Freedom of expression and media freedom

Canada believes freedom of expression is at the core of human individuality and is one of the essential foundations of a safe and prosperous society.

The right of everyone to hold opinions without interference and the right to freedom of expression are in Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and reaffirmed in Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

This includes the freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, whether orally, in writing or in print, or through any other media of choice. Certain restrictions are only permissible when in line with international human rights law.

Canada’s support for freedom of expression

Canada actively raises concerns about violations of freedom of expression, including freedom of the media, in bilateral and multilateral meetings. These forums include UN General Assembly, the UN Human Rights Council, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, and other international gatherings.

In line with the need to protect freedom of expression, Canada co-sponsored in December 2019 the most recent UN General Assembly resolution on the safety of journalists (A/RES/74/44). In September 2018, Canada co-sponsored the most recent UN Human Rights Council resolution on the safety of journalists (HRC 39/6).

Media freedom

Canada strongly believes that media freedom remains an important part of democratic societies and essential to the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms. People need free media to provide them with accurate information and informed analysis to hold governments to account.

What Canada is doing to support media freedom

Canada is playing an international leadership role on the issue of media freedom. We co-hosted the Global Conference for Media Freedom, in July 2019, in London, United Kingdom. We are applying the outcomes of this event and, in particular, the Global Pledge on Media Freedom. Governments that signed the pledge commit to working together through the newly created Media Freedom Coalition. The coalition launched on September 25, 2019, on the margins of the UN General Assembly. There are 32 signatories.

In June 2019, Canada launched updated guidelines to support human rights defenders around the world with specific guidance for journalists. In July 2019, Canada announced $1 million in funding to the new Global Media Defence Fund, administered by UNESCO.

Currently, Canada funds media freedom projects in the Middle East and Africa. These Canadian projects train journalists to accurately and responsibly report on human rights in their communities. The journalists work with local civil society and host governments. The projects encourage a better understanding that a free press promotes accountable governance, which effectively meets the needs of its citizens.

Canada is committed to making sure that its initiatives align with the UN Plan of Action and are consistent with its overall objective.

Current state of media freedom worldwide

Laws, punitive legal measures and physical violence are restricting journalists’ and media organizations’ vital work. There has been a significant decline in the environments that allow media professionals to do their work. These issues are especially critical in regions facing social, ethnic and political stress, armed conflicts or disaster situations.

Another outstanding issue is the large number of unresolved murders of journalists and the perpetrators going unpunished. Between January 1 to December 14, 2018, 94 journalists were killed on the job. That is up from 82 in 2017. Non-lethal attacks also range from intimidation to harassment and arbitrary detention; misogynistic attacks are also common.

Journalism continues to evolve into the digital space, and there is a need to address new threats to media freedom. Digital security concerns have increased as lines blur between online and offline activity. There are also signs of organized disinformation campaigns, which can be led by state actors and third parties. Journalists and other media professionals are some of the main targets of digital attacks and abuse. Any discussion on media freedom must reflect the growing concerns over digital threats.

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