or with their families in Canada. Standing rapid deployment teams are trained and ready to deploy on short notice to provide surge capacity to the network of Canadian missions abroad.

The provision of emergency assistance, including the repatriation or evacuation of Canadians, is a function of the royal prerogative over international relations and is exercised by the Minister of Foreign Affairs pursuant to section 10 of the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Act. Pursuant to the Emergency Management Act (2007), the Department is responsible for coordinating Canada’s response to international emergency events and supporting business continuity. The Minister of International Development has an important role in responses involving humanitarian assistance programming.

In 2022 and 2023, critical emergency consular operations included:

Canada may also provide international humanitarian assistance in response to complex, protracted emergencies and natural disasters, and is among the top 10 contributors globally, providing over $985 million annually in recent years. This assistance is largely provided via humanitarian funding to experienced United Nations, Non-Governmental Organisation, and Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement partners. Humanitarian assistance represents a significant part of Canada’s total official development assistance.

In determining the level and composition of Canada’s funding in response to an emergency, the severity of the impact or crisis, the number of people affected, and the capacity of local and national authorities to respond is considered.

Canada’s humanitarian aid is people-centered, with a gender-responsive approach that is human rights-based and inclusive. It provides humanitarian assistance within a proven global system. Doing so avoids duplication of efforts, and allows for a proportional, timely, coordinated and needs-based response in line with consolidated and prioritized appeals.

Humanitarian assistance is guided by four core principles:

The application of these principles helps organizations build trust and acceptance for their activities, particularly in armed conflicts, which is critical for establishing and maintaining access to affected populations.

In the case of natural disasters, Canada’s response to support the affected population is civilian-led, coordinated, needs-based, and provided upon request from the affected nation(s). A well-established, whole-of-government approach exists to respond to natural disasters abroad.

Depending on the scale of the disaster, Canada may need to deploy additional or targeted assistance beyond financial assistance to experienced partners.

Canada’s tool kit supports:

For example, in response to the recent earthquakes in Syria and Türkiye (February 2023), Canada provided $50 million to support humanitarian relief efforts. This included financial support to humanitarian partners’ response efforts, as well as the deployment of experts and health and relief supplies. In addition, matching funds were launched with the Canadian Red Cross and the Humanitarian Coalition to increase public engagement and to support Non-Governmental Organisation fundraising efforts. The Canadian Armed Forces also worked with NATO to provide required strategic airlift assistance. This comprehensive response was informed by the Canadian Disaster Assessment Team which was deployed following the earthquakes.

Following large-scale natural disasters, as a last resort when the ability to respond exceeds civilian capacity, the Canadian Armed Forces’ unique capabilities such as the Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) may also be engaged. Since 1998, Canada has sent the Disaster Assistance Response Team to help when natural disasters and crises have struck other countries and when local responders are overwhelmed.

Disaster Assistance Response Team deployments include:

Beyond operational responses, Canada is actively engaged at the global level in multilateral and multi-stakeholder forums to enhance the effectiveness of the international humanitarian assistance system. Canada works to safeguard humanitarian access and uphold international humanitarian law through multilateral and country-level diplomatic engagement and advocacy, and has also helped establish international norms and standards on the protection of civilians.

C. Policy overview

Global Trends



The world is going through a moment of profound change. Three key geostrategic trends are impacting Canada’s international engagement. First, there is continued sharpening of great power competition, with an increasing security element. Second, authoritarianism and reactionary populism are powerful forces on the international scene, as the world sees deliberate action to roll back progress on human rights and gender equality. Third, the social and economic impacts of multiple international crises are driving demands from emerging and developing states for greater voice and more extensive reform of multilateral institutions and global power relations. Beyond these 3 trends, 2 cross-cutting factors are influencing the conduct of international relations. First, in many countries, efforts to address the climate crisis and conduct energy transitions have become central to all aspects of economic and national security policy. Second, technology, and those who develop and deploy it, is affecting the conduct of international affairs.

In addition to the devastating impact on Ukraine, Russia’s invasion caused volatility in commodity prices, threatened global food security, disrupted supply chains and roiled global markets. The invasion has brought change in European foreign and defence policies, as states review defence spending, arms export controls, energy security, and relationships with Russia and NATO.

In parallel, competition between China and the United States has sharpened. While much trade continues, the United States and China are seeking some strategic decoupling, especially in advanced technology, putting the world on a path towards less digital and technological interoperability.

China is a systemic actor in some areas, including technology, space, climate and energy, and a “spoiler” in other areas, such as human rights and democracy. At the same time, China faces demographic decline, slowing economic growth, reliance on economic and technological ties with key competitors, and reliance on repression to ensure domestic control.

The U.S.-China rivalry has increased pressure on third countries to align on key issues. Many emerging and developing states, including influential ones like India, Brazil, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Indonesia, and Turkey, however, seek to hedge relationships and maintain multi-vector foreign policies.

These competition dynamics hinder multilateral action on regional security challenges. This is taking place against the backdrop of protracted crises in Syria, Libya, Ethiopia, Yemen, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Lebanon, Venezuela, Iraq, Afghanistan, Haiti, Sudan and the Sahel, destroy lives and livelihoods, with regional and international implications. Canada’s consular system has been affected by major stresses from complex, overlapping and long-lasting emergencies (for instance, PS752, COVID, Lebanon, Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Sudan, Ukraine), highlighting its complexity and importance.

More peaceful regions and issues are also vulnerable to increased contestation, including the Arctic, which is changing rapidly due to climate change and technology. Cyberspace is also an increasingly active domain for geopolitical rivalry, with a proliferation of state-sponsored cyber activities, including sophisticated disinformation campaigns and industrial espionage.

Geopolitical competition is also affecting the economy. While global trade and foreign direct investment remained strong in 2022, many states are reviewing their risk exposure and the resilience of key supply chains (for instance, ally-shoring), notably for energy, critical minerals, bio-manufacturing (pharmaceuticals, vaccines), food and high-tech services and products such as semi-conductors. The multilateral trading system, underpinned by the WTO, has struggled to handle these complications.

At the same time, multilateralism continues, and the institutions of the rules-based international system continue to facilitate discussion and collective action, with varying success, just as they have through the Cold War, the global war on terror and the COVID-19 pandemic. However, multilateral action is increasingly shaped by geopolitical contestation and rising demands from developing states.

Achieving greater respect for human rights, gender equality and inclusion is a significant challenge in the face of eroding human rights and democracy globally. For 2022, Freedom House recorded the 17th consecutive year of global democratic decline. Segments of the population in both democracies and autocracies feel excluded from decision-making or economic opportunities. These trends have been accelerated by digital technologies, which allow authoritarian regimes to spread disinformation globally and violate human rights while allowing non-state actors to commit abuses and undermine democracies. Along with other assertive authoritarians, notably Iran, Russia and China interfere in democratic processes abroad, and seek to weaken multilateral work on democracy, human rights and media freedom. Meanwhile, illiberal populists in Hungary, Türkiye and other states weaken democratic institutions, though without acting as adversarial states.

At the same time, a deliberate anti-human rights and gender equality backlash is targeting feminist movements, 2SLGBTQI+ and women’s rights globally. Women and girls face particular health and socioeconomic threats, exacerbated by intersecting forms of discrimination and violence, and remain systematically underrepresented in decision-making and leadership positions.

Halfway through 2023, there is overall economic resilience following the shocks of the COVID-19 pandemic and Russia’s aggression in Ukraine, though this masks uneven conditions across regions. The energy and food price increases of 2022 have largely receded; although price spikes may re-occur. In this environment, many developing and emerging countries have been vocal about the difficulty of providing robust economic growth to their populations, particularly at a time of high interest rates and debt distress. They seek reform of multilateral bodies to allow emerging states more influence in decision-making, particularly multilateral development banks, scaled up climate finance and increasing investment in line with their priorities.

In this environment, international development increasingly becomes a measure of geopolitical influence. Competing models of development and emerging development actors, from philanthropists to private sector partners and emerging donors such as India and China, are shifting development approaches. There has also been a renewed focus on aid effectiveness, including calls for modernization of overseas development assistance (ODA), “localization” or locally-led development to further local ownership and shift power relations from donors to recipients, in line with increasing interest in decolonization and anti-racism in the development sector. Greater coherence of humanitarian, development and peace efforts (“triple nexus”) remain a priority, particularly in the most fragile contexts in which the malnutrition crisis is enormous. Furthermore, the uneven impacts of climate change are negatively affecting development, notably in Africa and South Asia.

State of the Global Economy



Global Growth Trends: The July 2023 IMF World Economic OutlookFootnote 5 forecasts that global economic growth will fall from an estimated 3.5% in 2022 to 3.0% in 2023 and 2024. The bulk of the slowdown is expected to come from advanced economies (1.5% in 2023 down from 2.7% in 2022). Growth rates in emerging markets and developing economies are expected to remain the same as last year (4.0% in 2023 as in 2022). The IMF forecast for global growth for 2023 and 2024 at 3.0% is well below the historical average of 3.8% from 2000-19. U.S. growth is projected to slow from 2.1% in 2022 to 1.8% in 2023, then slow further to 1.0% in 2024. Growth in the Euro area is projected to fall to 0.9% in 2023, down from 3.5% in 2022. A key development in China’s economy is that the much-anticipated post–COVID-19 recovery is not happening as rapidly as expected. On a quarterly basis, GDP growth slowed to just 0.8% in April to June compared to the previous quarter. Year-on-year growth for the second quarter was 6.3%, well below the previous forecast for growth of 7.3%Footnote 6. This is attributed to a mix of weaker private investment and to slowing growth in advanced economies as the effects of high interest rates filter through. The shift in advanced economies away from consumer spending on manufactured goods toward services (such as restaurants and holidays) also led to lower demand for China’s manufacturing output.

World Trade: The IMF forecasts a decline in the volume of world trade growth (both goods and services) from 5.2% in 2022 to 2.0% in 2023, before rising to 3.7% in 2024, well below the 2000–19 average of 4.9%. This reflects slowing global demand after two years of rapid catch-up growth from the pandemic recession. Rising trade barriers and the lagged effects of U.S. dollar appreciation in 2022 are expected to continue to weigh on trade growth in 2023.

Energy, Food, and Inflation: Although still high, broad declines in food and energy prices over the past year have brought some relief to consumers and commodity importers. COVID-19 supply-chain disruptions are unwinding, and some of the dislocations to energy and food markets caused by Russia’s war have receded. While global inflation is decreasing, it is doing so more slowly than initially anticipated by the IMF, and there remains a risk that stronger than expected economic activity may require monetary policy to tighten further or to stay tighter for longer. Global headline inflation is expected to fall from 8.7% in 2022 to 6.8% in 2023 and 5.2% in 2024.

The energy outlook continues to hinge on developments related to Russia’s war against Ukraine. A slowing global economy has continued to reduce energy price pressures for now, but sustaining lower prices will depend on the absence of further negative supply shocks. Global food prices have moderated over the past year but remain highly elevated compared to pre-invasion food prices. The IMF noted in April that food prices remain 22.3% above the past-five-year average and 39.1% above pre-pandemic levels. Renewed disruptions of food and fertilizer supplies from Russia and Ukraine (major wheat, corn, sunflower oil, and fertilizer exporters), could again lead to higher food prices and worsening global food insecurity.

Financial Conditions: Central banks in many major economies continue to tighten monetary policy to control inflation. The IMF notes that for most G20 countries, especially advanced economies, inflation remains well above central banks’ targets. The steep increase in interest rates over the past year also led to negative side effects for the financial sector, which led to credit market pressures in many markets, including property developer defaults in Korea and China, and to the failure of some regional U.S. banks, and the loss of market confidence in Credit Suisse, a global systemically important bank. What appeared isolated to the US banking sector quickly spread to banks and financial markets across the world, causing a sell-off of risk assets. A forceful response did stem systemic risks and reduce market anxiety when U.S. regulators guaranteed uninsured deposits at affected banks and provided liquidity through a new Bank Term Funding Program. The Swiss National Bank also provided emergency liquidity support to Credit Suisse, which was then taken over by UBS in a state-supported acquisition.

Debt: The combination of higher borrowing costs and lower growth could cause systemic debt distress in emerging markets and developing economies. The IMF estimates 56% of low-income developing countries are either already in debt distress or high risk, and about 25% of emerging market economies are at high risk. Increasingly restrictive global credit conditions mean one out of every four emerging market and developing economies has effectively lost access to international bond markets. The IMF has reiterated that it is necessary to agree on the debt-restructuring needs of a broader set of economies, including middle-income economies that are not eligible under the current G20 Common Framework.

Economic security concerns and global economic fragmentation: Advanced economies are seeking to re-orient investments to ensure supply chains are less vulnerable to geopolitical tensions, by encouraging a shift towards friendly countries. At the same time, large emerging markets are contemplating ways to reduce their economies’ perceived vulnerability to U.S. and European dominance in financial markets. The IMF warns there is the risk of policy driven financial fragmentation, leading to shifts in cross-border capital flows. Business investment strategies, such as reshoring, nearshoring, and friend-shoring, are being discussed in the public arena to de-risk and increase global value chain resiliency. However, the relocation of foreign affiliates has not yet been observed beyond anecdotal cases. The design of industrial policies, including climate policies and incentives to promote domestic clean energy supply chains, could lead to costly economic fragmentation in key industries.

Outlook for 2023/4: Short-term risks to the global economy remain. Persistent inflation may require further monetary tightening; China’s post–COVID-19 recovery may falter even more; and Russia’s war in Ukraine may lead to further economic shocks. Geopolitical tensions and economic fragmentation may hinder multilateral efforts to address economic challenges and may reduce our ability to provide vital global public goods, such as climate change action, and progress on eliminating poverty.

Development Landscape and Global Challenges



The global development landscape is changing rapidly. The sharpening of great power competition is increasingly impacting international development cooperation, bilateral development relationships, and the stability of the multilateral system.

After three decades of unprecedented global development progress, the compounding effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, climate change, and Russia’s invasion of Ukraine have stalled or reversed development gains, resulting in health, education, and economic crises across the world. Over 680 million people – 9.2% of the global population – currently live in extreme poverty, the majority of whom are in middle-income countries. Extreme poverty is most entrenched in Sub-Saharan Africa where 40% of the population live below the poverty line. Global levels of extreme poverty are growing in fragile and conflict-affected states, where the World Bank projects that up to two thirds of the world’s extreme poor will live by 2030.

The prevalence of protracted conflicts around the world is straining international assistance efforts. Areas of the Middle East, Africa, and parts of Asia are experiencing protracted armed conflicts, resulting in significant humanitarian crises and displacement of populations. Canada recognizes that conflict prevention is central to the successful implementation of the 2030 Agenda, and that poverty alleviation efforts alone are insufficient to build lasting peace. A cohesive Triple Nexus (humanitarian-development-peace) approach that also integrates trade considerations is essential.

Pressure for reform

The multilateral system is under stress. There is a widely acknowledged trust deficit between the Global North/Western countries and the Global South/middle ground countries.

Many countries in the Global South point to long-standing structural inequities that have perpetuated the undue influence of donor countries with little input from countries in the Global South in international settings. In particular, the international financial architecture – the governance arrangements that safeguard the stability of the global monetary and financial systems – has come under increasing criticism for failing to respond adequately to the increasing financial needs of developing countries.

Emerging donors

Emerging donors such as China, Brazil and India, and new regional and multilateral institutions such as the New Development Bank and Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank are also impacting the development landscape. For many Global South countries, China’s claims to respect principles of non-interference as an alternative to the conditional and values-driven assistance of Western donors has been attractive. In practice, China’s bilateral projects have been criticized for creating unsustainable debt burdens, fuelling corruption, maintaining a poor environmental track record, and failing to engage with local communities and civil society. New initiatives, such as the G7’s Partnership for Global Infrastructure and Investment, seek, in part, to counter the attractiveness of China’s development model. Nonetheless, Global North/Western donor countries continue to grapple with how to compete with China’s development model while advancing liberal democratic values, and respecting development assistance standards based on transparency, respect for human rights and local priorities.

Current and Emerging Challenges and Opportunities

The challenges the world is facing today are increasingly global in scope; climate change and global pandemics impact both the Global North and Global South. While traditional ODA has focused on poverty reduction in developing countries, there is growing pressure to deploy more funding in response to these global challenges, to invest in global public goods such as global public health measures and climate change mitigation.

For many developing countries, especially Least Developed Countries and Small Island Developing States, climate change and biodiversity loss represent an existential threat. About 42% of humanity live in highly vulnerable contexts. International assistance efforts are increasingly directed toward addressing the impacts of climate change, including its multidimensional impacts on conflict-affected communities, to build future resilience.

The climate crisis is contributing to the global food crisis. Global hunger levels are still far above pre-pandemic levels, with estimates of 691-783 million people suffering from hunger in 2022 – 122 million more than before the COVID-19 pandemic. Agri-food systems are highly vulnerable to climate change, conflict and economic shocks, which have led to increasing challenges in the capacity of agri-food systems to deliver nutritious, safe and affordable diets for all.

The shifting geopolitical context is having profound impacts on gender equality and human rights. Weakened democracies and a growing number of authoritarian regimes is resulting in shrinking civil spaces and increasing political polarization. There is mounting evidence that we are witnessing the gradual reversal of generational gains of women’s and girls’ human rights. The global education crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, conflict, and climate change has led to 222 million learners in need of education support. Refugee and displaced learners, particularly girls, are disproportionately impacted by this crisis. There is also a growing momentum to recognize sexual and reproductive services as essential health services in response to the rise of opposition groups that are increasingly well funded, well organized, and effective in communicating misinformation and anti-rights messages to a wider public. Hard-won recognition of LGBTQIA+ rights is under severe pressure globally.

Notwithstanding these challenges, the digital revolution has the potential to raise global income levels and improve quality of life. It offers new tools for development, providing opportunities to take greater advantage of data, science and technology to address poverty reduction goals. But the advancement of artificial intelligence and automation will have a major impact on the nature of work in the coming years and has the potential to exacerbate inequalities. International assistance will increasingly be called upon to address the digital gender divide, build digital infrastructure and skills, and strengthen rights-based digital ecosystems in developing countries.

Addressing unsustainable debt

Developing countries are facing growing debt levels and shrinking fiscal space, limiting their capacity to invest in sustainable development. Official Development Assistance (ODA) alone is not enough to meet growing demands. There is a need to mobilize additional resources from all sources, including through domestic resource mobilization and the private sector.The demand for international leadership and concrete action on new and innovative development finance will continue to increase, and several countries, including Canada, are stepping up their advocacy and action in support of better access to financing for countries of the Global South.

Development approaches and partnership models

Efforts to promote anti-racism and decolonize aid have led governments and institutions to examine existing partnerships approaches and development paradigms. There is increasing pressure to move away from outdated charity models based on colonial attitudes of development “needs” and toward more equitable partnerships framed by respect for context-specific priorities and locally-led development.

The complexity of the global challenges today requires enhanced global coordination and improved synergies between development, humanitarian, peace and security, and trade actors, as well as a renewed approach to respectful and equitable partnerships with the Global South.

Canada’s Feminist Foreign Policy and International Assistance Policy



Canada’s feminist foreign policy is the international expression of ongoing, coordinated, and whole-of-government efforts to advance human rights, diversity, inclusion and gender equality. It is being implemented through a suite of complementary international policies including: the Feminist International Assistance Policy; National Action Plan on Women, Peace, and Security; and the Trade Diversification Strategy, with its inclusive approach to trade.

Launched in June 2017, the Feminist International Assistance Policy focuses on achieving gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls as a core action area and throughout the five other action areas: human dignity (health, education and humanitarian), growth that works for everyone, environment and climate, inclusive governance, and peace and security.

This policy’s feminist, intersectional, and human rights-based approach to international assistance provides a framework that guides the delivery of Canada’s international assistance to address the root causes of poverty and inequality and respond to emerging global development challenges, based on the clear evidence that gender equality is a more reliable predictor of peace than a country’s GDP or level of democracy.

Countries with higher levels of gender equality are less likely to resort to the use of military force, and evidence demonstrates that the empowerment of women and girls contributes to economic growth. Closing gender gaps has the potential to increase GDP per capita by almost 20%. Studies estimate economic gains could be in the order of $5-6 trillion, if women had the equal opportunity to start and scale up new businesses at the same rate as men.

The Feminist International Assistance Policy commits Canada to continually improve its delivery of international assistance by integrating the principles of participation, inclusion, equality, non-discrimination, transparency, and accountability across its portfolio. Canada supports women’s rights organizations globally, as key drivers of change to address gender inequality in their communities. Through the Feminist International Assistance Policy, Global Affairs Canada has launched several key initiatives since 2017 to advance gender equality and reduce poverty. For example, Canada has supported:

Feminist International Assistance Policy targets

The Feminist International Assistance Policy established priorities and commitments to guide the delivery of international assistance and maximize impact. This included a series of ambitious targets:

GAC has made a determined effort to support initiatives that respond to the ambition of the Feminist International Assistance Policy targets, generating concrete results. For example, in 2022-23:

As a result, in 2023, for the fourth year in a row, the OECD-DAC has ranked Canada as a top bilateral donor for supporting gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls, as one of the top donors in support of women’s rights organizations and ending violence against women and girls.

Next steps

While the achievement of Feminist International Assistance Policy targets will continue to be impacted by the shifting global development landscape, the Feminist International Assistance Policy continues to provide a robust policy framework for guiding Canada’s international assistance. Recent crises in Iran, Afghanistan, and Ukraine have highlighted the need to continue making efforts to counter the increased backsliding on gender equality and rights of women and LGBTQI+ people.

The Future of Diplomacy and the Global Affairs Canada Transformation initiatives provide a further opportunity for Canada to continue to lead and innovate towards the promotion of gender equality, diversity and inclusion, localization, and intersectional and human rights-based approaches globally.

2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development



The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development was adopted by all UN Member States, including Canada, in September 2015. It is an ambitious 15-year global framework centred on a set of 17 interrelated and indivisible Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which cover the social, economic, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development, and integrate peace, governance, and justice elements.

The 2030 Agenda is universal in nature, meaning that both developing and developed countries are called upon to implement the SDGs, with the aim of eradicating poverty and leaving no one behind. It is people-centred and grounded in human rights instruments.

The COVID-19 pandemic and concurrent crises such as the war in Ukraine, climate change, food insecurity, rising inflation and debt have had a significant impact the achievement of the SDGs, particularly in Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries, Small Island Developing States, and Fragile and Conflict-Affected States. These crises have eroded sustainable development progress made to date, particularly in the eradication of poverty and hunger, and gender equality.

Canadian Implementation of the 2030 Agenda

Canada is taking an intersectional, gender-responsive approach to its implementation of the 2030 Agenda. In order to maximize effectiveness and impact across all 17 SDGs, Canada puts gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at the centre of its sustainable development efforts.

National Framework

Moving Forward Together, Canada’s 2030 Agenda National Strategy, provides overall guidance on Canada’s implementation of the SDGs. Under the leadership of the Minister for Families, Children, and Social Development, the National Strategy aims to support whole-of-society engagement and participation in the SDGs, recognizing that everyone has a role in realizing sustainable development.

The National Strategy is supported by a Canadian Indicator Framework (CIF) to track progress on the National Strategy, and a Federal Implementation Plan that outlines key roles and responsibilities for Government of Canada departments and agencies.

International Implementation

The National Strategy and Canada’s Feminist Foreign Policy guide Canada’s international implementation of the 2030 Agenda. Global Affairs Canada takes a whole-of-department approach to the SDGs, recognizing that the 2030 Agenda is not just about development. Canada leverages trade, diplomacy, and advocacy efforts to help advance the Goals and strengthen a rules-based international system.

SDG Financing

Canada supports the Addis Ababa Action Agenda on Financing for Development as the primary financing framework for implementing the 2030 Agenda. To help mobilize all sources of development financing, Canada has increased its engagement on key financing for sustainable development issues, including collaborating with multilateral development banks and the private sector on economic and social infrastructure, piloting innovative financing mechanisms, and addressing debt vulnerabilities.

Most Recent Developments/Upcoming Events

Voluntary National Review

Canada presented its plan at the second Voluntary National Review (VNR) in July 2023 at the UN High Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development. The primary purpose of the VNR is to provide a follow-up and review mechanism for the 2030 Agenda, providing a forum for countries to report on progress and challenges in implementing the 2030 Agenda.

SDG Advocates

In April 2022, the UN Secretary General asked Prime Minister Trudeau and Prime Minister Mottley of Barbados to serve as the new co-Chairs of his SDG Advocates Group. The SDG Advocates are 17 inspiring, influential people raising global awareness of the SDGs and the need for accelerated action. This role provides significant opportunity for Canada to highlight its leadership on the SDGs and to increase awareness and support for the 2030 Agenda.

As SDG Advocate co-Chair, Prime Minister Trudeau is prioritizing advancing gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls; combating climate change and protecting the planet; enabling access to quality education for all; and fostering diverse and inclusive partnerships for financing the SDGs. The SDG Advocates will next meet on the margins of UNGA High-Level Week in September.

SDG Summit

This year marks the halfway point of the 2030 Agenda. A leader level SDG Summit will take place at the UN from September 18-19. The UN Secretary General’s expectation is that the 2023 SDG Summit will crystallize the political will to act on recommendations in his SDG Stimulus Plan. The Plan aims to offset deteriorating conditions faced by developing countries. It calls for a substantial increase in financing for development of at least US$500 billion per year, expansion of lending by Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) and better borrowing terms for developing countries. The Summit will be the centrepiece of a suite of high-level events taking place in September, including a High-Level Dialogue on Financing for Development, a Climate Ambition Summit, three health-related meetings, and an event to mark the halfway point of Generation Equality.

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A foundation for sustainable development

International platform branch

Departmental Sustainable Development Strategy (DSDS)


Consular engagement on children, arrest and detention, mental illness, forced marriage, vulnerable travellers, and other SDG-related issues


Integration of sustainable development lens into corporate procedures, memos, and departmental reporting

International assistance

The Feminist International Assistance Policy is focused on eradicating poverty and reaching the poorest and most vulnerable. By putting gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls at the center of our efforts, Canada is taking the most effective approach to achieve the SDGs.

Foreign policy & diplomatic service

By strengthening the rules-based international order, fostering and upholding human rights and democracy, promoting climate diplomacy, supporting sustainable and inclusive growth and lasting peace and security, Canada's Feminist Foreign Policy works to advance the SDGs.


Canada is advancing an inclusive approach to trade that seeks to ensure that the benefits

and opportunities that flow from trade are more widely shared, including with under-represented groups such as women, SMEs, and Indigenous peoples.

D. Geographic – Integrated regional overviews




Canada’s Indo-Pacific Strategy

Canada’s Indo-Pacific Strategy presents a comprehensive and integrated set of strategic priorities for the coming decade, spanning defence and security, trade and economic cooperation, people-to-people ties, international assistance, as well as environment and climate change. Underpinning this Strategy is the recognition that Canada must expand its presence and strengthen its partnerships in the region to protect and promote Canadian interests effectively.

The Strategy advances 5 interconnected strategic objectives:

This framework was developed through a consultative policy development process led by Global Affairs Canada, including the recommendations of a national Indo-Pacific Advisory Committee (IPAC) launched in June 2022. The Strategy includes dedicated new investments and paid-in capital totalling $2.3 billion and comprises of 24 initiatives across 17 government departments and agencies, as well as FinDev Canada and the Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada. Collectively, these initiatives will support a diversification and an expansion of Canada’s regional partnerships, strengthen Canada’s credibility as a reliable and engaged regional stakeholder, and thereby position Canada to reinforce rules-based order, and support a free, open, inclusive, and sustainable Indo-Pacific.

Canada’s international assistance in the Indo-Pacific

The Indo-Pacific makes up more than one-third of all global economic activity, and by 2040 the region will account for more than half of the global economy, or more than twice the share of the United States. By 2030, it will be home to two-thirds of the global middle class. However, it is still home to two-thirds of the world's poor, with an estimated 1.7 billion poor people living on less than $2 a day. The governance landscape remains diverse and contested, highlighting the ongoing importance of Canadian engagement to complement shared economic and development objectives.

Various deep-seated development challenges in the Indo-Pacific region are set against a backdrop of geopolitical dynamics and growing social, economic and political interconnectedness. The region is home to numerous flashpoints (Taiwan Strait, North Korea, the East and South China Seas), major border disputes and an increasing number of threats to Canadian interests, including challenges to the rules-based international order. The risks posed by entrenched regional poverty, inequality, climate change, and environmental degradation further exacerbate these challenges. Natural disasters and forced migration are on-going realities. COVID-19 has compounded these risks, and highlighted the fragility of the region’s development gains, particularly for women, children, ethnic minorities, and other marginalized groups.

Canada’s international assistance in the Indo-Pacific seeks to advance its Feminist International Assistance Policy and maintain an ongoing focus on gender equality and reaching the poorest and most vulnerable, through an intersectional, human rights-based feminist approach to address economic, political and social inequalities that prevent individuals from reaching their full potential. Through gender responsive and inclusive policy and programming, Canada works to provide visible and concrete assistance in fragile and conflict-affected states, and to engage in defending human rights.

Canada has 9 bilateral and 2 regional development assistance programs: Afghanistan, ASEAN, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Pan Asia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. (Note that although Afghanistan is not covered under Canada’s Indo-Pacific strategy, Global Affairs Canada’s Indo-Pacific branch delivers a bilateral international assistance program to Afghan beneficiaries.)

In addition, Canada has modest programming in the Pacific Islands region and, as committed through the Indo-Pacific Strategy, will bolster these investments and establish our first international assistance program for the Pacific Islands region.

In 2021/2022, Canada provided $1.7 billion in international assistance to the Indo-Pacific region mostly delivered through Global Affairs Canada ($1.4 billion). The remaining $300 million was delivered through other government departments and agencies, such as Finance Canada and Environment and Climate Change Canada.

Canada's has recently announced that Indo-Pacific Strategy is building on past and current investments and commits close to $1 million in new international assistance financial commitments to the region delivered through Global Affairs Canada and FinDev Canada.

Graph 1. Global Affairs Canada’s bilateral and multilateral historical international assistance to the Asia-Pacific region ($ in millions) between 2017-18 and 2021-22 with a total of $1.4 billion in 2021-22.

Note for graph 1: Funding to Afghanistan is included as it falls under the responsibility of the Indo-Pacific Branch (OGM). Other government department funding is not included.

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Canadian trade and economic interests in the Indo-Pacific

The region’s economic dynamism and population growth are driving demand for education, health services, food, agriculture and fisheries, natural resources and critical minerals, energy, financial services, advanced manufacturing and green infrastructure. These are all sectors of Canadian strength, in which Canada has a global reputation for excellence. In the infrastructure sector alone, there is an estimated $2.1 trillion opportunity for strategic investments and partnerships in the Indo-Pacific.

The Indo-Pacific Strategy seeks to diversify trade and investment ties towards and within the region, expand market access and rules-based trade, strengthening economic cooperation with strategic partners, and securing critical supply chains. It will expand market access and rules-based trade through new FTAs, expanded FIPAs, and active participation in emerging frameworks including the Digital Economic Partnership Agreement (DEPA) and Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity (IPEF). It will foster Canadian business opportunities and competitiveness by establishing a Canadian Trade Gateway in Southeast Asia, launching a new series of large-scale Team Canada trade missions, enhancing sector-based trade promotion and partnerships (for instance, in agriculture, natural resources, Cleantech and infrastructure), and enhancing Trade Commissioner Service capacity. It will also help shape trade and technology norms, through new Science, Technology and Innovation partnerships, and greater cooperation on standards, digital infrastructure and supply chains.

Canada’s mission footprint in the Indo-Pacific

Canada now has 55 missions, common services delivery points and trade offices in the region, including a new High Commission in Suva, Fiji, set to be officially opened later this year (This does not include Afghanistan or the Office of Canada’s Special Representative for Afghanistan in Doha). These missions have 365 Canada-Based Staff (CBS) and 1,920 Locally Engaged Staff (LES) positions across 22 countries/economies.

Table 1. Mission (CBS and LES) footprint in the Indo-Pacific as of July 2023.






















Hong Kong
























Republic of Korea




Sri Lanka




















New Zealand








Brunei Darussalam












Grand Total




Europe and Eurasia


Canada’s relationships in Europe and Eurasia are significant in their depth, complexity, and richness. They include partnerships with key allies and engagements with major geopolitical players. Key focus for the region is Russia’s war in Ukraine, strong relationships with the European Union and G7 partners and active engagement in the Arctic.


Europe, like the U.S., is a key partner for Canada on the full range of foreign policy, security, economic and commercial interests. Of primary importance are Canada’s key relationships with European Union (EU) Member States and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Allies. These partners are generally aligned with Canada on core interests and are significant players on the world stage. There are regular interactions between Canadian ministers and senior officials and with European counterparts at all levels.

The EU Single Market, European Free Trade Association Area (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland) and the United Kingdom (UK), together provide Canadian businesses with a prosperous, stable market of more than 500 million people. Canada’s commercial relationship with Europe covers the full spectrum of goods and services trade, two-way investment, and science, technology, and innovation partnerships. The EU is Canada’s second largest market for goods and services exports after the U.S. In 2022, Canada exported $36.4 billion in goods and $18.7 billion in services to the EU and more than 8,200 Canadian companies are active in the EU market.

The Canada-European Union Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA), provisionally in force since September 2017, encompasses specialized committees to address goods and services trade, regulatory cooperation, and sustainable development. In 2022, bilateral merchandise trade between Canada and the EU was more than 53% above its pre-CETA level. CETA will remain provisionally applied until the agreement has been ratified in the national parliaments of all Member States. To date, 17 have ratified CETA, with Germany being the most recent to ratify in January 2023.

The EU is also a key, like-minded partner for Canada in its efforts to further global security and prosperity, and to promote human rights, democracy, and multilateralism. The emergence of a strong, united and engaged EU has made Brussels the center of gravity for Canada’s engagement in Europe, with France and Germany among the most influential Member States. Canada benefits from a uniquely broad bilateral cooperation framework, the Strategic Partnership Agreement (SPA). The EU’s international development capacity is among the most significant in the world. Since December 2021, much of its development assistance has been delivered through the framework of the EU Global Gateway initiative. The Global Gateway will mobilize up to €300 billion in investment funding between 2021-2027 for sustainable development projects worldwide.

The United Kingdom remains Canada’s single largest trading partner in Europe, with $46.5 billion in combined goods & services trade in 2022. A Trade Continuity Agreement, based on CETA, entered into force in April 2021, following the UK withdrawal from the EU. In March 2022, Canada launched negotiations toward a bilateral free trade agreement with the UK, which are ongoing. The bilateral relationship with the UK on foreign and development policy is also strong, including in the context of transatlantic alliances. The UK is an especially significant security and defence ally, including multilaterally at NATO and through the Five Eyes intelligence community.

Of primary importance in the region is Canada’s support of Ukraine following Russia’s full-scale invasion in February 2022. Russia’s illegal war has displaced millions and killed tens of thousands, damaged already strained economies and exacerbated food and energy insecurity, as Ukraine and Russia account for one-third of the global wheat trade. NATO unity has strengthened in response, and Russia has failed to achieve a quick victory. Its efforts are now to outlast and demoralize Ukraine and its partners through wide-ranging attacks on civilian infrastructure. A March 2023 assessment by Ukraine, the World Bank, and the European Commission estimates Ukraine’s recovery and reconstruction costs at US$411 billion. This will grow as the conflict continues.

Canada has been a reliable partner and ally to Ukraine, committing over $8.8 billion in assistance. This engagement is part of a coordinated approach with key partners. Canada’s assistance includes financial ($5.015 billion), military ($2.089 billion), humanitarian ($352.5 million), development ($147 million), and security and stabilization ($102.4 million). Canada has also bolstered its military support to the Security Forces of Ukraine, including by extending and expanding Operation UNIFIER. Canada has also undertaken comprehensive diplomatic engagement in support of Ukraine. This includes bilateral advocacy, rallying support for relevant UN General Assembly resolutions, and advocating at multilateral forums. Following the invasion, Canada opened two new immigration streams to support Ukrainians fleeing the conflict. In addition, Canada has imposed over 2,600 sanctions and additional economic measures in support of Ukraine.

In Eastern European and Eurasia, post-Soviet countries are struggling to de-link from Russia’s sphere of influence: whether to choose a Euro-Atlantic orientation, to establish a balance between Russia and the West, or to seek partnerships with China on investment and commercial linkages. ‎While stability in this region directly implicates Canadian security, political and economic objectives, our diplomatic presence is limited. ‎A different test comes from NATO ally, G20 partner, emerging market, and EU aspirant, Turkiye. Canada is watchful as to Turkiye’s authoritarian turn under President Erdogan but is committed to ensuring that Ankara remains within the Euro-Atlantic sphere. Overall, as a key NATO partner, Turkiye has played an active role in supporting Ukraine, including negotiating the Black Sea Grain Initiative, that contributed to the export of Ukrainian grains to the world market, an important priority for the Global South.

All the Nordic countries are members of the Arctic Council as well as NATO, except for Sweden for which the accession process is ongoing. There has recently been a significant increase in high-level engagements (PM and ministerial), especially since Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. PM Trudeau was Guest of Honour at the June 2023 meeting of Nordic PMs in Iceland. Minister Joly has met bilaterally with each of her counterparts and intends to host a first-ever Canada-Nordic Strategic Dialogue in November 2023 (dates TBC). Combined, the Nordic countries are the world’s 12th largest economy ($2.42 trillion GDP) and 7th most affluent. Merchandise trade between Canada and the Nordic countries was $13.6 billion in 2022. Total trade, including services, was $17.3 billion.

The Arctic and Northern Policy Framework (ANPF), launched in 2019, is another key priority for the region. Within the Europe, Arctic, Middle East, and Maghreb Branch (EGM), the Senior Arctic Official is responsible for international engagement under the ANPF as well as for the work of the Arctic Council. The Chairship of the Arctic Council passed from Russia to Norway in May. With Russia as a member of the Council, its work is currently not “business as usual”, but the forum remains significant in advancing Canada’s priority interests in the Arctic.

Latin America and the Caribbean



Canadian economic interests

Democracy and Inclusive Governance

The main threats to democracy in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) include restrictions on freedom of expression, disinformation, inequality, corruption, and electoral irregularities. While there has been some erosion of democracy across the region, regressions in El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Cuba, and Haiti are most concerning.

Canada engages on democracy and inclusive governance through international assistance, political dialogue, and participation in multilateral fora. PM Trudeau signed on to $50 million of shared initiatives at the March Summit for Democracy, including four projects in the Americas, on democracy, human rights and the rule of law. Canada works with partners at the Organization of American States (OAS) to protect and promote democracy, notably through electoral observation, support for media freedom, and technical assistance on electoral processes.

Inclusive Growth

Canada has eight free trade agreements in the Americas. The region accounted for 2.8% of Canada’s exports and 8.7% of imports in 2022, remaining relatively consistent over the last decade. LAC is well positioned in terms of demographic growth, with natural resources and agricultural products available to support medium-term economic growth.

Canada is a member country of the Americas Partnership for Economic Prosperity (APEP), which aims to better capitalize on sustainable, shared growth opportunities among like-minded democracies. Canada is working to shape this initiative in ways that promote inclusive trade, support supply chain resiliency, and safeguard the economic prosperity of member countries.

Organized Crime

Around a third of all murders around the world occur in Latin America each year, with many or most of them attributed by national authorities to organized crime.

Home to three of the largest cocaine-producing countries in the world – Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia – as well as the main exit points for cocaine exports to Europe and the U.S., the region has played a key role in illicit drug markets for more than four decades. While drug-related violence continues to plague Central America, Colombia and Mexico, changes to drug routes and networks have caused flare-ups in Ecuador and Costa Rica – traditionally considered secure and peaceful.

Climate Change and Biodiversity Loss

Canada is engaging partners to implement the Paris Agreement and the Global Biodiversity Framework, develop climate resilience, promote clean energy, and support disaster preparedness, response, and recovery. In 2012, Canada contributed $250 million to establish the Canadian Climate Fund for the Private Sector in the Americas at the Inter-American Development Bank. Under the Paris Agreement commitments in 2015, Canada provided another $223.5 million to its second phase. In June 2021, Canada doubled its previous 5-year international climate finance commitment to $5.3 billion (2021-2026). At COP15, Canada committed $350 million over 3 years (2023-2026) to help developing countries halt and reverse global biodiversity loss.

Food Insecurity and Malnutrition

Canada has increased its global food assistance and continues to address the urgent food and nutrition needs through humanitarian assistance, and the underlying weaknesses and inequalities of food systems through development assistance. Leveraging current efforts on sustainable agriculture and food systems, future programming will focus on strengthening agri-food systems resilience through climate-smart agriculture, sustainable agri-food value-chains, inclusive food system governance and productive food safety nets.

Irregular Migration

Canada is supporting countries in the Americas that are hosts to Venezuelan refugees and migrants. Canada co-hosted the 2023 International Conference in Solidarity with Venezuelan Refugees and Migrants and their Host Countries and Communities, raising $1.2 billion in pledges.

Canada engages in different multilateral mechanisms and forums that aim to strengthen migration and protection practices in the region, such as the North American Leaders’ Summit, the Los Angeles Declaration on Migration and Protection, the Global Compact for Migration and the Global Compact on Refugees, the Comprehensive Regional Protection and Solutions Framework (MIRPS) Support Platform, the Regional Conference for Migration, and the Group of Friends of the Quito Process.

Protracted Crises

Canada remains concerned with the political crisis and ongoing human rights violations in Nicaragua. Canada has imposed several rounds of sanctions in coordination with like-minded States (U.S., U.K., EU, Switzerland) and continues to exert pressure multilaterally and play a leadership role at the OAS and the UN Human Rights Council regarding the deteriorating situation in Nicaragua.

Canada is leading on coordinating international security assistance in Haiti (that is, equipment and financial support for the Haitian National Police), including by establishing a Canada-led joint civilian-military-police coordination mechanism. Canada supports Haitian-led solutions by encouraging a national political dialogue; enacting sanctions and legal measures; continued development and humanitarian assistance.

Canada is committed to a negotiated solution that leads to a return to democracy in Venezuela. Democratic concessions from the Maduro regime are key to that goal. Since 2019, Canada has provided over $180 million in international assistance in response to the Venezuela crisis. An additional $58.55 million in international assistance funding was announced at the March 2023 Conference.

Peru, and more recently Ecuador, have been facing political instability that has led to calls for elections. For Peru, instability has also included sustained protests and alleged human rights abuses that have been widely documented and denounced. Canada continues to seek solutions bilaterally and in multilateral fora to safeguard human rights and respect democratic processes.

Engagement with Hemispheric Partners

The tenth North American Leaders’ Summit took place in January, including the launch of an Action Plan setting out trilateral cooperation across 6 pillars: diversity, equity, and inclusion; climate change; competitiveness; migration and development; health; and regional security. The next Summit will be hosted by Canada in the fall.

In February, PM Trudeau attended the CARICOM Heads of Government Conference announcing $80 million in new initiatives to support the Haitian people; address the climate crisis; tackle escalating security challenges; and promote gender equality. The 2023 Canada-CARICOM Foreign Ministers’ Group Meeting was held in June on the margins of the OAS General Assembly. Canada will chair the Caribbean Development Bank’s Board of Governors for the next year.

Canada supports Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Panama, and Ecuador’s Alliance for Development in Democracy (ADD), speaking out against the erosion of democracy in the region, and released a Joint Declaration with the ADD last year.


China is LAC’s second largest trading partner and South America’s largest. It is a major investor in the region, focusing on natural resources, energy, and infrastructure. Twenty-one LAC countries participate in the Belt and Road Initiative and five are full members of the China-initiated Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, Uruguay, Peru). China continues to gain political and commercial influence and has tried to elevate the China-Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) as a forum to guide multilateral engagement and investment.

Russia and Cuba

In June 2023, Cuban Prime Minister Marrero completed an extensive visit to Russia, including meeting with President Putin. This followed a series of bilateral trade agreements (Russia to buy Cuban sugar, rum; Russia to export to Cuba wheat, oil, tourism).

Middle East and North Africa



The MENA region is a diverse and often siloed part of the world. Some challenges are shared: [REDACTED]; high unemployment rates (including youth and minorities); socio-economic inequalities within countries; demographic and migration pressures; food insecurity; and water stress and vulnerability to the impacts of climate change. Adding to the structural complexities are regional strategic rivalries (e.g. Algeria and Morocco), several conflicts (e.g. Israel-Palestinians), and fragile states (e.g. Libya [REDACTED]

There is nonetheless opportunity for Canada to promote mutually beneficial growth in these relationships. Our existing development programs respond to the needs of the poorest, including in important themes such as gender equality, climate action, and governance. There is also potential for increased bilateral cooperation with MENA donor countries. Important trade prospects exist with the Gulf States, as well as with emerging economies and in emerging sectors such as clean energy. [REDACTED]


Canada’s international assistance budget in the Middle East and North Africa totals approximately $129 million per year.

The Middle East Strategy was launched in 2016 [REDACTED] as a whole-of-government initiative to respond to crises in Iraq, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan. It has included over $4.7 billion in international development assistance and security and stabilization programming. Bilateral development programming has a particular emphasis on resilience, recovery, and addressing longer-term underlying causes and

structural drivers of conflict and instability, including climate change, food insecurity, and gender inequality.

[REDACTED] Canada has disbursed an average of approximately $55 million annually to help meet the development and humanitarian needs of vulnerable Palestinians. Canada does not provide any funding to the Palestinian Authority directly, and enhanced due diligence protocols guard against the diversion of Canadian funds to nefarious actors. In June 2023, Canada announced a renewed 4-year commitment of $25 million per year (2023-2026) to support the UN Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA), the main multilateral body that supports 5.9 million Palestinian refugees across the region.

Finally, there is a modest bilateral development program of about $19 million/year in North Africa. Canada currently supports 20 projects in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia focusing on economic empowerment, the promotion of gender equality, climate adaptation and inclusive governance.

The Gulf countries and Israel are significant official development assistance (ODA) contributors. [REDACTED]

Trade and Commercial Relations

Sub-regions and individual country relationships predominate in the MENA commercial relationship.

In 2022, two-way trade with North Africa was valued at more than $6 billion, but commercial ties are as yet unfulfilled.[REDACTED] Egypt and Morocco are positioning themselves as entry points to the African continent. The launch of the Canada-Africa Economic Cooperation Strategy can highlight opportunities for companies in the subregion and beyond.

Commercial relations with Israel are strong ($2.1 billion in 2022) and benefit from the Canada-Israel Free Trade Agreement (CIFTA). Israel, a global innovation hub, is the top destination for Canadian direct investment in the MENA region ($537 million in 2021). [REDACTED] Commercial relations with the Palestinians are much smaller and harder to track (bilateral trade estimated at $9.41 million in 2019). The CIFTA also covers qualifying trade from the Palestinian territories.

Canadian trade in the Levant is extremely limited due to sanctions in Syria, a major economic crisis in Lebanon, a very small market in Jordan, and an unstable Iraq. For Jordan, a free trade agreement has been in force since October 2012. with trade amounting to $254 million in 2022. Although Iraq remains fragile, it represents a potential emerging market with significant opportunities. Despite Lebanon’s economic challenges, bilateral trade has very modestly increased since 2021. Canada does not have a formal trade relationship with the Syrian regime, consistent with its controlled engagement policy and Canadian sanctions.

The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the UAE) are important strategic and commercial partners for Canada, with room for further growth. Canada’s recent normalization of bilateral relations with Saudi Arabia offers key opportunities. Trade with the Gulf States totalled $9.25 billion in 2022, with the UAE and Saudi Arabia as the largest trading partners. As GCC countries seek to diversify their oil-dependent economies, there are significant commercial opportunities for Canadian firms (clean technologies, alternative energy, ICT and education). The region is an important potential source of foreign investment, especially given the size of the sovereign wealth funds held by the Gulf States (an estimated $3.7 trillion). Canadian investment in the region is also growing through institutional investors and pension funds.

Sub-Saharan Africa


Canada’s engagement with Africa is robust, multi-faceted and growing. Strides are being made through our economic, trade, international assistance, and diplomatic commitments. While security, democratic and human rights concerns remain, and development improvements remain a challenge in several countries, Africans are more influential on the international stage than previously, and economic and commercial opportunities and partnership are available.


Mandate: The branch advances Canada’s priorities in 48 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries to which it is accredited, through 16 missions and 5 offices in 19 countries. Within the GoC, the branch advances, supports and coordinates Canada’s foreign policy objectives in SSA. The branch manages political, trade and development relationships with SSA countries, as well as regional and continental institutions, including the African Union (AU), and leads on relevant issues in multilateral fora, including the UN and the G7/G20. It is responsible for policy dialogue and stakeholder engagement activities and approximately $580 million per year of international assistance funds. The mission network also provides consular services to Canadian citizens abroad, and manages an active advocacy and diplomacy program, as well as a trade program that delivers commercial services and advice to Canadian businesses and supports their pursuit of international business opportunities.

Key elements:

1) Canada opened a Permanent Representative Office to the AU and appointed a Permanent Observer to the AU (Ben-Marc Diendéré)

2) AU Commission (AUC) Chairperson Moussa Faki visited Ottawa for the first Canada-AUC High Level Dialogue (October 2022)

3) MINT hosted AU Trade and Industry Commissioner Albert Muchanga in Ottawa for the first Canada-AUC Trade Policy Dialogue (May 2023)

4) Letter of Intent to hold a Development Policy Dialogue with the AUC was signed by the Minister of International Development in Addis, May 2023

Canadian Engagement:

Hot issues:

E. Top issues

Climate, environment, and biodiversity



Climate change and biodiversity loss pose a fundamental, indivisible and growing threat to the planet and all peoples. The earth’s surface warming is projected to reach 1.5 degrees Celsius or 1.6 degrees Celsius in the next 2 decades. Climate change is exacerbating pre-existing vulnerabilities and contributing to insecurity, and it is expected that climate-related geopolitical challenges will continue to grow, including conflicts over arable land, water, or food resources and climate-induced human displacement.

While biodiversity and natural resources contribute to the livelihoods of nearly half of the world’s population, biodiversity loss is projected to continue with up to one million species threatened by extinction, causing disastrous socio-economic impacts globally. Gender inequality and development gaps have also been shown to amplify the effects of climate change and biodiversity loss, with women and girls disproportionately affected, especially those that depend on natural resources for their livelihoods.

The health of societies and economies and the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) depend on global efforts to protect, conserve and restore nature and reduce emissions. Developing countries, particularly the poorest and most vulnerable, such as the Least Developed Countries (LDCs), are the hardest hit and the least equipped to prevent and cope with the consequences. Small Island Developing States (SIDS) also face structural and systemic vulnerabilities. Increasingly exposed to the impacts of climate change, they suffer from the effects of high emitting countries through dangerous and intense natural hazards such as floods, drought, and coastal erosion.

Canada’s International Climate and Environment Action

Canada has committed to support developing countries to transition to low-carbon, climate-resilient and nature-positive economies. It does so through initiatives that reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, improve climate resilience and reduce disaster risk, and protect and sustainably manage ecosystems and their services for the benefit of the poorest and most vulnerable, particularly women and girls. Environment and Climate Action is one of six priorities under the Feminist International Assistance Policy and focuses its efforts on three paths to action:

Canada’s efforts align with the objectives of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Paris Agreement, the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF), the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, and the Convention to Combat Desertification.

Canada also works with the G7, G20, the OECD and other partners, including international financial institutions, to eliminate financial flows harmful to nature, advance ambitious new commitments such as ending new direct public support for the international unabated fossil fuel energy sector, and supporting the global clean energy transition.

International Climate Finance

Canada fully delivered on its 2015 commitment to provide $2.65 billion over 5 years to support climate action programming. Many of the programs and projects supported under this commitment are ongoing and are expected to have reduced or prevented greenhouse gas emissions by over 228 megatonnes of CO2 equivalent – equal to removing about 47 million cars from the roads for one year – and helped at least 6.6 million people adapt to the effects of climate change.

In June 2021, at the G7 Summit, Canada announced a doubling of its climate finance to $5.3 billion over 2021-26. This was followed by an announcement at the 26th UN Climate Conference (COP26), in November 2021, that over 40% of this funding would be for adaptation, over 20% would support nature-based solutions and other projects with biodiversity co-benefits (where biodiversity is explicitly promoted in a project and documented with evidence – avoidance of negative impact is not sufficient evidence), and at least $1 billion would support coal phase-out. Furthermore, a minimum of 80% of projects in the envelope will have gender equality as a main focus. 60% of the funds will be allocated through unconditional repayable contributions (URC or loans), while the remaining 40% will be distributed through grants. As we enter the third year of the commitment, programming across GAC, Environment and Climate Change Canada and Natural Resources Canada is on track to meet all these policy targets.

International Biodiversity Program

At the 15th UN Biodiversity Conference (COP15) in December 2022 in Montreal, Prime Minister Trudeau announced $350 million in new and additional funding to support developing countries to halt and reverse nature loss through the implementation of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework. Global Affairs Canada, in collaboration with Environment and Climate Change Canada, is exploring programming options for full disbursement in 2024-25 and 2025-26.

At COP15, Parties agreed to the establishment of a Global Biodiversity Framework Fund, to be administered by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and ratified and launched at the 7th GEF Assembly in Vancouver in August 2023.

Upcoming key events

Humanitarian Assistance



What is Humanitarian Assistance?

Humanitarian assistance focuses on saving lives, alleviating suffering and maintaining dignity in response to conflict and natural disasters. It is guided by four core principles:

More Complex Humanitarian Landscape

The scope, scale, and complexity of the humanitarian landscape has grown significantly over the last decade. Humanitarian needs have reached record highs, driven by an 80% increase in the number of conflicts – the majority of which are increasingly protracted – and more frequent natural disasters exacerbated by climate change. In particular, 2023 is marked by the largest number of food insecure people, a record figure of more than 110 million people forcibly displaced from their homes, and a greater proportion of violence and intolerance directed at women, girls and minority communities. Moreover, notably in conflict contexts, humanitarian actors increasingly find themselves under attack, and international humanitarian law flouted.

In response, the UN’s global appeal has tripled from 2015 to nearly $55 billion in 2023, with a record 363 million people in need of life-saving assistance. However, the international system is struggling to keep up, and there are persistent and growing funding gaps, and unmet needs.

Humanitarian Assistance by the Government of Canada

To address an unprecedented level of humanitarian need, Canada continued to respond to complex humanitarian situations, including in Ukraine, Afghanistan, Haiti, and Sudan, as well as sudden-onset emergencies such as the earthquakes in Türkiye and Syria, and is actively addressing global food insecurity.

In calendar year 2022, Canada provided more than $1.3 billion in humanitarian assistance, ranking Canada as the seventh largest donor overall. With annual average disbursements of over $985 million over the last five fiscal years, humanitarian assistance represents a significant proportion of Canada’s official development assistance envelope.

Canada has a robust toolkit with which to respond to humanitarian crises. Canada’s response engages multiple actors within Global Affairs and across the Government of Canada. Responses consist primarily of financial contributions to experienced partners to support their programming interventions. This includes the provision of food, water and sanitation, health, shelter, cash transfers, among other forms of life-saving assistance. For 2022, Canada’s top funded humanitarian partners included:

In response to rapid-onset emergencies, Canada’s support can also include in-kind support such as sending relief supplies and medical assets from its stockpile, the deployment of civilian experts, and the use of matching funds as a public engagement tool. Following large-scale natural disasters, it can also include the use of Canadian Armed Forces’ unique capabilities such as the Disaster Assistance Response Team as a last resort when the ability to respond exceeds civilian capacity.

Shaping Global Humanitarian Policy

Canada is actively engaged at the global level to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the international humanitarian system. This includes leveraging Canada’s influence on the governance mechanisms of key humanitarian UN partners. Canada also works constructively through various multilateral fora, including as a signatory to the Grand Bargain and the Good Humanitarian Donorship. Both of these initiatives aim to improve humanitarian action, including to strengthen localization.

Canada is also committed to the implementation of the Global Compact for Refugees, which aims to respond more effectively to refugee situations, improve the lives of refugees and better support host communities. Canada is a strong voice for increased international solidarity and support for refugees, and is publicly acknowledged as a global leader in refugee resettlement, asylum, and complementary pathways. The upcoming Global Refugee Forum in December 2023 will be an opportunity to further demonstrate Canada’s ongoing leadership and contributions to addressing global forced displacement.

Gender-Responsive Humanitarian Action

In line with its Feminist International Assistance Policy, Canada supports gender-responsive humanitarian action. This includes integrating gender considerations across all policy and programming efforts. Canada also supports targeted interventions that directly address operational gaps such as sexual reproductive health (SRH), and the prevention and response to gender based violence (GBV) in emergencies.

Food Security


Global hunger has been on the rise since 2015 and there are now up to 783 million people food insecure in the world. The global food and malnutrition crisis continues to evolve driven by major shocks such as climate change, economic disruptions and conflict, in particular the Russian invasion of Ukraine. The most vulnerable, especially women and girls, suffer the most.


State of Global Food Security

Agri-food systems around the world are highly vulnerable to climatic, conflict and economic shocks, which have exacerbated pre-existing inequalities and led to increasing challenges in the capacity of agri-food systems to deliver nutritious, safe and affordable diets for all.

After decades of steady decline, global hunger has been on the rise since 2015. In 2022, there were up to an estimated 783 million people food insecureFootnote 2 which is up to 170 million more people in hunger than before the COVID-19 pandemic. The growth in global hunger has steadied in the last two years due to economic recovery efforts from the pandemic, which have contributed to 3.8 million fewer people suffering from hunger in 2022 than in 2021. Yet in 2022, 9.2% of the world’s population were still in hunger compared with 7.9% of the world’s population in 2019. Progress has been undermined by rising food and energy prices and continue to be exacerbated by the Russian invasion of Ukraine.

Russia’s termination of the Black Sea Grains Initiative on 17 July 2023 has triggered a spike in grain futures markets. Some analysts believe that this spike is based on speculation and will be short-lived, assessing that the markets had priced in termination of the Initiative. However, the situation is still evolving and the impact on food security warrants close monitoring.

Trends in global hunger vary by region. Progress was made in reducing hunger in Asia and Latin America. However, hunger levels are still on the rise in various regions such as Africa, Western Asia and the Caribbean. In 2022, 2.4 billion people (predominately women and those in rural areas), did not have access to nutritious, safe and sufficient food year-round. Difficulties in accessing affordable healthy diets are due to rising cost of healthy food, conflict, climate change and economic shocks.

Malnutrition remains a major development challenge with 148 million children under age 5 (22.3%) affected by stuntingFootnote 3, and 45 million (6.8%) suffered from wastingFootnote 4. At the same time, 37 million children under 5 (5.6%) are overweight.

Global food prices remain higher than pre-pandemic averages and domestic food prices for consumers continue to rise in most countries. High prices disproportionately affect the poor, who spend most of their income on food and other basic needs. It also drives people towards cheaper and less nutritious food, exacerbating malnutrition rates. The World Bank estimates that for each one percentage point increase in food prices, 10 million people are thrown into extreme poverty worldwide. Existing gender inequalities lead to women and girls eating least and last, disproportionately deepening their hunger, malnutrition and poverty rates.

There is concern that the global food crisis may worsen in 2023 and 2024 as high fertilizer prices and other shocks contribute to reduced agricultural productivity. Disruptions to fertilizer supply linked to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine contributed to sharp declines in fertilizer affordability and availability in 2022. Lower fertilizer use is likely to reduce yields and decrease the acreage of nutrient-intensive crops, which can decrease food availability in the short- and medium-term, exacerbate malnutrition and undermine farmer livelihoods and economic growth.

While conflict, climate change and economic disruptions are major drivers of hunger, food insecurity can also lead to instability and social unrest. Agriculture is one of the most vulnerable sectors to climate change but is also a major source of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Agricultural expansion is also the cause of over 90% of deforestation and a major driver of biodiversity loss. Therefore, investments in agri-food systems can address the drivers of conflict, climate change, and biodiversity loss, while achieving development outcomes, including poverty reduction, food security and nutrition.

In the aftermath of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, the global food crisis has risen to be a top priority for G7 and G20 leaders, who have reaffirmed their commitments to reducing food insecurity and malnutrition. At the same time, Russia continues to spread disinformation, blaming the west for contributing to food insecurity.

Canada’s Response

Responding to the global food crisis is a priority for achieving Canadian development objectives in most sectors and contributing to the Sustainable Development Goals. Failure to adequately respond may impact our relationships with partner countries in the Global South and undermine other development investments.

The provision of emergency food and nutrition assistance has been a key component of Canada’s humanitarian assistance portfolio over time. In response to growing food and nutrition needs, Canada has significantly increased the share of its humanitarian funding in these sectors since 2017, notably through the allocation of resources for humanitarian food and nutrition assistance in 2021 ($135 million) and 2022 ($250 million).

Canada continues to provide longer-term agriculture and food systems development assistance to address the root causes of hunger and strengthen the resilience in agriculture and food systems. Canada disbursed $670 million in fiscal year 2022-23 and will disburse $366 million to operational projects in 2023-24, of which $203 million is to agriculture and $94 million to nutrition-specific interventions. About half of Canada’s investments are through multilateral and financial institutions with the remaining through country partner governments and civil society organisations.

Canada is a vocal advocate on addressing immediate crises in a coherent manner while also setting course for medium- and long-term resilience. We are working with multilateral partners in major forums like the UN Rome-based Agencies, G7/G20 and WTO to promote an evidence-based and coordinated response to the crisis.

Canada also works internationally beyond Official Development Assistance. For example, Canada doubled its financial contribution to the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS), an initiative designed to ensure market transparency and coordinate policy action in times of market uncertainty. Canada is also supportive of Canadian fertilizer input producers in their plans to increase domestic production as a response to the shortage. This included $100 million to support a low-emission potash mine in Saskatchewan.

Global Health and Nutrition



Global Context

Health is a key sector of international assistance that is central to reducing poverty and advancing gender equality. Significant progress has been made over the past 20+ years: people live longer, fewer people die due to infectious disease, more women have access to modern contraception, and fewer children are underweight and too short for their age as a result of malnutrition. In 2015, the global community committed to a set of Sustainable Development Goals to be achieved by 2030, including one specifically dedicated to improving health.

Despite the progress achieved, challenges persist which require substantial resourcing and political will to overcome. The world was already off-track in meeting the Sustainable Development Goals but inequities were exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Health systems often do not adequately meet the needs of women, girls and marginalized groups and these groups are also too often left out of decision-making processes that dictate their health and rights.

Canadian Leadership

Canada has been a longstanding leader in advancing global health and nutrition, and has traditionally allocated a higher percentage (more than 20%) of its Official Development Assistance to global health than any other donor, except for the U.S. Canada has a long history of co-founding key global health initiatives and working collaboratively with multilateral global health and nutrition organizations and partnerships.

Canada was the founding donor of Nutrition International in 1992, the first bilateral donor to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, and was a forerunner in establishing innovative global health platforms, including the Global Financing Facility for Women, Children, and Adolescents (2015), Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (2002) and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance (2000). In 2010, Canada led the G8 Muskoka Initiative for maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH), with a commitment of $2.85 billion to 2015, followed-by MNCH 2.0 from 2015 to 2020 with a further commitment of $3.5 billion.

The current phase of Canada’s leadership in global health is the 10-Year Commitment to Global Health and Rights, announced by the Prime Minister in 2019. This commitment is a key vehicle for implementing Canada’s Feminist International Assistance Policy and supporting the achievement of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

Under the 10-Year Commitment (2020-2021 to 2029-2030), the Department is increasing its funding to global health and rights to reach an average of $1.4B annually starting in fiscal year 2023-24, with $700M specifically allocated for sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) each year. Canada’s health, SRHR, and nutrition investments promote gender equality and are underpinned by support for effective and equitable health systems for long-term impact.

Canada’s global leadership continued in the global response to COVID-19, mobilizing over $3.5B in international assistance and playing a leading role in the Access to COVID-19 Tools Accelerator (ACT-A) aimed at promoting equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines, tests and treatments. Consistent with the Feminist International Assistance Policy, Canada’s COVID-19 response and recovery efforts focus on the world’s poorest and most marginalized, and consider the differentiated needs of women and girls.

While the acute phase of the pandemic is over, Canada continues to work with ACT-A partners to reinforce health systems and integrate COVID-19 response into routine health services, including through Canada’s signature $317 million Global Initiative for Vaccine Equity (CanGIVE). Launched in June 2022, CanGIVE supports 12 countries in their efforts to bolster COVID-19 vaccine delivery, strengthen health systems and increase regional vaccine manufacturing capacity.

COVID-19 demonstrated the devastating health, social, and economic dimensions of pandemics. Canada is engaged in global efforts to strengthen pandemic prevention preparedness and response based on the lessons learned of COVID-19. This includes $50 million in seed money for the new Pandemic Fund to support countries, particularly low and middle in countries, in developing capacities to contain outbreaks before they become pandemics. It also includes $100 million to the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) to accelerate the development of vaccines for a range of known and emerging infectious diseases, including those with pandemic potential, and support global equitable access to vaccines during outbreaks, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. It also includes supporting the central leadership role of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the global health ecosystem, and ensuring that it is sustainably resourced, effective and accountable.

To strengthen global governance related to pandemics, Canada is engaged in negotiations with other WHO Member States on a new legally binding pandemic instrument, as well as amendments to the International Health Regulations (2005).

The COVID-19 pandemic has shone a light on the importance of country led, resilient and equitable health systems. Through the Future of Global Health Initiatives process, Canada is engaged with Norway, Kenya, Ethiopia, U.K., Japan and others on ways to strengthen the alignment and collaboration of global health initiatives like the Global Fund, Gavi and the Global Financing Facility in support of country led priorities and plans, as well as health system strengthening.

Global Education



The world is facing an unprecedented global education crisis due the triple shock of COVID, conflict and climate change. There are 222 million crisis-affected children and adolescents in need of education support. There is also a learning crisis, with an estimated 70% of 10-year-old children in low- and middle-income countries unable to read and understand a simple text. The situation is particularly severe for refugee and displaced populations, and especially for girls and adolescent girls. This generation of students risks losing $21 trillion in lifetime earnings in present value due to school closures, or the equivalent of 17% of today’s global GDP.

Education is critical investment to achieve the SDGs. It enables women and girls to have a voice; it is fundamental to peace-building and economic security (there is a 9% increase in earning for every extra year of schooling); it is essential to finding appropriate solutions to climate change at local, regional and global levels; and it protects girls from child, early and forced marriage, and sexual and gender-based violence. In addition, education systems enable the delivery of mental health and psycho-social support, health and nutrition programs (school feeding), and sexual and reproductive health / comprehensive sexual education.

Charlevoix Education Initiative

During the 2018 G7 Charlevoix presidency, Canada put the education of girls and adolescent girls in conflict and crisis-affected contexts at the top of the international agenda. A key outcome of the Summit was the Charlevoix Declaration on Quality Education for Girls, Adolescent Girls and Women in Developing Countries, which generated a historic $4.3 billion in pledges; this includes $400M from Canada to support 55 projects reaching over 4 million girls and women. G7 partners committed to improve education opportunities and learning outcomes for girls and women living in fragile, crisis and conflict-affected situations, including refugees, displaced peoples, returnees and people with disabilities. Many Charlevoix projects address key issues that keep girls out of school such as adolescent pregnancy, child, early and forced marriage, gender-based violence, and a lack of sexual and reproductive health and rights knowledge. Focusing, for example, on reducing barriers that limit girls’ and women’s access to education; improving access to and the quality of formal and non-formal education, skills training and development for girls and women; and improving and building the resiliency of education systems and approaches so they better support girls and women.

Together for Learning (TFL) campaign

Building on Canada’s leadership in education, in February 2021 Canada launched the three-year international Together for Learning campaign to promote access to quality education and lifelong learning opportunities for refugee, displaced and host community children and youth. The Campaign is planned to culminate at the Global Refugee Forum (December 2023).

A flagship element of the Campaign is the Refugee Education Council (REC). The REC, established in consultation with Canadian civil society organizations, and hosted by World Vision Canada, advises and informs the Campaign and the Minister of International Development on solutions and approaches to education for refugees and displaced populations.

Canada hosted a TFL Summit (March 2022) which provided an opportunity to hear and learn from refugee and displaced youth and engage them as problem-solvers and decision-makers. The Summit resulted a Youth Manifesto calling for action in five priority areas: inclusion, mental and psychosocial support, digital learning, gender equality and accountability.

Global contribution in the education sector

Canada is committed to building stronger, more resilient and inclusive education systems with a focus on the hardest to reach. It focuses on supporting access to quality education that is gender-responsive, conflict-sensitive, and locally-driven as well as on engaging and amplifying the voices of those who are affected by global decision-making, including refugee, other forcibly displaced, and host community children and youth, particularly girls and young women, so that they are part of the decisions that most affect their lives. Canada is also committed to ensuring refugee and forcibly displaced children and youth have access to national education systems; and ensuring that education receives the support and funding that it needs,

In addition, Canada increased its support for education following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic to address the immediate and long term impacts of prolonged school closures in developing countries, allocating $78.9 million in emergency international assistance to support civil society organizations, multilaterals, and national governments to respond to the challenges of delivering of education during the pandemic.


Key stats

Gender Equality / Women’s Voice and Leadership



Global Context

There is strong evidence that advancing gender equality is a precursor to advancing the SDGs, and that promoting women’s rights and agency has positive impacts on society as a whole.

There was an historic rise of 8.5% in global bilateral ODA during the pandemic (2021 figures) – its highest level ever. While the volume of investment in gender equality also rose (from $US53.4 per year on average in 2018-19 to $US57.4 billion in 2020-21), there was a slight downward shift in the share of total ODA with gender equality as a policy objective.

The potential stagnation of growth in financing for gender equality is taking place against a backdrop of compounding global crises and increased polarization. Women are facing rising violence, rollbacks of their rights, and ongoing exclusion. The COVID-19 pandemic alone set the world back by a generation (36 years) in terms of reaching gender equality, and women and girls are disproportionately affected by other crises, including food insecurity and climate emergencies.

In 2022, bilateral ODA surpassed record levels again, increasing by 13.6%. However, as data on ODA dedicated to gender equality is released 2 years after the fact, the true impact of other crises on financing for gender equality, such as the Russian invasion of Ukraine, are yet to be seen.

While impacts on gender equality financing remain unknown, the current geopolitical context is already having profound impacts on gender equality and human rights. Weakened democracies and geopolitical instability have also decreased civic space, increased polarization and backlash, and affected the work and safety of WROs and human rights defenders globally.

Canadian Leadership

Canada is known as a leader in advancing gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls globally. As part of the Feminist International Assistance Policy, Global Affairs Canada made commitments to increase its bilateral development spending on gender equality. These targets included ensuring that 80% of projects integrate gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls and 15% target gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls.

For the fourth year, Canada ranked as the top OECD bilateral donor for the share of its overall ODA supporting gender equality. It is also among the top ranked for investments supporting women’s rights organisations (WROs) and ending violence against women and girls.

In 2021-2022, 99% of Canada's $3.8 billion bilateral international development assistance either specifically targeted or integrated gender equality results exceeding the target set at 95% by 2021-2022. However, Canada did not meet the sub-target of 15% of investments to specifically target gender equality results, reaching 10%, which represents $380.8 million.

Women’s Voice and Leadership

The Women’s Voice and Leadership (WVL) program is a flagship initiative of the Feminist International Assistance Policy supporting WROs in 31 countries and regions. WVL provides support through core funding, as well as fast and responsive funding to respond to urgent needs, and provides support for capacity building and network building. WVL has reached a wide range of WROs, including groups representing disabled women, survivors of sexual and gender-based violence, sex workers, migrants, Indigenous women, and LBTQI organizations.

On April 27, 2023, Canada announced $195 million/5 years and $43.3 million/year ongoing to renew and expand the program. This renewal and expansion is a response to weakened democracies and geopolitical instability which have decreased civic space, increased polarization and backlash, and negatively impacted the work and safety of WROs and human rights defenders.

WVL is a demonstration of the Feminist International Assistance Policy in action - resulting in concrete gender equality outcomes, including changes in laws and increased and improved services to counter sexual and gender-based violence. The first phase of the WVL program exceeded expectations, reaching more than 1500 (triple the number expected) WROs and LBTQI+ groups.

Gender Equality Results

Canada’s efforts are having real impact on the ground. For example:

Canadian Partners in International Assistance



International financial institutions and FinDev Canada



International financial institutions (IFIs)

IFIs consist of the Bretton Woods Institutions, which include the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank Group (WBG); regional development banks (e.g., the African Development Bank); and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). IFIs are an integral part of the international financial architecture because they provide financial resources to middle-income countries (through loans) and the poorest countries, including fragile states (through concessional loans and grants). Most IFI capital is guaranteed by donor member states so they can provide preferred interest rates to borrowing members. In 2021-22, Global Affairs Canada and Finance Canada provided approximately $2 billion in institutional support as well as initiative specific programming to IFIs.

The WBG and regional development banks, which are collectively known as multilateral development banks (MDBs), aim to reduce poverty; advance sustainable economic and social development; and promote regional cooperation and integration, exercising their comparative advantage via supporting social spending, financing growth related investments (e.g., infrastructure) and facilitating private sector engagement. The unique MDB model leverages their shareholder capital and donor funding on markets to raise financing. For example, the 20th replenishment of the WBG’s financing window to the poorest countries consisted of $23.5 billion in donor contributions, but will generate $93 billion in total lending with financing raised in the capital markets, repayments, and the World Bank’s own contributions. The IMF is responsible for fostering global monetary cooperation, securing financial stability, and facilitating international trade. IFAD is a specialized UN agency that focuses on smallholder farmers and rural development.

IFIs are among Canada’s largest and most strategic partner institutions for supporting development interventions at scale given the size of their operations, track record, technical and financial expertise, convening role, and thought leadership. Canada’s relationship with IFIs is co-managed by Global Affairs Canada and the Department of Finance. The Minister of Finance is Canada’s Governor to the World Bank, the IMF, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB). The Minister of International Development is Canada’s Governor to the African Development Bank (AfDB), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Caribbean Development Bank (CDB) and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). Global Affairs Canada’s Assistant Deputy Minister of Global Issues and Development is the Governor for IFAD. Governors are responsible for Canada’s oversight of these institutions.

The Bretton Woods Institutions

Regional Development Banks

Canada is also a shareholder of six regional development banks, which provide financial and technical assistance to low- and middle-income countries within their regions.

The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

Canada is a founding member of IFAD since 1977. IFAD provides grants and low interest loans primarily to governments to support agricultural growth and inclusive rural transformation. IFAD’s role is critical in the ongoing global food crisis, which disproportionally affects vulnerable rural people and small-scale farmers.

FinDev Canada

FinDev Canada is Canada’s Development Finance Institution. Launched in 2018, its mandate is to provide financing at commercial rates to the private sector and mobilize private investment in developing countries. It aims to economically empower women, develop local markets, and combat climate change, consistent with Canada’s international assistance priorities. A wholly-owned subsidiary of EDC (the responsibility of the Minister of International Trade), FinDev Canada has its own mandate, governance and investment strategy, and reports through EDC. The Minister of International Development is responsible for overseeing FinDev Canada’s strategic priorities, corporate planning and annual reporting, as well as legislative and regulatory matters.

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