Canada’s National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security 2017-2022 - Department of National Defence and The Canadian Armed Forces - Progress report for fiscal year 2017-2018
The Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces (DND/CAF) recognize that armed conflict, natural disasters, and humanitarian crises affect women, men, girls and boys differently. As noted in Canada’s new defence policy, Strong, Secure, Engaged, women’s participation is vital to achieving and sustaining peace, and has a tangible impact on the operational effectiveness of our forces. Women broaden the range of skills and capacities among all categories of personnel, improve the delivery of peace and security tasks, enhance situational awareness and early-warning by facilitating outreach to women in communities, and improve a military force’s accessibility, credibility and effectiveness in working among local populations.
As such, DND/CAF are committed to being a strong partner with Global Affairs Canada in putting women and girls at the centre of Government of Canada efforts to prevent and resolve conflict. Integrating United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325 and embedding gender perspectives into our policies, training/education and operations are moral and operational imperatives that will contribute to a culture of respect internally and increase DND/CAF effectiveness as it delivers on its mandate.
DND/CAF support for Canada’s renewed Action Plan builds on a number of recent, new directives and initiatives – as set out in Strong, Secure, Engaged – aimed at integrating gender perspectives into our internal policies and into our operations abroad, notably as it relates to recruitment, diversity, responding to inappropriate behaviour, and training/education. DND/CAF will use targets and indicators to track our progress as we implement our strategies to achieve the above goals.
Over the course of the renewed Action Plan 2017-2022, DND/CAF will focus on implementing and tracking these initiatives, with a view to delivering results – for example to further integrate Gender-based Analysis Plus (GBA+) within DND, meet recruitment targets, and increase the number of uniformed women deployed to international operations. DND/CAF, as a committed partner, has identified a number of priority activities to support the ongoing implementation of the Action Plan, consistent with Canada’s new defence policy. These activities are organized around the following themes:
- Training and education;
- Recruitment and retention; and
- Integration into operations
Each of these themes have specific targets that will be measured and reported on an annual basis, and if required, may be re-examined in line with the departmental and Government of Canada priorities. The detailed list of DND/CAF targets for the Action Plan 2017-2022 – including baselines, activities and indicators to measure progress – is provided below.
The departmental report below covers the period of April 1, 2017 to March 31, 2018. For every target, it provides a high-level snapshot of the progress achieved to date, outlines completed activities, and analyzes results and progress.
Department of National Defence and Canadian Armed Forces
Context: DND/CAF will establish and update departmental directives, policies and guidelines to ensure gender perspectives are embedded in all processes, policies procedures and associated documentation.
- Mainstream gender equality throughout policies and programming – taking into account the different needs of women, men, girls, and boys.
- Advance the Diversity Strategy to be more reflective of the composition of Canadian society, and to contribute to the enhancement of defence and security missions at home and abroad.
- Continue to build on the work done by Operation Honour (CAF Strategic Response Team on Sexual Misconduct) to establish the CAF as employer of choice for both men and women.
- Domestically, work to implement Status of Women’s (SWC) Strategy to Prevent and Address Gender-Based Violence (GBV Strategy) that Budget 2017 allocated a total of four million dollars over five years to increase funding for Family Crisis Teams within the Defence Team.
Continue to implement the tenets of UNSCR 1325 and related resolutions and implement all aspects of the Departmental Diversity Strategy.
Target 1.1: Further integration of GBA+ within National Defence.
Progress achieved as of March 31: On track/Internal efficiency & capacity
- GBA+ implementation plans have been established for 6 CAF organizations/units.
- A gender perspective/GBA+ paragraph and/or gender annex has been included in all Canadian Joint Operations Command directives and major Operation Orders.
- 1 gender focal point has been established on all major operations.
Baseline: The Chief of the Defence Staff Directive for Integrating UNSCR 1325 and Related Resolutions into CAF Planning and Operations.
1.1.1 Integrate WPS agenda along with gender perspectives into Memoranda to Cabinet Treasury Board and associated Cabinet submissions, policy documents, appropriation directions, procurement requirements, project proposals, strategies, Operational Plans, Operational Orders, exercises and related peace and security activities.
1.1.2 Publish a GBA+ Directive to provide guidance to the Assistant Deputy Ministers (ADMs).
1.1.3 Establish and hire a DND GBA + Director.
1.1.1 Number of ADMs that have established gender advisors for CAF.
1.1.2 Number of ADMs that have established a GBA+ advisor or gender focal points.
1.1.3 Number of operations and/or exercises that have a gender focal point.
1.1.4 Number of ADMs that have established and implemented a GBA+ Action Plan.
1.1.5 Number of operational orders that have a gender annex or gender inputs.
- Integrated GBA+ into all Memoranda to Cabinet, Treasury Board and associated submissions to the Cabinet of Canada, policy documents, appropriation directions, procurement requirements, project proposals, strategies, operational plans, operational orders, exercises and related peace and security activities.
- The Departmental Project Approval Directive and associated Project Approval Course are in the process of being revised to ensure that GBA+ is integrated into the process.
- DND has also established and hired a Director-Gender, Diversity and Inclusion that is focused on ensuring gender and GBA+ are integrated within the DND organizations.
- The DND and CAF directors, along within the Defence champions, have formally established the GBA+ Joint Responsibility Centre (JRC) for the Defence team, in line with recognized best practices published by Status of Women Canada (SWC), which was formally approved in March 2018 by the Deputy Minister and the Chief of the Defence Staff.
- The JRC was mandated to ensure a joined up, strategic DND/CAF approach to integrating gender and diversity perspectives into all of our business lines by serving as a centre of expertise, providing expert support, integrated systems alignment, training, oversight and engagement.
Results and Progress: The Defence organization is working to make Canada famous for the values of diversity, inclusion and respect. This is how we capture more innovation, ideas, perspectives and ways of looking at complex problems. We are here to foster a culture of service before self that can benefit from evolution so that our organization can draw on the “whole self” of every person.
Since the publication of the Chief of the Defence Staff Implementation Directive on UNSCR 1325 in 2016, a gender advisor has been established at the strategic level and at the operational commands; the Canadian Joint Operational Command and Special Operational Forces Command gender advisors/gender focal points have also been established within some of the environmental commands including the Canadian Army, Canadian Forces Intelligence Command and Military Personnel Command. Work is underway to establish gender support capability at the other commands. All unit headquarters have at least one trained gender focal point and both DND and CAF are focused on expanding the number of trained gender focal points available within all units, who will also be available for deployment. Additionally, there has been at least one gender focal point on all major operations, with the exception of Task Force Latvia where a gender advisor has been assigned since August 2017.
GBA+ implementation plans have been established for the following CAF organizations/units: Canadian Joint Operational Command, Special Operational Forces Command, Canadian Army, Military Personnel Command, Vice Chief of the Defence Staff, and Canadian Forces Intelligence Command.
Depending on the nature of the document either a gender-perspective/GBA+ paragraph and/or gender annex has been included in all Canadian Joint Operational Command Commander Directives and major Operation Orders.
Completion of the SWC GBA+ online course has been mandated for designated CAF personnel who work on the design and implementation of programs and services that support our personnel with equipment procurement and operational planning.
CAF has developed a plan to implement GBA+ throughout the department with a target date for a directive by October 2018.
The Deputy Minister of National Defence published a GBA+ directive this year, complementary to the 2016 Chief of the Defence Staff Directive on UNSCR 1325, for the department. As a result, ADMs are expected to identify a GBA+ focal point reporting to the senior levels by May 31, 2018, and to establish a network of Focal Points at the Director-General level. This, in turn, will allow us to:
- provide training and support to the GBA+ focal points and gender advisors embedded throughout the organization;
- support and coach senior leadership in their decision-making for GBA+;
- engage with external stakeholders who can work with us on incorporating best practices; and
- integrate the GBA+ analytical lens at all levels and in all decision-making processes.
The broad implementation of GBA+ within defence has also significantly supported the CAF Diversity Strategy as well as the DND Civilian Employment Equity Plan.
Target 1.2: Effective support for and implementation of the CAF Diversity Strategy and Action Plan.
Progress achieved as of March 31, 2018: Mostly on track/Internal efficiency & capacity
- A CAF Diversity Strategy and associated Action Plan have been published and are currently being implemented, monitored, reviewed and reported on annually.
- The 2016-2017 Employment Equity Report was recently published that highlights the work on diversity within the CAF/DND.
Baseline: CAF Diversity Strategy and the Chief of the Defence Staff approved Action Plan as per January 2017.
1.2.1 Establish a framework for the development and attainment of diversity within the CAF through better understanding of the concept of diversity and the development of tools to support it.
1.2.2 Allocate, with the support and commitment of leadership, appropriate resources and capabilities to effectively implement the CAF Diversity Strategy Action Plan.
1.2.3 Monitor the CAF diversity climate.
- Number of Diversity Strategy Action Plan tasks completed.
- Employment Systems Review/Diversity Climate Survey results.
- The CAF Diversity Strategy and the associated Action Plan have been published and are currently being implemented.
- Four specific Defence Advisory Groups (Women; Persons with Disabilities; Visible Minorities; and Aboriginal people) at the national and local levels continue to operate effectively and provide unfettered advice and insight to DND and CAF leadership on issues relevant to their respective designated groups on the implementation of the Diversity Strategy.
- Senior leaders at the General Officer level have been nominated to fill the role of Defence Employment Equity Champions and have actively engaged the membership to encourage diversity and fully support Employment Equity programs.
- The DND Employment Equity Plan has enabled Employment Equity representation to strengthen the representation of Women, Persons with Disabilities and Aboriginal people.
- Senior Defence Team Leaders at the General Officer/Flag Officer and Executive level have been nominated to fill the roles of champions for Gender and Diversity for Operations, which includes a champion for WPS.
Results and Progress: DND and CAF have identified that diversity in the work place is an important enabler. Differences in ethnicity, language, gender, age, culture, national origin, disability, sexual orientation and religion, can improve the Defence team’s ability to make common or complex decisions on operations and in institutional settings.
The CAF Diversity Plan outlines four broad goals: Understand Diversity Culture, Inculcate a Culture of Diversity, Modernize Policies to Support Diversity and Generate a CAF that Reflects Canada’s Diversity. Each of these overarching goals includes a number of sub-goals and associated actions/targets, with selected actions completed on an annual basis and others enduring over a number of years. Each year the CAF submits a report on progress through the Armed Forces Council and full transparency is maintained with the Canadian Public. The Defence team is focused on promoting diversity and inclusion as core institutional values and has appointed a team of Champions for Gender and Diversity for Operations to lead change, support a culture of inclusion and advance the CAF Diversity Strategy.
Support international cooperation on WPS
Target 1.3: DND and CAF continue to engage with like-minded foreign defence and security organizations on implementing the tenets of Women, Peace and Security (WPS) agenda.
Progress achieved as of March 31, 2018: On track/Internal efficiency & capacity
- CAF hosted the inaugural Five Eyes Plus Gender Conference in May, 2017 in Ottawa.
- 30 nations pledged to be members of the WPS Chiefs of the Defence Staff Network, which was recently established by Canada, the UK and Bangladesh.
- Strategic Joint Staff gender advisor provided the United Nations (UN) with Canada’s perspective on gender in the military.
- Canada, as Deputy Chair of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Committee on Gender Perspectives, has led the way on a number of gender-based recommendations to be submitted annually to the NATO Military Committee.
Baseline: DND and CAF have engaged with partner nations through several bilateral and multilateral meetings, which have committed to increasing their engagement in promoting the WPS agenda.
1.3.1 Support the participation and leadership of women in delivering peace and security efforts.
1.3.2 Continue to support the engagement of senior DND and CAF champions and key staff in leading and promoting WPS in international forums (UN, NATO, Five Eyes etc.).
1.3.3 Share knowledge and expertise on gender equality and gender norms with Canadian Defence and Military experts and stakeholders.
1.3.1 Participate in and/or conduct gender conferences within a community of practice.
1.3.2 Appoint a number of senior/key leaders resources to speak at international forums on gender practices within National Defence.
1.3.3 Encourage the inclusion of gender perspectives in National Defence contributions to international forums, such as the NATO Committee on Gender Perspectives, and UN committees and sub-committees and senior Defence-related meetings.
- Established with the UK and Bangladesh, the WPS Chiefs of the Defence Staff Network during the UN Peacekeeping Defence Ministerial; 30 Nations pledged to be members of this Network.
- Nominated a CAF General Officer to be the CAF Champion for WPS.
- Encouraged active participation of senior officers and DND key staff’s in promoting WPS issues during international engagements and bilateral engagements such as at the Advanced Security Cooperation course held at the Daniel K. Inouye Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, through the Minister of National Defence speech to the Aspen Institute in Rome, and through general officer participation as part of the annual 2017 NATO Committee on Gender Perspectives Conference, as well as by participating as panelists and speakers at the US Naval War College; delivering briefs to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), Women in Military and Security Conference; and engaging in military to military staff talks.
Results and Progress: DND and CAF have taken every opportunity to participate in gender-related discussions, conferences, and round tables by sending experts and senior military and defence officials to speak on the importance of gender mainstreaming within the Canadian military and its importance in deployed operations. This is also an opportunity to learn from international organizations and other countries how to best continue to integrate the topic of gender within the defence community.
A Canadian military member is the Deputy Chair of the NATO Committee on Gender Perspectives. Canada held the position for the past three years, which highlights the importance that Canada’s military places on gender perspectives. The result is that Canada had the opportunity to influence and lead the way on a number of gender-based recommendations to be submitted annually to the NATO Military Committee. Topics included the importance of considering gender perspectives when identifying how to counter violent extremism during maritime operations, as well as developing guidelines regarding integration of gender perspectives in NATO and/or NATO-led operations.
DND/CAF, in partnership with the UK and Bangladesh Ministries of Defence, launched the WPS Chiefs of Defence Network. The newly established network will allow senior military leaders to identify and challenge barriers to women’s full participation in militaries. The network was launched during the UN Peacekeeping Defence Ministerial in Vancouver. It currently has 30 participating countries and is chaired by the UK in its inaugural year, with a commitment by the CAF Chief of the Defence Staff to chair the second year of the network in 2019.
The Canadian Military Advisor and Deputy Military Advisors assigned to Canada’s Permanent Mission to the UN have taken every opportunity to provide Canada’s military perspective on gender, and continue to advocate for the importance of full participation of women in peacekeeping and conflict resolution. This includes espousing the importance of gender and gender-related topics as part of the annual negotiations on the Report of the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations, a Subcommittee of the UN Forth Committee, as well as attending the Group of Friends of WPS. Canada also collaborated with the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations gender advisor on WPS issues.
As a result of senior–level engagement, Canada is viewed as a leader in gender mainstreaming, and has been repeatedly requested to discuss Canada’s approach to gender mainstreaming in our military. Canada’s Strategic Joint Staff gender advisor has provided the UN with Canada’s perspective on gender mainstreaming. The CAF has posted a Training Development Officer to the Nordic Centre for Gender in Military Operations in Sweden to impart some of Canada’s current training and development methods, as well as to learn and apply best practices and lessons learned of how other NATO and partner nations have mainstreamed gender. This partnership has been mutually rewarding for Canada and Sweden.
CAF hosted the inaugural Five Eyes Plus Gender Conference in May 2017 in Ottawa, which was opened by the Minister of National Defence who spoke about the importance of continued gender integration within the department. With ten countries in attendance, namely Canada, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, Finland, Sweden, the Netherlands, the UK, Germany and Spain, as well as representatives from NATO and the UN, the conference sought to share best practices and lessons learned regarding gender mainstreaming in operations. CAF has since collaborated with New Zealand and has provided information on how the CAF is structured to enable gender mainstreaming.
In conclusion, by reaching out to international organizations, as well as foreign defence ministries and militaries, DND and CAF members are on a continuous learning path and have taken advantage of opportunities to support the principles of the WPS agenda within the defence community.
2. Training and education
Context: National Defence continues with the objective of integrating gender perspectives and GBA+ as part of the curriculum for all relevant leadership, planning and procurement courses provided to military and civilian staff. Training provided to foreign military staff through the Military Training and Cooperation Program also has a curriculum focused on gender perspectives and the importance of conducting GBA+, and includes awareness and training on sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA).
Direct mandatory completion of the SWC GBA+ Introduction Course within DND.
Target 2.1: Mandatory completion of the online GBA+ introduction course for all National Defence military and civilian staff.
Progress achieved as of March 31, 2018: Mostly on track/Internal efficiency & capacity
- 29, 015 of CAF and 50, 573 DND staff completed the GBA+ online course, which was tracked using the Human Resource Management System.
- 100% of Defence team Memoranda to Cabinet and Treasury Board submissions have undergone GBA+.
- The Project Approval Directive has been reviewed and the renewed GBA+ requirements are being added to ensure that all projects undergo GBA+.
Currently mandatory for all designated CAF members.
2.1.1 Continue monitoring the completion rate of GBA+.
2.1.2 Through a Training Needs Assessment, identify if a DND focused GBA + advanced course for both the Operational and Strategic/Institutional level is warranted.
2.1.3 Promote the importance of GBA+ analysis and support special GBA+ information sessions such as GBA+ week activities.
2.1.4 Actively support ADMs by providing GBA+ information briefs and presentations by gender advisors and gender focal points.
2.1.1 Number of CAF staff who have completed the GBA+ online course based on Human Resource Management System data.
2.1.2 Number of DND staff who have completed the GBA+ online course based on Human Resource Management System data.
2.1.3 Increase in the quality of GBA+ of Memoranda to Cabinet, Treasury Board submission and Request for Proposal that are submitted within the Department.
2.1.4 GBA+ requirement are integrated into the Project Approval Directive.
- Conducted the ongoing tracking of CAF and DND personnel who have successfully completed the GBA+ online course.
- Continued its support and advocacy during the year with special emphasis during GBA+ week on the importance of completing the GBA+ online course.
- Established an information booth during Defence Ethics Week to highlight what GBA+ is and how it can add to work effectiveness and foster diversity.
- Continue to provide basic and detailed information to senior staff and departmental staff on how to effectively apply GBA+ at all levels within the department.
Results and Progress: Canada’s defence policy Strong, Secure, Engaged has directed that the department integrate GBA+ within all defence activities across the CAF and DND, from the design and implementation of programs and services that support our personnel to equipment procurement and operational planning. CAF personnel continue to be required to complete the GBA+ online course. DND staff are now also mandated to complete the course, focused first on staff who are in key positions responsible for initiating and reviewing policy doctrine and procurement programs. The completion of the GBA+ online course is tracked using the departmental Human Resource Management System and inputs from the SWC database. At last report DND/CAF have registered 79,588 successful completions of the course.
In addition, 100% of Defence team’s Memoranda to Cabinet and Treasury Board submissions have undergone a GBA+ process. As a result, all new policies and programs will continue to respond to the needs of women and men, as well as their intersecting identities.
The Project Approval Directive is a keystone directive within DND on the general process for identifying, developing and implementing investment projects within the policy framework issued by Treasury Board. The framework seeks to ensure that GBA+ requirements are being added to the documentation requirements at key project phases to ensure that appropriate analysis is completed where and when required.
With the establishment of the Director Gender, Diversity and Inclusion, DND will coordinate training sessions, with the DND ADM leadership including senior staff who sit on the Defence Coordination Board and the Project Management Boards and associated staffs, to provide guidance, education, training and mentoring on how to best apply and prepare employees on understanding and applying GBA+ within the workplace.
Assess current and future gender perspectives and GBA+ training and education approaches
Target 2.2: Assess current gender and GBA+ training and scope any additional training required.
Progress achieved as of March 31, 2018: Mostly on track/Internal efficiency & capacity
- 11 military courses currently have embedded GBA+ curriculums.
- 6 Gender, Peace and Security-Sponsored Workshops were conducted by Canada’s Military Training and Cooperation Program in various countries.
- CAF/DND have sent members, as well as briefers, senior leaders and facilitators to the Nordic Center for Gender in Military Operations to attend and participate in the gender advisor course, as well as the Commanding Officers Seminar on Gender, the gender Train the trainer course and the Key Leader Seminar on Gender. As of March 31, 2018, 41 members, as well as briefers, senior leader and facilitators, attended a gender-focused course at the Nordic Center for Gender in Military Operations which included:
- 16 Defence team members completed the Gender Advisor course;
- 12 completed the Commanding Officers seminar on gender;
- 7 completed the Train the Trainer gender course; and
- 6 participated in the Ley Leader seminar on gender.
Baseline: Gender perspectives training currently incorporated into 11 CAF courses, including pre-deployment training provided by the Army Peace Support Training Centre in Kingston, as well as courses provided by the Military Training and Cooperation Program.
2.2.1 Continuous review of all CAF leadership and pre-deployment training to ensure updated material on gender perspectives and GBA+ is included.
2.2.2 Review of all relevant DND courses (procurement, human resources, diversity, and leadership) to ensure updated material on gender perspectives and GBA+ is included.
2.2.3 Assess the need for periodic refresher training on GBA+.
2.2.4 Where possible post CAF members to foreign peace support centers to enhance Defence Department knowledge of gender, and promote Canadian perspectives.
2.2.5 Provide continuous education of gender based issues including education and awareness of the Strategy and Plan of Action to Address SEA, as well as sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) reporting mechanisms, to all staff expected to deploy on operations.
2.2.1 Number of CAF and DND courses that have curriculums focused on gender.
2.2.2 Number of Military Training and Cooperation Program courses provided/delivered that have curriculums focused on gender.
2.2.3 Number of CAF and DND staff who attended a gender course at the Nordic Center for Gender in Military Operations.
- Professional military courses continue to undergo a review on a scheduled basis and where required GBA + is made part of the curriculum.
- CAF and DND are members of the Status of Women Security Sector Interdepartmental Committee that supports the review of the GBA+ on line course and suggests changes and updates.
- Pre-deployment training has gender, GBA+, and related International Humanitarian Law subject matter as part of the education and training package, and also includes Code of Conduct training, which considers both SEA and SGBV as specific topics.
- Canada’s Joint Response Center has employed a full time training and education coordinator, who will be working to develop GBA+ courses that are tailored to the complete range of defence lines of work, for both DND and CAF, and based on training needs assessments.
- CAF has a member assigned to the International Peace Support Training Center (Kenya), which has an established gender policy focused on Peace Support Operations.
Results and Progress: GBA+ and gender perspectives continue to be part of the professional military education requirements at all levels. As courses are redesigned, updated and reviewed, gender-based topics are, where appropriate, embedded within the courses. Although a number of current courses have GBA + and gender-related information embedded in the course design, this will be an ongoing process due to the number of CAF/DND courses available.
The CAF, through the Canadian Defence Academy, has started the required Training Needs Analysis plan that will review the current training opportunities and identify gaps so that the CAF can investigate how best to mainstream gender perspective training into CAF’s professional military education.
GBA+ curriculums are currently embedded in 11 of our military courses from initial entry training to the most senior leadership courses provided by our leadership schools and establishments. Further, the GBA+ online course is a pre-requisite for attending the CAF primary, intermediate, advanced and senior leadership courses, as well as the senior appointment program. Successful completion of the course has also been added as an additional requirement within the CAF Junior Officer Development program and the CAF Joint Command and Staff Program.
GBA+ and WPS NATO online training has been added to pre-deployment training provided to military members who are selected for international deployments.
As part of the Military Training and Cooperation Training Program, DND has offered the Gender, Peace and Security Workshop and Symposium to various countries in the Americas, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Two gender, peace and security sponsored workshops were conducted during the reporting period. The one in Peru had 38 candidates from a broad range of Military Training and Cooperation Training Program member countries in the Americas, and the one in Indonesia had 35 candidates from a broad range of member countries in Asia. Additionally, four gender, peace and security symposiums were conducted for 1,959 officer cadets from the Peruvian Army, Air Force and Navy academies.
In July, the CAF established and assigned a Military Training and Development Officer to the capability development section of the Nordic Centre for Gender in Military Operations as a sign of Canada’s strong commitment to the Centre, NATO and advancing training capability on gender.
Context: National Defence is committed to the tenets of UNSCR 1325 and to ensuring that national defence continues to lead in all aspects of gender equality, both within the institution at home and abroad. The CAF was one of the first militaries to open all employment opportunities to women and will continue to champion WPS and gender issues. The Defence team leadership will continue to work with other Government of Canada departments and agencies, as well as with like-minded partners, to assert the rights of women, men, girls, and boys in all forums. National Defence leadership is committed to ensuring that gender perspectives are woven into our daily activities and will advocate for the advancement of the WPS agenda when we engage bilaterally or in multi-national forums, including NATO and the UN.
Continue to enhance the role of the CAF UNSCR 1325 Working Group
Target 3.1: Continue to enhance the role and membership of the CAF UNSCR 1325 Implementation Working Group.
Progress achieved as of March 31, 2018: On track/Internal efficiency & capacity
- As directed in the Chief of the Defense Staff UNSCR 1325 Implementation Plan, the CAF UNSCR 1325 Implementation Working Group meets on a quarterly basis with all CAF operational-level and environmental commands (Royal Canadian Navy, Canadian Army and the Royal Canadian Air Force), as well as assistant deputy minister organizations within DND.
Baseline: The CAF UNSCR 1325 Implementation Working Group established.
3.1.1 Continue to meet quarterly to discuss, solicit input and make recommendations on UNSCR 1325 implementation and related issues.
3.1.2 Provide input and track gender and GBA+ training.
3.1.1 Track recommendations made by CAF UNSCR 1325 Implementation Working Group.
3.1.2 Track level of ADM involvement in CAF UNSCR 1325 Implementation Working Group.
- The CAF UNSCR 1325 Implementation Working Group met on a quarterly basis to discuss the progress and implementation of UNSCR 1325 and related resolutions.
- Supported the establishment of the DND/CAF input into Canada’s National Action Plan on WPS 2017-2022.
- Through the input of the CAF UNSCR 1325 Implementation Working Group, the tracking of GBA+ is ongoing.
Results and Progress: The CAF UNSCR 1325 Implementation Working Group tracks progress of the implementation of the Chief of the Defense Staff Directive on UNSCR 1325, the 2018 Deputy Minister’s Policy Statement in January 2018, and the DND/CAF implementation of the Action Plan. Additionally, the Implementation Working Group coordinates GBA+ work and integration of gender perspectives throughout defence activities.
The Deputy Minister establishes a GBA + directive
Target 3.2: The Deputy Minister of DND publishes a GBA+ directive by winter 2017.
Progress achieved as of March 31, 2018: On track/Internal efficiency & capacity
- The Deputy Minister Directive on Diversity and Inclusion (focused on GBA+ methodology) has been published.
Baseline: Directive currently in draft.
3.2.1 Deputy Minister directive is published and ADM are directed to establish GBA + Advisors.
3.2.1 ADM Action plans published.
3.2.2 Number of ADMs that have a GBA+ Advisor.
3.2.3 Deputy Minister GBA+ Director position established.
3.2.4 Deputy Minister GBA+ Director for DND is hired.
- The Deputy Minister Directive on Inclusion and Diversity is published.
- All ADMs have been briefed on the DND GBA+ and Diversity and Inclusion Policy.
- ADMs are committed to establishing GBA+ Advisors.
- As directed in Canada’s defence policy Strong, Secure, Engaged, all programs, policies, procurement actions are now subject to GBA+.
Results and Progress: The Deputy Minister Directive on Diversity and Inclusion (focused on GBA+ methodology) has been published and is already close to being 80% implemented.
Continued participation in the Interdepartmental Committee on GBA+
Target 3.3: Ensure continued departmental representation at the SWC-led Interdepartmental Committee on GBA+.
Progress achieved as of March 31, 2018: Target achieved or surpassed/Internal efficiency & capacity
- The CAF Director of Gender Integration and the DND Director of Gender, Diversity and Inclusion continue to be actively engaged as part of the Security Sector meetings of the Interdepartmental Committee.
- DND/CAF provided input for the 2017 GBA+ survey.
Baseline: Current DND and CAF representation on the Interdepartmental Committee on GBA+.
3.3.1 Ensure appropriate representation on the Interdepartmental Committee on GBA+.
3.3.2 Participate fully in all Interdepartmental Committee on GBA+initiatives and any possible sub committees.
3.3.3 Provide input to the Interdepartmental Committee on GBA+ and SWC on tools and products provided on the GBA+ web site.
- Annual GBA + survey completed as scheduled.
- DND/CAF co-chair, with SWC, and attend all Interdepartmental Committee Security Sector meetings.
- DND/CAF provided extensive input to Interdepartmental Committee on training required for the security sector.
- Input on the relevance and utility of GBA+ tools for defence tasks.
Results and Progress: DND/CAF representation on the Interdepartmental Committee on GBA+ is a high priority and contributes to the ongoing dialogue on how best to focus on the issues that impact the sector, as well as the best practices in GBA+ within the security sector. Both DND and CAF provided input to the requirement for GBA+ community tools, checklists and training videos. Further, DND is co-chairing this committee with SWC.
DND/CAF input to the 2017 GBA+ Survey was completed and the results were reviewed by DND/CAF GBA+ champion, as well as by senior DND and CAF officials in order to gauge the status of GBA+ within DND/CAF.
4. Recruitment and retention
Context: Further to the Chief of the Defence Staff Directive on Recruitment, the CAF will continue to seek to increase the number of women within the CAF, and in turn the number of women available to be promoted to senior positions or for deployment. Recruiting processes including advertising, wait process times, job availability, application procedures, testing, medical and fitness standards are all aspects that affect the decision process of a potential new recruit. In addition, aspects such as family balance, job enjoyment, selection for professional development, velocity of promotion and a safe and harassment free work environment are all factors that contribute to making the CAF an Employer of Choice.
Increase the recruitment of women to the CAF
Target 4.1: Increase the percentage of women in the Canadian military by 1% per year to achieve a desired goal of 25% by the end of FY 2026.
Progress achieved as of March 31, 2018: Too early to report/Internal efficiency & capacity
- The percentage of women in the CAF (Regular Force) at the end of the reporting cycle was 14.9 % of which comprised 18.3% officers and 13.8 % were non-commissioned members. Results for the Primary Reserve are comparable, with women making up 16.3 % of the Primary Reserve with 16.4% being officers and 16.3 % non-commissioned members. The percentage of women officers and non-commissioned members within the Combat Arms occupations (non-traditional occupations)Footnote 1 for the Canadian Army was 2.7 % for the Regular Force and 6.2% for the Primary Reserve.
Baseline: The percentage of women in the Canadian military is 14.9 % (based on CAF Employment Equity Report for fiscal year 2015-2016).
4.1.1 Identify the barriers that will affect the application process, including wait times for, testing, medical examinations, offers of employment, and enrollment to support the recruitment of women who select a career in the military.
4.1.2 Enhance the recruiting campaign and advertising to target women to join the military with emphasis on both common and unique employment opportunities.
4.1.3 Increase the availability of women champions as well as a cross section of serving women to attend and participate in events that promote women in the military and their achievements within all trades, with emphasis on non-traditional jobs such as the infantry, artillery and related combat arms employment.
4.1.4 Establish a Strategic Intake Plan for women by year to include women-centric recruiting programs.
4.1.5 Focus on high schools to encourage women to consider a career in the military by establishing a targeted campaign.
4.1.1 Number of women who apply to the CAF.
4.1.2 Number of women who are offered employment.
4.1.3 Percentage of women who join for non-traditional employment.
4.1.4 Identify reasons (when possible) that the applicant disengaged from the recruiting process.
- Established a CAF-wide Tiger Team to explore how to best attract and increase the recruitment of women to the CAF.
- Established Operation Journey to review and identify areas that may limit or negatively affect the retention of women in the CAF.
- Established the Women in Force program, and engagements with CAF members who share their personal experiences have been instrumental in showing Canadian women what life in the CAF might look like, increasing the likelihood of them considering a military career. The focus of the program is to raise awareness about life in the CAF, and to enable participants to make an informed decision about a career in the military.
- Established and reviewed a plan to increase the number of champions who can focus on retaining women in the CAF and enhancing their career opportunities.
- The CAF Recruiting Group has increased the number of civilian file managers in their respective recruiting detachments in order to decrease recruit processing wait times.
- The recruiting system has focused attraction events for Employment Equity groups and established priority processing, such as setting aside one day to process women applicants at various times throughout the year.
- The Canadian Army has assumed responsibility for processing Primary Reserve files, which has allowed the recruiting centers to focus on Employment Equity applicants, including women.
- Launched the Dare to be Extraordinary advertising campaign specifically focused on the balance of gender and culture exposing the potential recruiting audience to the myriad opportunities for women in both operational and support roles in the CAF.
- The Director General Military Personnel Research and Analysis has developed a women-focused Strategic Intake Plan towards which Canadian Forces Recruiting Group recruits.
- The Canadian Forces Recruiting Group continues to maintain a balanced and focused communications campaign with high schools across Canada to focus on recruiting young women.
Results and Progress: The number of women who apply to the CAF at the start of the recruitment process cannot be determined as the CAF does not require potential applicants to declare their gender on the application form. This information is collected upon successful recruitment. The total number of regular force employment offers made during the reporting period was 5,032, which resulted in the recruitment of 860 women into the CAF. Out of the 860, 399 (46.35%) were selected to work in non-traditional occupations (Artillery, Infantry, Naval Warfare and Air Combat Systems, Maritime, Aerospace and Combat Engineers, etc.). The total number of Primary Reserve Force employment offers made during the reporting period was 4,008, which resulted in the recruitment of 702 women into the CAF. Out of 720, 320 (45.6%) women were selected to work in non-traditional occupations.
During the application process, it is typical that a number of men and women opt to disengage. Reasons for withdrawal vary, but most do so for personal reasons, such as family concerns, offers of other employment, or to pursue additional educational opportunities. A number of potential recruits also disengage over personal concerns about fitness, medical issues and/or past drug usage. Some applicants are simply unable to provide the required documentation for processing.
Increase the retention of women in the CAF
Target 4.2: Understand the major reason for the release of women from the CAF and eliminate/mitigate any issues as they are identified.
Progress achieved as of March 31, 2018: On track/Internal efficiency & capacity
- The CAF, through the Director General Military Personnel Research and Analysis, continues to study and examine potential differences in release rates and attrition patterns between men and women. This is an ongoing process. Departure exit surveys continue to be conducted and the data obtained from surveys and attrition rates is subject to ongoing trend analysis.
Baseline: N/A (annual release numbers).
4.2.1 Departure/exit surveys/interviews are conducted.
4.2.2 Release data is tracked and reviewed.
4.2.3 Consult and exchange information with other militaries on trends and retention strategies and programs.
4.2.1 Annual release data from the CAF.
4.2.1 Review exit surveys for trends and cluster issues.
- Departure exit surveys continue to be conducted.
- The CAF continues to actively engage with partners in other nations through organizations such as the Technical Cooperation Program and NATO Research Task Groups on topics including retention strategies and programs. These international collaborations complement Director General Military Personnel Research and Analysis’s extensive research program that encompasses numerous topics regarding the employment of women in the CAF. To name but a few: retention survey 2016 and 2019; a full program of research addressing sexual misconduct and culture change in support of Operation Honour; an ongoing exit survey; a study linking reasons for joining and turnover intentions; and studies regarding applicant and member perspectives on recruiting and employment in the CAF. Note also that GBA+ considerations and impacts are reviewed at the Social Science Research Review Board (an approval process for the conduct of research with our personnel) and have been incorporated within a number of projects completed by the Director General Military Personnel Research and Analysis (e.g. Socialization, Leadership Dynamics, Royal Canadian Navy Culture, Professional Models, Customs and Traditions, and misconduct-focused research).
Results and Progress: The Director General Military Personnel Research and Analysis has been conducting research regarding the employment of women in the CAF for decades, including ongoing examination of release rates to examine potential differences in attrition patterns between men and women. The release of men and women from the CAF, highlights two release types in particular: voluntary release and release for medical reasons (other reasons for release include misconduct as well as the routine release of those who have reached retirement age or the end of their period of engagement with the CAF).
The patterns of release for men and women are quite similar, with men often having a higher rate of attrition than women. Indeed, this has been the case since FY 2011/12. Only after 20 years of service is the rate significantly higher for women. Women are also more likely to be released for medical reasons, a result that is being examined in other research and by other militaries.
Increase the number of women in senior level positions in National Defence
Target 4.3: Increase the number and proportion of women at senior levels (Non Commissioned Members, Officers and executive-level) in DND and CAF.
Progress achieved as of March 31, 2018: Mostly on track/Internal efficiency & capacity
DND/CAF continue to promote women into senior positions:
- The CAF currently has 12 female General Officers, 939 (9%) women in senior officer positions (Major, lieutenant colonel and Colonel) positions and over 3,500 (33.6%) of our senior Non Commissioned Officers are women.
- 12 female General Officers including one lieutenant general, two major generals/rear admirals, and nine brigadier-general/commodores with four in the Royal Canadian Navy, four in the Canadian Army and four in the Royal Canadian Air Force.
- 129 senior women were deployed on operations, which equates to 9.1% of all CAF expeditionary deployments.
- 4 female Chief Warrant Officer/Chief Petty Officers currently occupy senior appointments.
- 20 (6.4%) female colonels.
- 38 (6.9%) female Chief Warrant Officers in the regular force.
- 168 (8.2%) female Master Warrant Officers in the regular force.
- 38 (4.8%) female Chief Warrant Officers in the primary reserve force.
- 168 (10.4%) female Master Warrant Officers in the primary Reserve Force.
Baseline: CAF Employment Equity Report 2015-2016 Schedule 6.
4.3.1 Continue to select qualified women for deployments.
4.3.2 Continue to select women for leadership and education training.
4.3.3 Encourage women at all levels to actively participate in activities that promote women empowerment within the GOC and public forums.
4.3.4 Develop a mentoring framework for all CAF members.
4.3.5 Monitor career progression of women in the CAF.
4.3.6 Incorporate GBA+ considerations/review into the applicable aspects of career management, including women representatives on all promotion boards.
4.3.1 Number of senior women, officers and Non Commissioned Members, deployed on operations.
4.3.2 Number of senior women, officers and NCMs, selected for foreign posts.
4.3.3 Percentage of women NCMs by military occupations promoted to the ranks of Master Warrant Officer and Chief Warrant Officer.
4.3.4 Percentage of women officers by Military Occupation Groups promoted to the ranks of lieutenant-colonel and higher.
4.3.5 Percentage of women officers appointed as Commanding Officers (COs).
4.3.6 Percentage of women NCMs holding Senior Appointments.
4.3.7 Number of women holding senior positions (executive level-1 and colonel or above).
- The CAF continued to promote and actively engage a Defence Women’s advisory organization that provides meaningful consultation on a myriad of issues that concern women in the military. This organization promoted changes to the force test that measures physical fitness, introduced gender neutral terminology into standard operating procedures, and created an exercise program for pregnant and post-partum military and civilian members of the Defence team.
- CAF/DND have promoted the engagement of both men and women to actively participate in national and internationals forums such as Nordic Center for Gender in Military Operations, UN, NATO, and the panel with Civil Society that promotes empowerment of women.
- The Canadian Defence Academy published a mentoring handbook in 2007, and mentoring senior officers is considered in the CAF Professional Development Study of 2015; however, no formal mentoring network has yet been established. Mentoring normally occurs informally along Military Occupation Code lines, and in the Canadian Army it is done via the regimental system that provides mentoring based on the perceived potential of the individual.
Results and Progress: The CAF continues to strive to identify and deploy senior women officers and Non Commissioned Officers (Non Commissioned members). As international deployment opportunities surface, and qualified women in the specific military occupation are available, they are provided with the opportunity to deploy, as well as take advantage of educational and leadership opportunities.
During the reporting period, 129 senior women were deployed on operations, which equates to 9.1% of all CAF expeditionary deployments:
- 4 senior non-commissioned officers, at the rank of sergeant, have been selected as Canadian Defence Attaché Administrative Assistants.
- The CAF achieves the highest number of female General OfficersFootnote 2 in history with a total of 12 including one lieutenant general, two major generals/rear admirals, and nine brigadier-generals/commodores with four in the Royal Canadian Navy, four in the Canadian Army and four in the Royal Canadian Air Force.
- Major General Tammy Harris becomes the first female deputy commander of an Environmental Command (the Royal Canadian Air Force).
- Commodore Bernatchez becomes the first female CAF Judge Advocate General.
- Chief Warrant Officer Gibson is appointed as the Formation Chief Warrant Officer of the Canadian materiel support group within Canadian Joint Operations Command.
- Master Warrant Officer Renee Hansen becomes the first female Station Warrant Officer at Canadian Forces Station Alert, Nunavut.
- There are four female Chief Warrant Officer/Chief Petty Officers currently occupying Senior Appointments.
- Women make up 10.2% of the strength of the Canadian Special Operations Forces Command.
- CAF has 20 female colonels (6.4%).
- CAF has 38 female chief warrant officers in the regular force (6.9%).
- CAF has 168 female master warrant officers regular force (8.2%).
- CAF has 38 female chief warrant officers in the primary reserve force (4.8%).
- CAF has 168 female master warrant officers primary reserve force (10.4%).
5. Integration into operations
Context: Modern international and domestic operations require members of the CAF to interact with host nation forces and local populations. It is critical that CAF members understand how conflict can affect diverse populations of women, men, boys and girls differently, and can identify risks to the local population that could be incurred by engaging with military forces. As such, we must ensure that our members have the right tools and mindset to deal effectively with diverse and often vulnerable populations. Due to cultural norms, religious affiliations or past experience, some segments of the population may have difficulty interacting with military forces that are predominantly male. This reflects the need to ensure that adequate numbers of female military members are represented in key functions that may interact with diverse segments of the population. Integrating gender perspectives into military operations as well as deploying women at all rank levels is essential to achieving mission success - both in terms of both contributing to peace and security and advancing gender equality.
Increase the number of women deployed in international operations
Target 5.1: Promote and increase the number of uniformed women deployed to international operations (NATO, UN and coalition).
Progress achieved as of March 31, 2018: Attention required/OBJ 5
- 23 % of members deployed on all operations (UN, NATO, etc.) were women.
- Out of 8,138 CAF members selected for expeditionary operations, 935 (11.5%) have been women.
- 186 women were selected for an out-of-Canada assignment (which does not include operational deployments).
Baseline: During 2016, the regular force women in international operations calculated at 11.6% and reserve force women at 17.5%.
5.1.1 Continue to promote the importance of gender considerations in military operations.
5.1.2 Foster the importance and benefits of conducting mixed-gender patrols on operations, which can lead to greater operational effectiveness.
5.1.3 Support the increase of women in command of operations at the senior level
5.1.4 Select women for senior command billets/positions.
5.1.1 The number of women selected for operations.
5.1.2 The number of women selected for Outside Canada program positions.
5.1.3 The number of women selected for foreign staff colleges.
- DND/CAF seek every opportunity to promote the importance of gender in military operations. This topic is included in military-to-military staff talks, and in all bilateral talks and conferences that focus on capability building, projecting stability, counter-violent extremism and conflict resolution.
- Canada, in cooperation with the UN and NATO, continues to promote and emphasize the benefits of conducting mixed patrols on operations to enhance the capability and effectiveness of engaging with local women. This is emphasized on during pre-deployment training for CAF members.
Results and Progress: The CAF continues to provide qualified staff for all deployments, both men and women, who meet the criteria and who are available to be deployed. However, more men are selected due to the fact that in a number of military occupations there are either too few women within the occupation at the time of selection or a woman is just not available.
Of a total of 8,138 CAF members selected for expeditionary operations, 935 have been women which equates to 11.5% of deployed members were women. During 2017, the percentage of women deployed on all operations (UN, NATO, etc.) was 11.23%. The number of women selected for out of Canada assignment (which does not include Operational deployments) was 186, and 3 women were selected for foreign staff colleges in Australia, USA and Belgium.
Establish gender advisors in all specified units
Target 5.2: Support an increase in the number of staff employed as gender advisors.
Progress achieved as of March 31, 2018: Mostly on track/Internal efficiency & capacity
- 2 gender advisors are available for deployment.
- 14 CAF members have completed the NATO accredited gender advisor course from the Nordic Center for Gender in Military Operations.
Baseline: There are three gender advisors in the CAF (one at the strategic level and two at the operational level).
5.2.1 Continue to identify prospective staff to serve as gender advisors to be able to grow the capability.
5.2.2 Provide ongoing education to all ADMs on the capabilities and benefits of engaging gender advisors, early and often.
5.2.3 Establish and publish gender advisor support material (handbooks etc.) to disseminate at all staff functions.
5.2.1 Gender advisor selected and functional for the Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force, Canadian Army and Chief Military Personnel.
5.2.2 Number of gender advisors deployed on operations or ready for deployment.
- DND/CAF continued to identify staff who can be trained as both gender advisors as well as gender focal points who can then provide gender support to the units.
- DND/CAF have committed to active engagement on providing leadership and staff with presentations and one-on-one information sessions to senior leadership on the benefits and necessity of ensuring that gender perspectives and GBA+ are part of all staff processes.
- DND/CAF have access to and promote the GBA+ online course, and the NATO Advanced Distributed Learning online courses on gender in operations as well as other tools such as the Democratic Control of the Armed Forces suite of gender-related tools. In addition, the CAF participates in gender related conferences and ensures that best practices, informational books and concepts are disseminated as required to enhance the ability for gender advisors and gender focal points and other staff to become more proficient in ensuring that gender is integrated within the business of defence.
Results and Progress: Gender advisors continue to be selected and undergo the prerequisite training, but establishing a pool is challenging as it is dependent on the number of training spaces available at the Nordic Center for Gender in Military Operations. The gender advisors are trained to provide the much needed critical guidance, analysis and advice to the commander and all staff principles during planning for and conduct of operations.
Within the CAF, there were 14 members who have completed the NATO accredited gender advisor course from the Nordic Center. However, given current gender advisor requirements within units, personnel rotation and professional development courses, only 2 gender advisors are currently available for deployment. The environmental commands continue to focus on nominating and training gender advisors. The number of trained gender advisors is limited due to the training process, as all trained gender advisors who deploy on NATO missions, must complete the Gender Advisor course provided by the Nordic Center. The limiting factor is the number of available positions that Canada is assigned on an annual basis; currently Canada is limited to 9 positions per year. We are currently working with the Nordic Centre to develop a Mobile Training Team that will see more than 30 gender advisors trained by the end of 2018 in Canada.
Establish gender focal points in all specified units
Target 5.3: Gender advisors and /or gender focal points are fully integrated within all operations (domestic and international).
Progress achieved as of March 31, 2018: On track/OBJ 5
- 369 CAF members are trained as gender focal points.
Baseline: Ten gender focal points are trained and ready to deploy.
5.3.1 Encourage gender focal points to seek gender training and education.
5.3.2 Update of the Chief of the Defence Staff directive to ensure that leaders know the requirement to have gender advisors and gender focal points.
5.3.1 Number of gender focal points trained and ready for deployed operations.
5.3.2 Number of gender focal points deployed.
5.3.3 Gender focal points handbook or ready reference pocket guide for gender focal points and commanders is published.
- DND/CAF continued to train gender focal points for static units and for deployable units.
- DND/CAF are establishing a responsibility center that will coordinate GBA+ across the department, provide subject matter expertise to gender analysis, develop process tools for organizations and ensure that accountability and reporting mechanisms are in place.
Results and Progress: The CAF has drafted a gender handbook that is in the final stages of review. Once complete, it will be distributed to all CAF units and will also be made available to the international community. This handbook will provide information and guidance to commanders, staff principles and gender focal points on how to integrate gender perspectives into daily activities, as well as key questions to ask during the operational planning process.
The establishment of gender focal points continues across both DND and CAF, but given the size and scope of the organization, this target is not yet achieved. The CAF has recorded within the Human Resource Management System that there are 369 members who are trained as gender focal points. This number is probably an under-representation as there are staff that have completed the required training but who have yet to record their achievements into the data management system.
Rating 0 - Too Early to Report: We launched a new initiative the reporting fiscal year. We cannot report on progress.
Rating 1 - Attention Required: Our efforts are not on track to achieve the target by the end of action plan/specified date.
- Experiencing serious problems and intervention is required to ensure the target will be met by the end of action plan/specified date.
Rating 2 - Mostly on Track: Our efforts are mostly on track to achieve the target by the end of action plan/specified date.
- Experiencing manageable problems and minor attention/intervention is required to ensure the target will be met by the end of action plan/specified date.
Rating 3 - On Track: Our efforts are on track to achieve the target by the end of action plan/specified date.
- Normal procedures/level of effort is sufficient to achieve the target by the end of action plan/specified date.
Rating 4 - Target Achieved or Surpassed: We achieved or surpassed the target by the end of action plan/specified date.
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