2018-2019 Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces departmental progress report for Canada’s National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security
Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces
The Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces (DND/CAF) recognize that armed conflict, natural disasters, and humanitarian crises affect women, men, girls, and boys differently. As noted in Canada’s 2017 defence policy, Strong, Secure, Engaged (SSE), women’s participation is vital to achieving and sustaining peace, and has a tangible impact on the operational effectiveness of our forces. Women broaden the range of skills and capacities among all categories of personnel, improve the delivery of peace and security tasks, enhance situational awareness and early-warning by facilitating outreach to women in communities, and improve a military force’s accessibility, credibility, and effectiveness in working among local populations.
As such, DND/CAF is committed to being a strong partner with Global Affairs Canada in putting women and girls at the centre of Government of Canada efforts to prevent and resolve conflict. Integrating United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325 and embedding gender perspectives into our policies, training/education, and operations are moral and operational imperatives that will contribute to a culture of respect internally and increase DND/CAF effectiveness as it delivers on its mandate.
DND/CAF support for Canada’s renewed Action Plan builds on a number of recent, new directives and initiatives – as set out in SSE – aimed at integrating gender perspectives into our internal policies and into our operations abroad, notably as it relates to recruitment, diversity, responding to inappropriate behaviour, and training/education. DND/CAF will use targets and indicators to track our progress as we implement our strategies.
Over the course of Canada’s renewed Action Plan 2017-2022, DND/CAF will focus on implementing and tracking these initiatives, with a view to delivering results – for example to further integrate Gender-based Analysis Plus (GBA+) within DND, meet recruitment targets, and increase the number of uniformed women deployed on international operations. DND/CAF, as a committed partner, has identified a number of priority activities to support the ongoing implementation of the Action Plan, consistent with SSE. These activities are organized around the following themes:
- Governance and Accountability;
- Recruitment and Retention;
- Training and Education; and
- Integration into Operations.
Each of these themes have specific targets that will be measured and reported on an annual basis, and if required, may be re-examined in line with the departmental and Government of Canada priorities. The detailed list of DND/CAF targets for the Action Plan 2017-2022 – including baselines, activities, and indicators to measure progress – is provided below.
The departmental report below covers the period of April 1, 2018 to March 31, 2019. For every target, it provides a high-level snapshot of the progress achieved to date, outlines completed activities, and analyzes results and progress.
1. Governance and accountability
Context: DND/CAF will establish and update departmental directives, policies and guidelines to ensure that gender perspectives, using GBA+, are embedded in all processes, policies procedures and associated documentation.
- Mainstream gender equality analysis throughout policies and programming – taking into account the different needs of women, men, girls, and boys.
- Advance the Employment Equity PlanFootnote 1 to be more reflective of the composition of Canadian society, and to contribute to the enhancement of defence and security missions at home and abroad.
- Continue to build on the work done by Operation Honour (Directorate of Professional Military Conduct)Footnote 2 to eliminate harmful and inappropriate sexual behaviour within the CAF and to establish the CAF as employer of choice for men, women and non-binary people.
- Domestically, work to implement the Department of Women and Gender Equality’s Strategy to prevent and address Gender-Based Violence for which Budget 2017 allocated a total of four million dollars over five years to increase funding for Family Crisis Teams within the Defence Team.
DND/CAF is committed to the implementation of UNSCR 1325 and to ensuring that we continue to advance gender equality, both within the institution at home and abroad, and to champion Women, Peace and Security (WPS). The Defence Team leadership will continue to work with like-minded partners to promote human rights in all fora. DND/CAF`s leadership is committed to ensuring that gender perspectives are woven into our daily activities and will advocate for the advancement of the WPS agenda when we engage bilaterally or in multi-national fora, including North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the United Nation (UN).
Implement the tenets of UNSCR 1325 and related resolutions
Target 1.1: Fully institutionalize the integration of gender perspectives using GBA+ in DND/CAF.
Target achieved to date as of March 31, 2019: Mostly on track
Baseline: The January 2016 Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) Directive for Integrating UNSCR 1325 and Related Resolutions into CAF Planning and Operations, and the January 2018 Deputy Minister’s Policy Statement on Diversity and Inclusion.
1.1.1 Integrate gender perspectives using GBA+ into Memoranda to Cabinet, Treasury Board and associated Cabinet submissions, policy documents, appropriation directions, procurement requirements, project proposals, strategies, operational plans, operational orders, exercises, and related peace and security activities.
1.1.2 Establish the DND Gender Diversity and Inclusion Directorate to support the integration of GBA+ and gender and diversity into all Defence activities as directed in SSE.
1.1.3 Publish a Joint Directive to provide guidance to the Assistant Deputy Ministers (ADMs) and Commanders (CAF L1s) on systematically integrating GBA+ within each organization.
1.1.4 Mandate ADMs to establish senior Gender Focal Points and to develop a GBA+ transition plan for integrating GBA+ into existing and future policies, projects, programs, and initiatives.
1.1.5 Establish a Gender Advisor (GENAD) and/or gender focal point within each DND and CAF organization, and large operation.
1.1.1 Number of CAF L1s that have established a GENAD.
1.1.2 Number of DND Senior Gender Focal Points.
- DND/CAF continues to institutionalize the use of GBA+ in all Memoranda to Cabinet, Treasury Board and associated submissions, policy documents, appropriation directions, procurement requirements, project proposals, strategies, operational plans, operational orders, exercises, and related peace and security activities.
- GBA+ requirements have been integrated into DND Comprehensive Project Approval Directive (PAD) templates and guidance documents that provide practical instructions to conduct and use GBA+ in a project lifecycle.
- GBA+ was applied to DND’s new Mobilizing Insights in Defence and Security program, formerly the Defence Engagement Program, and GBA+ is now a rated criterion (20%) for Targeted Engagement Grants.
- DND GBA+ Transition plans have been developed by departmental organizations to integrate GBA+ into their activities.
- Changes were made to uniform policies to accommodate the needs of CAF members. The Undergarment Brassiere policy, for the first time, permits chest binders and nursing bras as well as support garments for men. Also, the naval uniform for women can be longer and more modest upon request and there are additional accommodations for pregnant women and persons with disabilities.
- DND/CAF continues to develop its capacity to integrate gender perspectives using GBA+ with an expansive network of GBA+ Focal Points, Gender Advisors (GENADs) and Gender Focal Points (GFPs) positioned throughout the organization.
- The Directorate of Gender Equality, Diversity and Inclusion has been staffed with 13 full-time equivalents dedicated to the implementation of GBA+ within the Department.
- CAF has also significantly increased the number of GENADs and GFPs. A Gender Advisor is a full-time position, usually a military position employed at the L1s. These positions exist to support Commanders in the integration of gender perspectives in both the institutional and operational realms as well as to provide guidance on the application of these principles in daily work. They are engaged in ensuring that operational plans, exercises, policies, procedures, and training incorporate gender perspectives. They are also engaged in the development and delivery of training for personnel preparing for operational deployments. GFPs perform similar duties on a part-time basis because they are positioned throughout the CAF at lower levels of the chain of command with less authority over the development of policies and plans.
Results and Progress:
- Pursuant to the 2016 CDS Implementation Directive on UNSCR 1325 and the 2018 Deputy Minister’s (DM) Policy Statement on Diversity and Inclusion, the integration of gender perspectives has been progressively implemented across DND/CAF. Work is continuing to strengthen a coordinated DND/CAF approach to WPS and to the use of GBA+.
- There is strong senior-level leadership and collaboration as the CDS and the DM provide support to the Champions appointed in 2018. These include: three Champions for Gender and Diversity for operations; one Champion for WPS; and two Champions for GBA+. The robust community of Champions, GENADs and GFPs positions DND/CAF to deliver on WPS at home and abroad.
- There are currently 6 Senior GBA+ Focal Points amongst 83 GFPs across DND organizations. They assist in the establishment of the DND GBA+ Network and will support departmental organizations in building their GBA+ capacity to implement DND’s GBA+ Transition plans.
- The CAF has organized its network as follows:
- There are three GENADs at the operational and force generating level: at the Canadian Joint Operations Command (CJOC), Canadian Special Operations Forces Command (CANSOFCOM), and Chief Military Personnel (CMP). The CAF also has one GENAD at the Strategic Joint Staff (SJS).
- There are five Senior GFPs across the CAF force generating level: Royal Canadian Navy (RCN), Canadian Army (CA), Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF), Canadian Forces Intelligence Command (CFINTCOM), and Vice Chief of Defence Staff (VCDS).
- In addition, there are approximately 100 trained CAF GFP personnel. They are located in units and headquarters and perform the role related to the integration of gender perspectives on an as required basis.
- Finally, CANSOFCOM is also employing a GFP in order to advance the command’s integration of gender perspectives within institutional areas.
- The CAF continued to implement UNSCR 1325 and related resolutions in Fiscal year 2018/2019. Work continues to enhance our effectiveness through institutionalized training for CAF personnel. DND/CAF therefore is moving to increase the number of experts to lead and guide the implementation of the WPS agenda.
Implement all aspects of the Departmental Diversity and Employment Equity strategies
Target 1.2: Effective support for and implementation of the CAF Employment Equity Plan.
Target achieved to date as of March 31, 2019: Attention required
Baseline: CAF Diversity Strategy and the CDS approved Action Plan as per January 2017.
1.2.1 Promote attainment of Employment Equity (EE) within the CAF through a better understanding of barriers and the use of tools to support EE.
1.2.2 Allocate, with support and commitment of leadership, appropriate resources and capabilities to effectively implement the CAF Employment Equity Plan.
1.2.1 Number of cyclical meetings of Employment Equity supporting committee and Defence Advisory Group meetings conducted.
1.2.2 Number of Employment Equity Implementation Task Table initiatives implemented.
1.2.3 Percentage of Bases/Wings with active Defence Advisory Groups.
1.2.4 Trends in Employment Equity and Diversity based on surveys conducted during the reporting period.
- DND/CAF has re-energized its efforts with regards to EE governance in order to provide guidance and direction to the Defence Team and ensure that EE considerations are at the forefront of our recruiting and retention efforts.
- The Defence Team – Human Resources Committee (DT-HRC) met six times in the last year. Two Defense Advisory Group (DAG) National Executive meetings were held. The DAG National Co-chair Council assembled for the first time in several years.
- A monthly teleconference between the DAG National Co-chairs, CAF Directorate Human Rights and Diversity (DHRD), and Directorate of Workforce Programs and Services (DWPS) was established in January 2019 and occurred 3 times during the reporting period.
- Notably, 93% of Bases/Wings have Employment Equity Defence Advisory Groups.
- The annual Employment Equity Report will be available in September 2019 to account for yearly findings for the previous reporting year.
Results and Progress:
- Canada’s Defence Policy, Strong, Secure, Engaged, initiated several initiatives that will leverage Canada’s diversity. The policy provides direction to promote diversity and inclusion as a core institutional value across the Defence Team, to focus on the recruiting and retention of under-represented populations within the CAF, and to aspire to increase the representation of women in the CAF to reach 25% of the overall force by 2026. Despite a fully developed plan, the CAF is encountering challenges in achieving the 25% target. The CAF has increased women’s representation by less than 1% in the last three years, so it needs to develop more effective approaches in order to achieve the 2026 target.
- Additional resources have been allocated to this line of business. There was an increase in the number of meetings held by the Employment Equity committee and DAG meetings. The newly designed training package for executive leadership includes information on Employment Equity, biases, and micro aggressions. Notably, a micro aggression toolkit has been introduced and integrated into the National Harassment Prevention Strategy.
- In terms of tools, the Assistant Deputy Minister (Public Affairs) has developed occupational marketing videos focused on Employment Equity to support the recruiting efforts of minorities and designated groups.
- Over the last two years, there has been a shift in focus from understanding demographic representation towards a safe and inclusive workplace as a key driver of recruitment and retention. In doing so, research and analysis has considered issues like harassment, discrimination, burnout, and psychological distress for Employment Equity and diverse groups. Understanding the link between workplace well-being and recruitment/retention will inform the development of strategies as we move forward.
Support international cooperation on WPS
Target 1.3: DND and CAF engage with like-minded foreign defence and security organizations on implementing the tenets of Women, Peace, and Security.
Target achieved to date as of March 31, 2019: ON TRACK
Baseline: DND/CAF engages with partner nations who have committed to increasing engagement in promoting the WPS agenda through several bilateral and multilateral meetings.
1.3.1 Engage with the international defence community to support the participation and leadership of women in delivering peace and security efforts.
1.3.2 Continue to support the engagement of senior DND and CAF champions and key staff in leading and promoting WPS in international fora, such as UN, NATO, Five Eyes (FVYE – coalition comprised of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States).
1.3.3 Share knowledge and expertise on gender equality and gender norms with Canadian defence and military experts and stakeholders.
1.3.1 Number of gender conferences conducted or participated in.
1.3.2 Number of senior/key leaders resources to speak at international forums on gender practices with National Defence.
1.3.3 Membership on international committees, such as the NATO Committee on Gender Perspectives (NCGP), UN committees and subcommittees, and senior Defence related meetings that provide the opportunity to contribute to dialogue on gender perspectives in the military.
- DND/CAF continues to be very active with its international partners and has increased its membership in committees and working group, accepted speaking engagements, and taken a leadership role to highlight Canada’s achievements in the implementation of the WPS agenda and share best practices and lessons learned.
- The Minister of National Defence regularly and actively advocated for an increased role for women in peace operations, as well as in all aspects of the military, in numerous public fora and bilateral meetings. For example while delivering the National Statement at the United Nations Peacekeeping Ministerial, the NATO Defence Ministerial, the Halifax International Security Forum, and in engagements with the academic community.
- DND/CAF has increased its participation on international committees:
- A CAF member is the Deputy Chair of the NATO Committee on Gender Perspectives. Canada held the position for the past four years, which highlights the value that Canada’s military places on gender perspectives.
- CAF continues to be an active participant in the Nordic Centre for Gender in Military Operations (NCGM) Steering Committee, for which meetings are held bi-annually.
- CAF is a member of the NCGM Subject Matter Expert Working Group, which holds monthly teleconferences.
- In preparation for the United Nations Peacekeeping Ministerial, CAF/ DND provided support to the January 19, 2019 UN WPS Preparatory meeting co-hosted by Canada and Ethiopia. The meeting was established to ensure that gender continues to be included as a crosscutting theme in relation to all of the UN sessions regarding peace support operations.
- SJS, CANSOFCOM, and CJOC GENADs participate in a monthly Gender Advisor synchronization call, which connects gender advisors with an international forum to discuss integration initiatives in operations and best practices.
- CAF conducted and/or participated in nine conferences:
- CAF Champions for Diversity in Operations attended the Swedish Armed Forces Women, Peace, and Security Conference.
- The CJOC GENAD participated in training focused on vulnerable populations in natural disasters as part of Exercise READY RENAISSANCE.
- The Champion for WPS attended and briefed at the SOUTHCOM Women in Military and Security Conference (WIMCOM) conference.
- The Champion for Women attended a Gender Integration Seminar for the Jordanian Armed Forces and Lebanese Armed Forces.
- The CJOC and SJS GENADs participated in a WPS and gender perspective conference hosted by McGill University.
- The CJOC GENAD participated in a Planning Conference with the Multinational Planning Augmentation Team, with a focus on creating SOPs for multinational force employment considering gender perspectives, protection of civilians, and vulnerable populations.
- CANSOFCOM Command leadership and GENAD participated in the Women, Peace, and Security themed Senior Leadership Seminar in Countering Violent and Extremist Organizations as part of Exercise FLINTLOCK.
- The CANSOFCOM GENAD conducted an assessment of Norway’s Jegertroppen in order to gain insight on the training and integration of their women’s conscript program.
- CANSOFCOM directly supported CJOC’s Canadian Training and Assistance Team-Lebanon by delivering a two day program on the CAF’s approach to implementing UNSCR 1325.
- DND/CAF senior leaders presented on WPS related topics at 12 conferences/events:
- In November 2018, the CDS and other senior CAF leaders participated in the first year of the Halifax International Security Forum Peace with Women Fellowship. This Fellowship consisted of seven senior women officers from NATO and partner countries who participated in a three-week executive tour of Canada and the United States.
- In June 2018, Rear-Admiral Jennifer Bennett chaired the NCGM Gender Key Leaders Seminar, alongside Commodore (Cmdre) Josée Kurtz and Chief Warrant Officer (CWO) Colleen Halpin, both CAF Champions for GBA+ and WPS.
- DND Senior leaders championed the importance of gender equality, diversity, and the integration of gender perspectives into the Armed Forces at five major international conferences:
- ASEAN and Major Powers Conference on Challenges and Opportunities;
- Canadian High Commission in London, UK, on Leading the Pursuit of Gender Equality in the Defence Sector;
- The Brussels summit dialogue on NATO Engagement;
- The XII Conference of Defence Minsters of the Americas; and
- NATO Parliamentary assembly Defence and Security Conference.
- DND continues to develop its relationship with civil society on WPS issues and participated in five events to share DND/CAF experience with the implementation of the WPS agenda.
- In March 2019, CAF co-chaired a meeting with the Women, Peace and Security Network-Canada to engage on WPS issues.
- DND presented at the 2018 Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society Conference in Ottawa on the integration of GBA+ into DND/CAF and also spoke to pre-selected Defence Industry bidders for the Future Aircrew Training Program on the GBA+ requirements for procurement.
- In March 2018, DND presented at the U.S. Military Academy West Point about the importance of women and diverse groups in the military as well as the integration of gender perspectives into institutional activities and operational planning in the military.
- CANSOFCOM GENAD participated as a panelist member for the Defence Engagement Program discussion on Gender and Women, Peace, and Security.
- SJS GENAD presented at the Kingston Women in International Security Conference in March 2019.
Results and Progress:
- DND/CAF continues to strengthen its networks and partnerships and increase engagement in promoting the WPS agenda through various commitments undertaken with bilateral partners, as well as multi-lateral partners, mainly the UN and NATO. The ability and scope of the engagements far exceeds expectations and this will only deepen as the Chief of the Defence Staff assumes chairmanship of the UN WPS Chief of Defence (CHoDs) Network in FY 2019-20. The result of this increased level of international collaboration has strengthened DND/CAF’s involvement on this file. However, there is a need to improve the planning of engagements, as well as the tracking of them, against the advancement of DND/CAF goals. More needs to be done to effectively share the information gathered during engagements across the institution.
- One example of the CAF’s international engagements occurred during the Exercise FLINTLOCK Senior Leadership Seminar on Countering Violent Extremism. This seminar, attended by CAF/CANSOFCOM, facilitated interaction and collaboration amongst Allies, host nation partners, women’s organizations, and local community leaders on issues such as:
- Building strategies to enhance community resilience (such as countering recruitment into extremist organizations and building immunity, Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration, and to mitigate social and economic pressures);
- Empowering women and the meaningful inclusion of women leaders; and
- Promoting community-based decision making and identification of solutions to enable lasting stability efforts (post-conflict state building).
- This event was hosted by the Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies and US Special Operations Command Africa and incorporated WPS as a key theme.
- Domestically, in March 2019, CAF co-chaired a meeting with a civil society network, Women, Peace, and Security Network-Canada, alongside defence and security partners in DND, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and Veterans Affairs Canada. This collaboration facilitated information sharing and building upon new and existing relationships with civil society, as well as security and defence partners. Notably, Brigadier-General (BGen) Lise Bourgon, Champion WPS provided insight on the progress of CAF operations in relations to WPS priorities and highlighted opportunities for future collaboration. This positive exchange demonstrated a strong and sustained commitment to increasing engagement and promoting the WPS agenda. In addition, this meeting allowed defence partners to find common opportunities and challenges in achieving WPS goals.
Continue to enhance monitoring and reporting on GBA+ and gender perspectives in DND and CAF
Target 1.4: Enhanced DND/CAF monitoring and reporting on the integration of gender perspectives and GBA+.
Target achieved to date as of March 31, 2019: Attention requiredFootnote 3
Baseline: A GBA+ planning and reporting section is integrated into the DND and CAF Departmental Plan and Departmental Results Report, and the UNSCR 1325 Implementation Working Group (UIWG) is established.
1.4.1 Continue to hold quarterly UIWG meetings to discuss, solicit input, and share challenges and best practices in implementing UNSCR 1325 and related resolutions in the CAF.
1.4.2 Hold quarterly DND GFP Network meetings to monitor the progress of the department in integrating GBA+ and gender perspectives.
1.4.3 Collect gender and diversity-sensitive data across DND/CAF.
1.4.1 Number of intra-departmental and interdepartmental working groups with a GBA+ or WPS nexus.
- CAF established and held three UIWG meetings to coordinate implementation efforts and exchange lessons learned, best practices, and challenges.
- CJOC hosted four intra-departmental working groups to discuss various themes related to the integration of gender perspectives.
- DND held two GBA+ Focal Point Network meetings in July 2018 and January 2019 to guide the development of GBA+ transition plans for each departmental organization and to provide GBA+ Focal Points with updates and the opportunity to discuss challenges and needs regarding the implementation of GBA+ in their respective areas of work.
Results and Progress:
- The UNSCR 1325 Implementation Working Group met three times to discuss the integration of the WPS agenda into CAF lines of effort as well as activities on integrating GBA+ across the department. Updates were provided on progress and challenges in implementing Canada’s National Action Plan on WPS, and training and education, such as capacity and resources. The UIWG identified opportunities for collaboration on large-scale projects and initiatives such as Canada’s increased engagement with the UN WPS CHoDs Network and to streamline efforts on other gender-perspectives integration activities, such as training and education.
- At the June 2018 UIWG session, Champion for WPS, BGen Bourgon provided the opening remarks setting out her vision for positive change, and highlighted the importance of integrating WPS into recruitment and training, the institution, and operations in a balanced approach.
- DND/CAF is an active member of 4 interdepartmental working groups with a GBA+ nexus:
- Security and Intelligence Diversity and Inclusion Tiger Team;
- GBA+ Interdepartmental Committee;
- Co-chair of GBA+ Interdepartmental Committee Cluster on Security and Defence;
- Working Group on GBA+ and National Security.
- DND/CAF recognizes the need to review its C-NAP Implementation Plan that provides the framework against which to measure progress. More emphasis is needed on outputs and outcomes to accurately report the effectiveness of Defence Team activities.
2. Recruitment and retention
Context: Further to the CDS Directive on Recruitment, the CAF will continue to seek to increase the number of women within the CAF, and in turn the number of women available to be promoted to senior positions and for deployment. Recruiting processes including advertising, wait process times, job availability, application procedures, testing, and medical and fitness standards are all aspects that affect the decision process of a potential new recruit. In addition, aspects such as family balance, job enjoyment, selection for professional development, velocity of promotion, and having a safe and harassment free work environment are all factors that will contribute to making the CAF an attractive employer for potential new members.
Increase the recruitment of women to the CAF
Target 2.1: Increase the percentage of women in the Canadian military by 1% per year to achieve a desired goal of 25% by the end of FY 2026.
Progress achieved as of March 31, 2019: Attention required
Baseline: Percentage of women in the Canadian military was 15.4% as of March 2018.
2.1.1 Identify barriers in order to streamline the application process, including wait times for testing, medical examination, offer of employment, and enrollment to support the recruitment of women who select a career in the military.
2.1.2 Enhance the recruiting campaign and advertising to target women to join the military with emphasis on both common and unique employment opportunities.
2.1.3 Increase the availability of both Women Champions as well as a cross section of serving women to attend and participate in events that promote women in the military and their achievements within all trades, with emphasis on non-traditional jobs such as the infantry, artillery, and related combat arms employment.
2.1.4 Establish a Strategic Intake Plan (SIP) for women by year to include women-centric recruiting programs.
2.1.1 Number of women who apply to the CAF out of total number of applications received.
2.1.2 Number of women who are given an offer of employment out of the total number of women who apply.
2.1.3 Percentage of women who join for non-traditional employment.
2.1.4 Reasons for which applicants disengaged from the recruitment process.
- CAF is fully committed to increasing the number of women and enhancing diversity within its ranks. The CDS/DM Directive on Recruiting called “Operation Generation” published in May 2018 clearly expresses the priority to be given to this recruiting effort.
- Increasing the women’s applicant pool for targeted occupations is an essential first step to growing the number of women in the CAF. CAF is taking a deliberate approach to establish clear objectives and to enable CAF recruiting units, Canadian Forces Recruiting Group (headquarters), and recruiting center staff to concentrate on targeting key stakeholders through select activities/opportunities, such as engaging with academic institutions about programs specifically catered to women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM).
- Canadian Forces Recruiting Group is partnering with the Privy Council Office group (Innovation Hub) who provides research assistance and best practices in effective communications and messaging to women to secure appropriate employment opportunities. This strategy includes benchmarking key successful industry leaders and other Five-Eye nation’s strategies.
- Military Personnel Command put in place 11 women-focused marketing and attraction campaigns, including the following:
- Canadian Forces Recruitment Centre - Quebec started a successful Instagram account “Soeurs en armes”.
- CAF participated in an “Ask Me Anything” (20 Questions and Answers) digital engagement opportunity on the forces.ca and Canada.ca websites from February to April 2019 and enhanced the visibility of the CAF as a viable and appealing employer for women and designated groups by providing responses to the most common questions asked by Canadians interested in joining the CAF.
- CAF Expanded the “Recruiter For A Day” to include the STEM-related trades from a Woman’s Perspective (Apr 2018 – present).
- More images of women are now featured in the Regular Officer Training Plan and Paid Education Brochure and Postcards. This package is disseminated across Canada and shown during attraction activities. This initiative will continue to span all enrollment programs and occupations within the CAF over the next few years.
- CAF has completed the assessment of a new “Women In Force Program” that will inform the campaign in the next FY. Launched in 2017, the program provided the opportunity for 120 women to learn about military life before deciding whether they would join. The program included an opportunity to talk with current CAF members while experiencing different facets of a military lifestyle, including fitness training, hands-on demonstrations of occupations, and tactical skills.
- CAF has implemented a new Strategic Intake Plan target of 25% women for the Royal Military College selection.
- Launched a new “I Love My Job” video campaign which takes individual perspectives and places the member at the focus of the videos. These videos are produced and will be published shortly.
- CFRG HQ sent a team of digital engagement personnel (including a Public Affairs Officer) to support and record the Aircraft Maintenance Competition in Atlanta Georgia with resulted in multimedia coverage and individual 60 second stories. These will be released in FY 19-20. The Canadian Forces Recruiting Group continues to maintain a balanced and focused communications campaign with high schools across Canada to focus on recruiting young women.
- A “Women in the CAF” page was added to Forces.ca highlighting the history of women in service to Canada (Link: https://forces.ca/en/women-in-the-caf/)
- Since March 2019, all aspects of recruiting have incorporated gender perspectives using GBA+. An annex has been developed for use in all administration and operational decision making processes.
- Finally, as part of the Innovation for Defence Excellence and Security program, Canadian Forces Recruiting Group headquarters personnel investigated 13 possible public initiatives/strategies to increase representation of women in the Canadian Armed Forces. Three of the strategies were announced and awarded by the Minister for action in the summer of 2019 (https://www.canada.ca/en/department-national-defence/news/2018/08/first-innovation-contracts-awarded-under-the-innovation-for-defence-excellence-and-security-ideas-program.html):
- Smart recruiting using deep learning - use a machine learning solution to semi-automate the recruitment process that will help improve the efficiency of recruiters and increase the representation of women within the CAF (Xtract AI),
- SkyHive Women in the Military - matching algorithms and machine learning to break down experience and jobs into skills that will enable the CAF to achieve a significant improvement in attracting, selecting, training and retaining women in the military (SkyHive Technologies Inc), and
- Improving CAF Gender Diversity - draw insights from Canadian companies and organizations that have successfully overcome their sectors’ challenges in recruiting and retaining women and collect best practices that can be applied to raising CAF gender representation (University of Waterloo).
Results and Progress:
- CAF representation of women has increased from 14.9% to 15.4% (15.0% Regular Force (Reg F) and 16.3% Primary Reserve (P Res)) as of March 2018. This represents a slight increase from the March 2016 level of 14.9%.
- The CAF enrolment of women in the Reg F remains steady, trending slightly upward with 17% in 2016-17, 17.1% in 2017-18, and 17.4% in 2018-19.
- CAF Reg F recorded 23% online applications from women (9,532 out of 41,601). It is important to note that, prior to Jan 2019, the online application did not require gender identification and therefore a significant number of those applications had no registered gender (13,885 out of 41,601). When we remove the applications that did not have gender identification, 34% of applicants were women (9,532 out of 27,716).
- In 2018-19, CAF enrolled a total of 896 women in the Reg F compared to 860 in FY 2017/18 and 775 in FY 2016/17. The ratio of offer-extended to offer-accepted is nearly 100% because of the rigorous and extensive selection process.
- With regards to the P Res, the data for the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN), the Canadian Army (CA), the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF), and Health Services Group (Hlth Svc) are detailed in the following table (note that data for previous years were not available in time to include in this year’s report so trends cannot be deduced at this time):
|Royal Canadian Navy (RCN)||Canadian Army (CA)||Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF)||Health Services Group (Hlth Svc)|
|Number of women who apply to the CAF out of total number of applications received.||33% (361 out of 1,086)||21.2% (3,204 out of 15,081)||31.4% (127 out of 404 )||35% (604 out of 1,714)|
|Number of women who are given an offer of employment out of the total number of women who apply.||51% (183 out of 361)||10.5% (338 out of 3,204)||17.3% (22 out of 127)||20.5% (25 out of 122)|
- This FY, 9.4% (896 out of 9,532) of women who applied to the CAF Reg F were enrolled and 15.8 % (601 out of 3,814) for the P ResFootnote 4. We note that a large proportion of applicants withdraw from the process well before reaching the final selection stage.
- In the Reg F, of the 9,532 applicants, 5,190 (54.4%) decided not to pursue their application after first contact, 702 (7.4%) were not eligible to join the CAFFootnote 5, and 2,574 (27%) withdrew from the selection process at various stage. The remaining 1,066 (11.2%) did not meet one or more of the selection criteria for enrolment in the CAFFootnote 6.
- In the P Res, the CA reports that out of 3,204 applicants, a total of 2866 did not complete the selection process. 2,458 (76.7%) decided not to pursue their application after first contact, 107 (3.3%) were not eligible to join the CAF, and 203 (6.3%) withdrew from the selection process at various stage. The remaining 98 (3.1%) did not meet one or more of the selection criteria for enrolment in the CAF. The RCN and Health Svc Gp were unable to provide information in time for this report. The RCAF reports that out of 127 applicants, a total of 36 (28.3%) did not complete the selection process. Thirteen (36%) decided not to pursue their application after first contact, one (2.8%) was not eligible to join the CAF, and eight (22.2%) withdrew from the selection process at various stage. The remaining 14 (38.9%) did not meet one or more of the selection criteria.
- CAF Reg F enrolled 44.97% of women in non-traditional occupations (403 out of 896)Footnote 7. In the CAF P Res, the CA reports 56.2% enrolled in non-traditional occupations (190 out of 338), the RCN reports 54% (99 out of 183), the RCAF reports 32.3% (31 out of 127), and Hlth Svc reports 0%.
- There has been strong collaboration between CAF entities to provide the Canadian Forces Recruiting Group Headquarters with objectives by occupation group in order to increase the recruitment of women. In order to achieve these goals, CFRG has conducted priority processing and selection for women applicants.
- Processing: CFRG established EE specific processing control lines in order to increase the number of EE applicants in process. Women applicants receive priority booking for processing appointments.
- Selection: CFRG HQ carried out priority selection of women applicants in the past three FYs, resulting in an increase of women enrollments from 775 in FY 16/17, to 860 in FY 17/18, and 896 in FY 18/19.
- In the 2016 CAF Action Plan in response to the fall 2016 Report of the Auditor General of Canada (Report 5) on the Canadian Forces Recruiting and Retention, the CAF committed to take action for the increase of women at Military Colleges. The CAF is maintaining an upward trend in women’s enrollment since then: 17.1% in FY 2016-2017, 22.5% in FY 2017-2018, and 23.4% in FY 2018-2019.
- Overall, while CAF has made some improvements in the attraction and enrollment of women applicants in the past few years, there remains a risk of regression if current level of focus and resourcing are not maintained. Early projections signal slight increases in the recruitment and enrollment of women toward the next fiscal year. It should be noted, however, that context is important in analysing the numbers. For example, while the annual percentage of women recruited (compared to overall intake number) is growing slowly, this is directly due to the fact that overall intake has grown 500-800 per year over the last 3 years in response to the direction to increase the number of CAF personnel to 101,500 (Reg F and P Res). FY 19/20 will be the first full recruiting year with all of the new initiatives outlined above in place. End year results will provide the CAF with a good indication of their level of effectiveness going forward. If these initiatives do not result in a marked increase in women’s recruitment, more interventions will be needed to meet its stated goal.
Increase the retention of women in the CAF
Target 2.2: Understand the major reason for women releasing from the CAF and eliminate/mitigate any issues if they are identified.
Target achieved to date as of March 31, 2019: On track
Baseline: In FY 2017/2018, 15.2% (1,091 out of 7,200) of CAF personnel who voluntary released were women.
2.2.1 Conduct departure/exit surveys/interviews.
2.2.2 Track and review release data.
2.2.3 Consult and exchange information with other militaries on trends and retention strategies and programs.
2.2.1 Annual ratio of women to men who release from the CAF.
2.2.2 Trends or cluster issues causing women to release from the CAF.
- The CAF conducted a Retention Survey in early 2019, results have been received and the data prepared for analysis. The results of the Survey will be available in fall 2019.
- There is no new retention data from the CAF Exit Survey for FY 18/19. The Exit Survey underwent a major overhaul in the last year, as it had been put on hiatus as of March 2017. The last analyses of Exit Survey data was completed at the end of 2017. The Exit Survey is a paper-based survey that the member is asked to complete, on a voluntary basis, at the time of requesting a release. The previous results indicated a low response rate which triggered a review of the content and administration process. The survey has therefore been revised and work has begun to change the delivery method to an online format. This method will be facilitated with an automatic email of the survey being sent to individuals requesting a voluntary release. Data collection is expected to resume in January 2020.
Results and Progress:
- Based on previous research, attrition rates are similar for men and women up to 19 Years of Service (YOS). At 20 YOS and beyond, attrition rates are noticeably higher for women. Also, medical attrition has been higher for women (e.g., over the last three years, just over 50% of releases of women have been for medical reasons), and voluntary attrition has been higher for men. There is some speculation that aspects of equipment, training, or other factors may contributing to this, but more research is required.
- CAF-wide surveys indicate that there are few differences between men and women Regular Force members on self-reported intentions to voluntarily release and on satisfaction with a range of work and organizational factors. CAF-wide research over the past decade and beyond consistently indicates the same overall reasons for leaving; however, teasing out specific causal factors is not easy. Retention and attrition occurs in a complex, multifactorial environment and people usually do not leave for just one specific reason. Research consistently shows that the main reasons for voluntary release are job dissatisfaction and lack of meaningful work, postings and geographic stability, impact on family, dissatisfaction with one’s occupation, career progression and/or career management, and dissatisfaction with pay. However, much of this research is not disaggregated by gender as it relates to occupation, location, and other factors so more detailed study is required to develop targeted strategies for retaining women. It should also be noted that these findings do not imply that there are no differences between men and women in their experience of serving in the CAF (e.g., particularly as related to concerns such as discrimination or harassment) which may also play a factor in intentions to leave.
- Annual Ratio of women to men who release from the CAF
- Total % of women who released: 1,010/15,162 = 6.7%
- Total % of men who released: 6882/81552 = 8.4%
- Total released: 7,892/96,714 = 8.2%
- Women release rate from the CAF is 1.7% less than men.
- In FY 2018-19, 12.8% of CAF personnel who voluntary released were women.
- External Reasons for Leaving
- Historical results on the responses of women and men on external reasons for leaving are presented belowFootnote 8. An examination of the results did not reveal any noteworthy differences between men and women releasing from the CAF. The 2019 CAF Retention Survey results should indicate if there are any changes to that trend.
|Family reasons||Eligible for pension benefits||Returning to school||Personal health reasons||Family wants me to leave|
- In summary, CAF is working diligently to understand reasons for voluntary attrition through a review of the Exit Survey both in content and delivery method. There is a requirement for additional CAF-wide research to consider factors related to environment, occupation and location. Some of this research is already underway. At this time, however, due to limited data, conclusive deductions on why women CAF members voluntarily release cannot be made. Furthermore, a new Retention Strategy is under development that will target ‘unhealthy’ attrition (problematic attrition is that which is voluntary, avoidable, and dysfunctional; i.e. when high performers leave, particularly those who are trained but still have many potential years of service). This new strategy will be informed by the trends identified in the ongoing research in this area.
Increase the number of women in senior level positions in National Defence
Target 2.3: Increase the number and proportion of women at senior levels, Non Commissioned Members, Officers and executive-levels in DND and CAF.
Target achieved to date as of March 31, 2019: Mostly on track / Internal efficiency & capacity
Baseline: CAF Employment Equity Report 2015-2016 Schedule 6.
2.3.1 Select women for leadership and education training opportunities.
2.3.2 Maintain 15% presence of CAF women on UN operations as staff officers and in observer positions.
2.3.3 Develop a mentoring framework for all CAF members.
2.3.4 Monitor career progression of women in the CAF.
2.3.5 Incorporate GBA+ considerations/review into CAF career management.
2.3.1 Annual percentage of women officers by Military Occupation Groups promoted to the ranks of Lieutenant-Colonel/Commander (LCol/Cdr) and higher.
2.3.2 Annual percentage of women NCM by Military Occupation Groups who are promoted to the ranks of Master Warrant Officer/Chief Petty Officer or higher.
2.3.3 Percentage of women holding senior positions and appointments (Colonel/Captain (Navy) (Col/ (Capt (N)) or above).
2.3.4 Number of women appointed/filling Command team positions during the reporting period.
- DND/CAF is committed to increasing the number and proportion of women in leadership roles and senior levels within the organization and is taking step to ensure a work environment that is conducive to success and offers opportunities for promotion.
- Defence Women's Advisory Organizations assist the DND/CAF senior leadership and personnel in establishing a more equitable work environment and enhancing career opportunities for women across the National Capital Region. In FY 2018-2019 there were two inspiration sessions hosted separately by Deputy Minister Jody Thomas, Champion for Total/Mental Health (January 2019), and CWO Colleen Halpin, Champion for Gender and Diversity for Operations (March 2019).
- For International Women’s Day on March 8, 2019, Cmdre Rebecca Patterson, Defence Champion for Women, hosted a national event to signal the importance of women’s participation in decision making, and to take stock of progress achieved.
Results and Progress:
- CAF currently counts 14% of women’s representation (5 out of 37) at the general officers and flag officers (GO/FO) level occupying a command position and 8% of women’s representation (31 out of 374) at the Chief Warrant Officer and Chief Petty Officer First Class (CWO/CPO1) in senior appointment positions.
- Overall, the CAF counts 8.9% women at the rank of Col/Capt (N) and above and notes a significant increase from FY 2017-2018. In FY 2018-2019, there was a 25% increase in women’s representation at the GO/FO level (from 12 to 16) and a 42% increase in Col/Capt (N) (from 20 to 34). There were 14% women at the rank of LCol/Cdr (243 out of 1736) and 8% (60 out of 750) women at the rank of CWO/CPO1. Data from previous years for those ranks were not available for this year’s report and will be provided next year.
- Tracking demographics related to positions, and specifically ‘leadership team’ positions, provides an opportunity for improvement. The indicator is based on the identification of all command opportunities in the CAF, and identifying which positions were filled by women within the reporting period. As personnel typically move from one position to another throughout the year, a determination must be made to standardize the reporting across all responsible commands. In addition, because command appointments vary in length from two to three years, the number of positions becoming available year over year varies. Further consultation will be required to determine how best to report on this indicator in order to provide meaningful information to track progress.
- The annual percentage of women officers in the Reg F promoted to the ranks of LCol/Cdr and higher was 15%. It is notable that in certain military occupation categories, the promotion rate was higher than others. For example, the highest percentage of women promoted to the rank of LCol/Cdr and higher was witnessed in support occupations, such as chaplaincy, dental, and medical occupations (rated at over 30% for each group in terms of promotion rate of women).
- The overall annual percentage of women Non-Commissioned Members who were promoted to the ranks of Master Warrant Officer/Chief Petty Officer or higher is 12.5%. The following occupations groups witnessed the highest level of promotions: medical, dental and clerical personnel (rated at 50% or over for each group in terms of promotion rate of women).
3. Training and education
Context: DND/CAF continues to integrate gender perspectives and GBA+ as part of the curriculum for all relevant leadership, planning, and procurement courses provided to military and civilian staff. Training provided to foreign military staff through the Military Capability Training Program (MCTP) also has curriculum focused on gender perspectives and the importance of conducting GBA+, and includes awareness and training on Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (SEA).
Increase completion rate of the Women and Gender Equality GBA+ Introduction Course across the Defence Team.
Target 3.1: Increased completion rate of the online GBA+ Introduction course by all National Defence military and civilian staff.
Progress achieved as of March 31, 2019: On track
Baseline: Mandatory for all designated Canadian Armed Forces members.
3.1.1 Monitor GBA+ related training received by DND/CAF members.
3.1.2 Through a Training Needs Assessment, identify if a National Defence focused GBA+ advanced course for both the Operational and Strategic/Institutional level is warranted.
3.1.3 Promote the importance of GBA+ analysis and support special GBA+ information sessions such as GBA+ Awareness week activities.
3.1.4 Actively support ADMs and CAF L1s by providing GBA+ information briefs and presentations by gender advisors and gender focal points.
3.1.1 Percentage of DND/CAF members that have completed the online GBA+ Introduction Course.
3.1.2 Number of GBA+ information briefs and presentations provided.
- Significant efforts has been placed towards increasing awareness and mainstreaming WPS and GBA+ through incorporation into CAF training, presentations, training sessions, and active communications by senior leaders.
- The Royal Canadian Navy, Canadian Army, and Royal Canadian Air Force have developed and conducted specific training events during FY 2018-2019 to raise awareness of the importance of integrating gender in every aspect of their activities such as plans, operations, exercises, training, policies development, projects, etc.
- GBA+ and gender perspectives on operations training content has been introduced into four CAF leadership courses.
- DND delivered internal GBA+ information sessions and presentations as well as external presentations on the importance of GBA+ in defence activities, including GBA+ tools.
- During the Government of Canada GBA+ Awareness Week, DND/CAF Champions delivered messages to the Defence Team on GBA+ requirements.
- In addition, the NATO IDL courses have become required training for designated leaders and for advanced leadership training.
Results and Progress:
- Since 2016, personnel who support both operations and policy development in the CAF were required to take the online GBA+ course (CDS Directive on Integrating UNSCR 1325). The remaining personnel are encouraged to take the course. DND/CAF data shows that 38% of the DND/CAF completed the GBA+ online course.
- A higher level of awareness within the DND/CAF is reflected in the increase of inquiries received by the Director General Diversity and Inclusion and Director Integration of Gender Perspectives regarding training related to WPS and GBA+ as well as request for assistance in implementation.
- A newly designed training package for executive leadership that includes information on Employment Equity, biases, and micro aggressions contributes to building an inclusive work environment.
Assess current and future Gender perspectives and GBA+ training and education approaches
Target 3.2: Assess current gender and GBA+ training and scope any additional training required.
Target achieved to date as of March 31, 2019: Mostly on track / Internal efficiency & capacity
Baseline: Gender Perspectives training is currently incorporated into 11 CAF courses, including pre-deployment training provided by the Peace Support Training Centre (PSTC) in Kingston, as well as courses provided by the Military Training and Cooperation Program (MTCP).
3.2.1 Continuous review of all CAF leadership and pre-deployment training to ensure updated material on gender perspectives and GBA+ is included.
3.2.2 Assess the need for periodic refresher training on GBA+.
3.2.3 Where possible, post CAF members to foreign peace support centers to enhance DND knowledge of gender.
3.2.1 Number of CAF Developmental Period and DND courses that have curricula focused on gender perspectives.
3.2.2 Number of Military Training and Cooperation Program (MTCP) courses delivered that have curricula focused on gender.
3.2.3 Number of CAF and DND staff who have completed gender courses, including at the Nordic Centre for Gender in Military Operations, Gender Focal Point training, and courses offered by likeminded nations.
- DND/CAF has made progress regarding development and delivery of WPS and GBA+ related training through an increase in the number of experts available for the tasks. We are also taking full advantage of partners and Allies to assist us in terms of capacity and expertise.
- Integration of GBA+ into Professional Military Education continues to be a part of new course development or review of existing courses.
- Pre-deployment training is regularly reviewed to ensure up-to-date content and lessons learned from returning GENADs/GFPs from operations are incorporated into the curriculum.
- DND/CAF continues to cooperate with international partners to significantly increase the number of personnel qualified to participate in deployed operations as a GENAD or GFP. We invited the NCGM to deliver their GENAD course in Toronto, and participated in the Commanding Officers’ seminar and the Gender Train the Trainers course. In addition, we sponsored seven DND/CAF participants to the European Security and Defence College (ESDC) Gender in Military Operations, a one-week international training over two sessions in June and November 2018. Finally, CAF was invited to participate to the inaugural US Southern Command (SOUTHCOM) GENAD course and the UK’s nascent Human Security course.
- DND/CAF developed and hosted four GFP sessions on GBA+ institutional training in collaboration with the Centre for Intercultural Learning.
- CJOC personnel selected for deployment receive pre-deployment briefings from the Peace Support Training Centre (PSTC) by the CJOC GENAD. This centre delivers training on sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) and sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). In addition, there is a mandatory requirement to complete NATO online gender courses. In theatre, the Task Force’s GENAD or GFP is provided with additional briefings on gender perspectives, to include SEA and SGBV as the situation requires. Similar training is conducted by CANSOFCOM through its own force generation process for operations.
Results and Progress:
- The integration of GBA+ and gender perspectives into Professional Military Education courses at all levels continues as courses are reviewed, updated, or created. This remains an ongoing activity given the number of courses in existence.
- Training Capacity remains an issue. With greater awareness and interest, the demand for training opportunities is quickly outpacing current delivery mechanisms. Work is ongoing to conduct a training needs analysis in order to best address the CAF’s training and educational needs.
- Online GBA+ training and WPS NATO training continue to be pre-requisites for military occupation, leadership training, and operational deployment.
- In FY 2018-2019, the Military Training and Cooperation Program (MTCP) delivered three multilateral WPS workshops in Ecuador, Malaysia, and Tunisia, in which a wide range of MTCP member countries from the Americas, Asia, and Africa and the Middle East participated. In total, 119 foreign personnel were trained through these workshops (46 from the Americas, 20 from Asia, and 53 from Africa and the Middle East).
- There are numerous DND/CAF staff who have completed gender courses, including at the NCGM Operations, GFP training, and courses offered by likeminded nations.
- NCGM qualified DND/CAF personnel: 33 participants;
- US SOUTHCOM GENAD: 1 participant
- UK’s nascent Human Security course: 2 participants
- In total, approximately 250 Defence Team members received DND/CAF developed GBA+ training. This figure includes 5 half-day Orientation sessions, four GBA+ training sessions for Gender Focal Points, and 14 customized GBA+ trainings requested by different teams within the Department.
- Another challenge, recorded in the online user feedback provided to WAGE, is that the GBA+ course is high-level and overly policy-focused, making it difficult for DND/CAF personnel to draw parallels from the course into their daily work. DND/CAF is considering options to address these observations.
4. Integration into operations
Context: Modern international and domestic operations require members of the CAF to interact with host nation forces and local populations. It is critical that CAF members understand how conflict can affect diverse populations of women, men, boys, and girls differently, and can identify risks to the local population that could be incurred by engaging with military forces. As such, we must ensure our members have the right tools and mindset to deal effectively with diverse and often vulnerable populations. Due to cultural norms, religious affiliations or past experiences, some segments of the population may have difficulty interacting with military forces that are predominantly male. Thus, there is a need to ensure that adequate numbers of women military members are represented in key functions that may interact with diverse segments of the population. Integrating gender perspectives into military operations as well as deploying women at all rank levels is essential to achieving mission success - both in terms of contributing to peace and security and advancing gender equality.
Increase representation of women deployed on International Operations
Target 4.1: Promote and increase the number of uniformed women deployed to international operations (NATO, UN, and Coalition).
Target achieved to date as of March 31, 2019: Mostly on track
Baseline: Women in conventional forces deployed on international operations calculated at approximately 10%.
4.1.1 Support the increase of women in Command of operations at the senior level.
4.1.2 Appoint women for senior command billets/positions.
4.1.1 Number of senior women, officers and Non Commissioned Members, deployed on operations.
4.1.2 Number of women posted Outside Canada program (OUTCAN) positions.
4.1.3 Number of women attending foreign staff colleges.
- In order to ensure compliance with the UN’s Uniformed Gender Parity Strategy, the CDS issued direction to the L1s to ensure that force generation activities are conducted with greater attention to gender considerations.
- All operations are assessed by the operational command GENAD to determine the requirements for GENAD or GFP positions for the deploying unit/formations.
- Succession planning, selection boards, and screening processes for the selection of CAF personnel to attend foreign Staff College and OUTCAN posting continues to be based on merit (based on performance and assessment of potential for career progression), member’s interest, and family situation. Deployment on operation continues to be based on mission requirements in terms of rank, occupation, and qualifications, and member’s ability to deploy as per the extensive screening process.
Results and Progress:
- The table below is a snapshot of female deployment of expeditionary operations, technical and staff assistance visits (TAV/SAV) for FY 2018/19.
Females Deployed - FY 18/19
|Expeditionary Operations||Technical and staff assistance visits (TAV/SAV)||Domestic Operations||Total||% change from Last FY 17/18|
|Master warrant office / Chief warrant officers (MWO/CWO)||6||15||2||23||+9.5%|
|All non-commissioned members||508||147||241||896||-11.7%|
|% change from Last FY 17/18||+26.7%||+32.7%||-4.4%||-2%|
- Based on the above table, CAF significantly increased the proportion of senior female officers in all missions as compared to last FY and moderately increased the proportion of senior non-commissioned members (master warrant office / chief warrant officers) as compared to last year. It is important to note, however, that SAVs and TAVs are temporary deployments to monitor compliance with directives and with applicable safety standards so caution should be exercised when presenting these figures as an indication of female troop contributions.
- The CAF maintains a minimum of 15% women deployed on all its UN Military Observer and Staff Officer contributions.
- 212 women occupied an OUTCAN post out of the total program size of 1,406, or 15.1% of the OUTCAN program.
- The CAF had a senior woman officer attend the UN’s Force Commander Course.
- A total of 33 women attended Developmental Period 3 (DP 3). DP3 is designed for military personnel at the rank of Major/Lieutenant-Commander (Maj/LCdr). Twenty-three women attended the Joint Command and Staff Program at the Canadian Forces College in Toronto, one attended foreign staff college (Australia), and nine attended through Distance Learning offered by the Canadian Forces College in Toronto.
- A total of seven women attended the Development Period 4 (DP4). DP 4 is designed for military personnel at the rank of Col/Capt (N) who are preparing for promotion to BGen/Cmdr. Five women attended the National Security Program at the Canadian Staff College in Toronto, one attended the NATO Staff College in Rome, and one attended through Distance Learning (US).
- During CANSOFCOM’s training effort in Malaysia, a woman officer was deployed as the mission’s team leader and had the opportunity to mentor a woman logistics officer from the partner nation to lead troops tactically, plan missions, and conduct supervisory administrative tasks. The partner nation’s officer then attended a CAF course held at Canadian Forces Base - Borden.
- Upon her return to Malaysia, she was employed as a reconnaissance team leader during a military response to a domestic crisis. The Malaysian Armed Forces (MAF) were called upon to assist civilian authorities within the town of Pasir Gudang to mitigate illegal industrial dumping of harmful chemicals in the Sungai Kim Kim River. She was chosen to lead the reconnaissance and achieved all operational objectives while leading her team and ultimately mitigating the adverse effects of the polluted waters. Her accomplishments challenged gender norms and showcased the operational imperative of integrating women into operations to MAF leaders.
- This event is a concrete example of the beneficial outcomes that can be achieved through the meaningful integrationof women in operations.
Greater awareness within CAF of the importance of gender considerations
Target 4.2: Increased awareness within CAF of the importance of gender considerations on military operations.
Target achieved to date as of March 31, 2019: Mostly on track
Baseline: CAF members receive Theatre and Mission Specific Training (TMST) as well as pre-deployment training with content on gender perspectives in operations.
4.2.1 Promote the importance of gender considerations in military operations.
4.2.2 Publish handbook or ready reference pocket guide for CAF gender focal points and commanders.
4.1.1 Percentage of military missions that receive gender perspective training, including Theatre and Mission Specific Training and training provided through the Peace Support Training Centre (PSTC), as well as CJOC/CANSOFCOM Key Leader Engagements (KLEs).
- The CAF Gender Aide-mémoire was approved by the CDS in July 2019. The aide-memoire was developed to assist CAF commanders and staff to implement gender perspectives in operations during the planning and execution phases of deployed operations and exercises.
- As per the 2016 CJOC Directive on Integration of Gender Perspectives and GBA+, every named operation and exercise is assessed to determine the requirement for a GENAD and/or one or more GFP should the force structure and size of the contingent require it.
- All DND/CAF personnel deploying on a CJOC operation attend pre-deployment training at the PSTC in Kingston, where they receive a briefing on gender perspectives and the WPS agenda. This briefing includes information on the participation of women, protection of civilians, child soldiers, countering violent extremist organizations, sexual exploitation and abuse, and sexual and gender-based violence. Similar training is conducted by CANSOFCOM through its own force generation process for operations.
- Mentorship on integrating gender perspectives is included in several partner force capacity building missions where appropriate (as per training needs assessments and GBA+ analysis).
Results and Progress:
- CDS Operation Orders for all CAF missions include direction regarding the requirement for gender perspective training specific to the mission as part of the planning and pre-deployment training.
- Mission-specific briefs are developed and delivered by the CANSOFCOM and CJOC GENADs and encompass tenets of the following concepts: demystifying gender integration in operations (overview of GBA+ and inclusion of gender perspectives), Law of Armed Conflict, and include cultural considerations (e.g., explanations of social norms, family structures, religious demographics and customs, etc.).
- Pre-deployment training at PSTC includes gender perspective training.
- The completion of the formal training needs analysis is underway.
Establish gender advisors in all specified units
Target 4.3: Support an increase in the number of military staff employed as GENADs/CAF gender focal points.
Target achieved to date as of March 31, 2019: Mostly on track
Baseline: There are three gender advisors in the CAF (one at the strategic level and two at the operational level).
4.3.1 Continue to identify prospective staff to serve as gender advisors to be able to grow the capability.
4.3.2 Administer training for CAF GFPs and for GENADs.
4.3.1 Percentage of GENAD deployed on operations and exercises or ready for deployment.
4.3.2 Number of CAF GFPs trained and ready for deployed operations.
4.3.3 Number of CAF GFPs deployed.
- Each operation is assessed for the necessity of a Gender Advisor (GENAD), and each operation has at minimum a Gender Focal Point (GFP). The GENAD or GFP is responsible to the Task Force Commander to ensure that WPS and gender perspectives are included in planning, execution, and reporting of the operation.
- Work is ongoing to develop the CAF’s own GENAD and GFP training and courseware to better address CAF specific training requirements. The goal of in-house training is to better respond to CAF needs and increase accessibility in order to accelerate training on the integration of Gender perspective and the WPS agenda within CAF.
- NCGM Mobile Training Team conducted a GENAD course in Toronto.
Results and Progress:
- All 21 CAF missions have at least one GENAD or GFP. Some task forces have more than one GFP based on structure and size of the contingent.
- The CAF qualified a total of 33 GENADs this last year. Thirty-one personnel were qualified through the NCGM Mobile Training Team and an additional 2 personnel received the GENAD qualification at the NCGM in Sweden.
- One individual completed the US SOUTHCOM GENAD course, and two completed the UK’s nascent Human Security course.
- CAF currently has 51 GENADs trained and ready for deployment.
- CAF currently has 111 GFPs trained and ready for deployment.
- From April 1 2018 – March 31 2019, there were 9 GENADs deployed over 5 missions.
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