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International Policy Ideas Challenge 2019 - Challenge winners

Aishwarya Babu
Feminist approach for adaptation for finance

Aishwarya Babu is a recent graduate of the University of Toronto with a Master’s in Sustainability Management, and is currently working as a Policy Analyst at Natural Resources Canada. Being ethically conscientious, she focuses on environmentalism through her lifestyle. After working in Environmental Design for more than 4 years, it became apparent to Aishwarya that participatory solutions are imperative for building strong and stable communities. Her previous involvement leading design charrettes on accessibility, occupant health and disaster resilience led her to serve the sustainable infrastructure movement. Her recent thesis identifies technical and functional characteristics that influence the reuse potential of building components. As an advocate of sustainable and progressive climate policies, her long-term vision is to play a larger intermediary role in climate finance, and further federal policy work in resource efficiency.

Aishwarya’s IPIC project will explore financial instruments for climate adaptation in the face of flooding

Executive summary

Canada’s Feminist International Assistance Policy (CFIAP) highlights the crucial role of gender equality and women’s active participation in fostering sustainable development goals, and implicitly situates feminism at the front and center of climate justice. This brief provides the rationale for using a feminist approach to inform international interventions that support climate adaptation. It outlines feminist political ecology principles that establish connections between intersectional gender inequalities and environmental change. The brief calls for supportive strategies within Outcomes-based Grants and Contributions funding models to optimize GAC’s current and future programming, while increasing women’s participation and empowerment when building adaptive capacity.

The brief makes the following recommendations:

  • Develop discourse and advocate for better integration of feminist principles into CFIAP (i.e. intersectionality analysis, power relations and systematic discrimination, etc.)
  • Establish an evidence base with data in regards to gendered interactions between environment, economy and politics on an individual or community scale.
  • Use higher outcome rate cards to inform medium-term planning exercises, and incentivize engaged service providers to achieve milestones. Scale up supportive programming for climate adaptation using integrative funding mechanisms.
  • Co-create with other players in the climate finance ecosystem and develop interdependent strategies to improve the effectiveness of Outcomes-based Grants and Contributions.
  • Use participatory methods within program delivery to gain local knowledge and develop gender-responsive outcomes for climate adaptation.

Daniel Ribi
Anonymous Asset Ownership and Offshore Tax Evasion: A Policy Approach to Linking Legal Entities to their Beneficial Owners

Daniel Ribi is a graduate student and teaching assistant at Carleton University, where he is completing a Master of Public Policy and Administration. He holds a BA (Honours History and International Relations) from the University of British Columbia. His research explores the use of tax policy as a tool for addressing contemporary income inequality and the challenges of capital flight and offshore finance. Daniel has worked in the International and Trade Policy Branch at Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada and will be joining the Office of the Chief Information Officer at the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat in the fall.

Daniel’s IPIC project will explore anonymous asset ownership.

Executive summary

Offshore tax evasion is a growing feature of the global financial system. Despite increasing awareness among policymakers of the scale of the problem, recent international policy efforts to combat offshore tax evasion have met little success.

A principal limiting factor to existing policy approaches is the ability of actors in the financial system to disguise beneficial ownership of assets through the use of legal entities. Steps the Government of Canada can take to mitigate offshore tax evasion include:

  • strengthening beneficial ownership requirements in the Canada Business Corporations Act (CBCA);
  • ensuring corporations are aware of their obligations under the new CBCA amendments and have the ability to meet them;
  • improving access to Canadian corporate ownership information through a corporate registry interconnection system;
  • and advocating for the adoption of a common corporate entity identifier system in international fora.

Deanna Matthews – Lead Researcher Prachi Srivastava – Collaborator
Canada’s Feminist International Assistance Policy and private sector engagement

Deanna Matthews is currently a first year PhD candidate (fast-tracked) in the Critical Policy, Equity, and Leadership Studies program at the University of Western Ontario. Her research in education and international development focuses on education financing, equity, and non-state private actor contributions towards Sustainable Development Goal 4. She is a research assistant on a SSHRC Insight Grant-funded research program on non-state private actors and the right to education (Principal Investigator, Dr. Prachi Srivastava). She has worked as a Policy Analyst in the Privy Council Office, and in Health Canada’s Environmental Public Health Division and the Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program. As Anihshininiihkwe, her passion for equitable education stems from her work with Mikinakoos (Little Turtle) Children’s Fund, a First Nations charity serving Indigenous children living in remote communities in northern Ontario. She has also served as a Student Ambassador with Teach For Canada, and as a Leadership Mentor with First Nations and Métis youth in Alberta.

Deanna’s IPIC project, working with her collaborator, Dr. Prachi Srivastava, will explore mapping private sector involvement in education and how Canada can maximize its impact.

Executive Summary

This brief aims to inform potential action in view of two significant developments in Canada’s international assistance strategy — the $400 million commitment to girls’ and women’s education in response to the Charlevoix Declaration on Quality Education for Girls, Adolescent Girls and Women in Developing Countries and the strategy for engaging in private sector partnerships in the Feminist International Assistance Policy. The brief is based on original analysis of data on activity by private foundations and private sector impact investors in girls’ and women’s education in East Asia and the Pacific and South Asia, drawing on a larger regional-level database of private sector investors.

The analysis finds that girls’ and women’s education is an underserved priority area. It is an urgent area of unmet policy action in the regions, and in low-income countries and countries with gender disparities in education in Asia. Existing education sub-sector and programming area priorities in Asia by philanthropic and impact investors align with FIAP focus. Adult, basic, and continuing education and secondary education were the top two sectors addressed by the initiatives under analysis. Skills, workplace transition, and continuing education, advocacy, and access to education constituted the main programming areas. Tracking financial flows and specific actors in private sector partnerships is impeded by a lack of consistent and publicly accessible data. The opacity of partnerships has potentially critical implications for Canada’s engagement in girls’ and women’s education in view of broader concerns associated with partnering with private sector actors.


  • To act with urgency on expanding Canada’s engagement in girls’ and women’s education in conflict-affected contexts, low-income countries, and countries with gender gaps in education in Asia.
  • To critically consider the appropriateness of partnerships as an appropriate strategy. If considered viable, to be explicit about the types of private actors that Global Affairs Canada will partner with and/or support through official partnerships for girls’ and women’s education.
  • Given FIAP’s articulated modality of engaging in private sector partnerships, to undertake exercises to ensure public transparency of any partnerships in girls’ and women’s education, including the composition of actors in partnerships and financial flows.

Ghazaleh Jerban
Traditional Knowledge Protection: Where Canada Can Bring Women, Trade, Intellectual Property and Sustainable Development under One Umbrella

Ghazaleh Jerban is a PhD Candidate at the Faculty of Law, University of Ottawa and a member of the Centre for Law, Technology and Society at UOttawa. Her research is focused on gender aspects of intellectual property law. Her thesis examines the issue of international protection of traditional knowledge from a gender perspective. She has completed a number of prestigious internships and fellowships, including the one at the World Intellectual Property Organization’s liaison office to the United Nations. She has been the recipient of several scholarships and currently holds the Centre for International Governance Innovation’s (CIGI) Doctoral Scholarship. In 2018, she earned the inaugural Ingenium-University of Ottawa Fellowship in Gender, Science and Technology.

Ghazaleh’s IPIC project will explore traditional knowledge protection in the context of intellectual property.

Executive Summary
  • Protection of traditional knowledge (TK) is one the most contentious topics in the international intellectual property (IP) regime. National governments and international organizations dealing with TK should pay attention to gender aspects of the issue due to the important link between TK, women and sustainable development. Indigenous women’s and women from local communities’ TK is crucial for accomplishing sustainable development goals (SDGs).
  • Policies and initiatives that ignore the role of Indigenous women and women from local communities in TK can have serious implications for the survival and development of Indigenous Peoples and local communities (IPLCs) and TK itself as a dynamic and living body of knowledge. TK policymakers should rethink the substance and process of TK protection debates to ensure that Indigenous women’s and women from local communities’ contribution to the TK system is recognized and the benefits of their TK accrue to them while enhancing their communities’ socio-economic development.
  • National and international fora, including the World Intellectual Property Organization’s Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore (WIPO-IGC), should mainstream gender in their work on the protection of TK so that any future TK protection instrument is responsive to the needs of Indigenous women and women from local communities.
  • The economic significance of TK and its trade value make it an enabler of sustainable development and women’s economic empowerment, especially in light of the World Trade Organization’s (WTO’s) recent Declaration on Trade and Women’s Economic Empowerment. Given the importance and potential of Indigenous women’s and women from local communities’ TK for sustainable development, legal protection of TK should be supplemented by inclusive trade policies that incorporate Indigenous women and women from local communities into broader trade and development policies.
  • Since TK is an underutilized resource in the development process, its protection and promotion in the form of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) can help to reduce poverty and empower women through commercialization of TK-based products and services. In fact, the micro-level TK-based activities of Indigenous women and women from local communities can and should be taken into consideration when analyzing the role of women in trade and women’s economic empowerment more broadly at the macro-level.
  • To enable women to maximize their TK-based contributions to the sustainable development process, national and international actors should develop laws and policies that provide Indigenous women and women from local communities with recognition, space to present their knowledge, and opportunities through inclusive trade policies.
  • Development of TK-based MSMEs is a necessary precursor to the pursuit of Indigenous women’s and women from local communities’ (IWLCs) economic empowerment. Their access to finance, value chains and markets should be improved through supportive trade policies. Female Indigenous and local TK-holders and practitioners within IPLCs should be integrated in the international trade system since they are real contributors and protagonists of their own development and not merely passive recipients of national and foreign aid.

Grace Jaramillo
Policy Issue: Guaranteeing a Global Ecosystem for the Canadian Superclusters through foreign, trade and international development policies

Grace Jaramillo is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at University of British Columbia, Department of Political Science, and pro-tempore program manager of Trade, Investment and Innovation at the Asia Pacific Foundation. After earning her PhD from Queen’s University, she won a SSHRC Postdoctoral Fellowship to study institutional spillovers of Free Trade Agreements in the Americas spending the first year at the Balsillie School of International Affairs at University of Waterloo, and then moving to Vancouver to complete her research studying the CP-TPP negotiations. Her doctoral dissertation versed around the political economy of industrial policy, studying the institutional transition from traditional industrial policy to horizontal ones centered around cluster development and global value-chains. Before moving to Canada, she was an accomplished international relations scholar, nominated twice to the annual list of “20 most prominent young thinkers in Latin America” by the Development Bank of Latin America, CAF.

Grace’s IPIC project will explore a supercluster-focused trade diversification strategy.

Executive Summary

On March 22, 2017, the Government of Canada officially launched the Supercluster Initiative (SI) by allocating $950 million dollars over five years in the federal budget of that year. The SI became the largest public-private partnership to boost innovation in Canadian history, matching dollar-per-dollar investments made by the private sector to create advanced manufacturing technology, production and innovation. The expected return of investment was the creation of 50,000 jobs and 50 billion dollars in revenues in the next 10 years. Most importantly, this policy intersects with the conclusion of a set of free trade agreements like CETA, South Korea, CUSMA and, the most ambitious one, the Comprehensive and Progressive Transpacific Partnership or CPTPP. On November 30, 2018, the CPTPP opened markets equivalent to 14% of the Global GDP across 11 countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Strategically, the fact that the United States has withdrawn from this agreement and other liberalization efforts gives Canada a window of opportunity unlike any other. There are possibly two years to capitalize on Canadian innovative efforts creating 1) Influence and leverage with early adopters of superclusters’ technological innovations creating strong exporting niches early on, 2) Strong links of investment/innovation/partnerships with companies within the CPTPP interested in investing in the Canadian superclusters. The reason is clear: the CPTPP has benefits like no other FTA agreement in terms of opening markets for services, less strict rules of origin that favours the creation of regional value chains and its high Intellectual Property Rights standards. Agreements like CETA, CUSMA could also serve as areas of expansion after piloting such a program in CPTPP countries.

Jonathan Kandelshein – Lead Researcher Sydney Reis – Collaborator
Respecting Human Rights in the Age of Dual-Use Proliferation

Jonathan Kandelshein is a MA student at the Norman Paterson School of International Affairs at Carleton University where he focuses on security and defense policy. Apart from his research on the application of artificial intelligence to strategic issues, he has also conducted research on foreign disinformation campaigns. A graduate of Yale Law School, prior to attending NPSIA Jonathan practiced law in New York City and Dallas, Texas for 6 years. He completed his BA at Yeshiva University, graduating summa cum laude in classics and economics. During the spring of 2019, he completed an internship with the Department of National Defense’s policy group, where he assisted on Latin American and Caribbean issues. He is currently a summer co-op student at Public Safety Canada

Jonathan’s IPIC project, working with his collaborator, Sydney Reis, will explore countering threats to democracy through AI development.

Executive Summary

Within the context of rapidly advancing technology and under the current export regime, Western countries such as Canada are acting as enablers of human rights abuses by repressive states. Dual-use technologies such as facial and voice recognition, firewalls, and GPS location tracking are developed and sold by Western corporations for purchase by oppressive governments. By virtue of Canada’s identity as a country that upholds human rights both domestically and internationally, and its status as a signatory to the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Canada has an obligation to recognize dual-use technology as an added consideration to the current human rights regime.

Although Canada presently subjects “dual use goods” – as defined by the Wassenaar arrangement – to export control scrutiny under the Export Import Act of 1947, it currently does not have the robust legal mechanisms required to quickly update the list so as to adapt to the changing technological landscape. Furthermore, Canada relies solely on the Wassenaar arrangement to define dual-use goods; however there is no mechanism to enforce compliance with its terms. Control of dual-use goods and technology also suffers from the ‘tragedy of the commons’ issue, whereby if Canada adheres to export controls of dual-use technologies, another state may benefit in place of Canada by simply not adhering to the stipulations of the arrangement. In order to make up for the shortcomings of the Wassenaar arrangement and ensure that Canada can adequately address the human rights considerations of advancing technology, a number of policy recommendations are put forward. Namely, Canada ought to lead by example, focus less on specific technologies and more on their destinations, achieve consensus among a few like-minded nations, focus on the larger contractors, and make the ethics and professional standards of the developers and researchers of artificial intelligence binding.

Marco Zenone
Canadian Global Nutrition Leadership in Low and Middle-Income Countries: Promoting Evidence-Based Policy

Marco Antonio Zenone is an MSc Candidate in the Faculty of Health Sciences at Simon Fraser University, where he also completed a BA Honours. His research focuses on the intersection between corporations, politics, and public health. Marco has led numerous research projects, concentrating on issues in medical crowdfunding and investigating political strategies transnational food and beverage industries use to influence global public policy. Marco works for BC Children’s Hospital and is a lead member of the Vancouver-based social enterprise, Bridge for Health. He has been recognized with numerous awards for community activism, including as a recipient of the Surrey Top 25 Under 25 and as a Canadian National Cooperative Champion.

Marco’s IPIC project will explore reducing the influence of private corporations on international dietary guidelines.

Executive Summary

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) burden low and middle-income countries with high treatment costs and strain opportunities to alleviate poverty. Rising rates of NCDs in LMIC are associated with rapid urbanization, globalization, and increased ultra-processed food consumption. There is evidence that the food and non-alcoholic beverage industry are expanding into LMIC to offset stagnant sales in high-income countries and are lobbying governments for industry-friendly nutrition regulations and policies.

Canada is a leader is global health. Research funded through the International Development Research Centre has led to important policy wins in numerous LMIC settings. Canada is a primary funder of Nutrition International, the Canadian Foodgrains Bank, and a proud supporter of Scaling Up Nutrition. Canada is also the primary funder of the International Network for Food and Obesity / Non-communicable Diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support, a network that monitors private industry to reduce obesity and NCDs. Canada has shown through previous actions itself a leader in evidence-base policy and has committed to supporting LMIC with sound nutrition guides, information, programs, and plans.

The World Health Organization (WHO) developed the safeguarding against possible conflicts of interests in nutrition programmes tool to create an evidence-based process to reduce conflicts of interest in nutrition policy. Despite best efforts, implementation of the tool faces barriers in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). There are limitations to implementing the tool in LMIC such as limited resources and technical expertise.

In order to inform how Canada can support evidence-base policy, a literature review was conducted mapping industry corporate political activity against the limitations of the WHO tool. Gaps and actionable recommendations were found for Global Affairs Canada.

Gaps identified:

  • The extent of CPA from food and beverage industries in LMIC is relatively unknown
  • Lack of infrastructure, process coordination, and resources limit the ability to implement evidence-based policy and actions.
  • Unaddressed economic constraints and tensions arising from regulating ultra-processed food and beverage industry and its impact on jobs and tax revenue in LMIC


  • Expand the mission of Global Affairs Canada and supported global nutrition organizations to increase focus on issues of overweight, obesity, and NCDs.
  • Increase funding opportunities for researchers in LMIC countries to study the corporate political activity of the food and beverage industries
  • Provide Global Affairs Canada-supported global nutrition organizations with funds and technical assistance? to support LMIC to use or implement? the WHO safeguarding against possible conflicts of interests in nutrition programmes tool.
  • Create technical implementation guides and make technical assistance available to support LMIC develop food guides, modelling the process of Canada’s food guide.

Marie-Dominik Langlois - Principal author Salvador Herencia Carrasco - Second author
Thinking about sustainable development through respect for cultural diversity, inclusion and participation of indigenous peoples in the management of their natural resources and respect for their rights

Marie-Dominik Langlois, a PhD student in sociology at the University of Ottawa, worked as a coordinator in various human rights organizations for Latin America and on extractive issues from 2005 to 2013. Coordinator of the Interdisciplinary Research Group on territories of extractivism (GRITE) since 2017, she has collaborated on various research projects on mining issues and Latin America and translated academic texts of Latin American feminists from Spanish to French. Her research focuses on the identity reaffirmation of the Xinka people, their resistance to mining, and their defense of the right to consultation in southeastern Guatemala.

Marie-Dominik’s IPIC project will explore Indigenous peoples’ rights in the context of natural resource

Executive Summary

1. Question
How can we ensure respect for the rights of Indigenous Peoples in the context of natural resource extraction when Canadian foreign direct investment (FDI) is present? To answer this question, this proposed policy brief will first present the economic, social, political and legal context in which the issue evolves and then make recommendations to World Affairs Canada (WAC) to prevent, resolve or mitigate the problems encountered during extractive investments on or near Aboriginal territories abroad. We recognize that some of the proposed recommendations are more difficult to adopt or are outside of GAC's mandate. However, we believe that in order to achieve the objectives - that is, extraction that respects the rights of Indigenous Peoples locally - are all necessary and that GAC must play a leadership role in their implementation and in ensuring coherence among Canadian policies.

2. Background
The policy brief focuses on rights to land and territory, as well as the rights to free, prior and informed consultation and consent. However, these rights have a multidimensional aspect, as they are the means to ensure the exercise of other internationally protected rights, such as the rights to culture, religion and development. Therefore, our recommendations and analyses go beyond land tenure and land administration. They are aimed at ensuring that Indigenous Peoples continue to exist in the best way they deem appropriate.

Marion Laurence
Data-Driven Peacekeeping: Opportunities, Challenges, and Limitations

Marion recently completed her doctorate in political science at the University of Toronto. Her research interests include peacekeeping, peacebuilding, and global security governance. She is a past recipient of SSHRC and OGS graduate scholarships, and her dissertation looks at how the norm of impartiality is interpreted on a day-to-day basis in United Nations peace operations. Drawing on fieldwork conducted in Sierra Leone, Côte d’Ivoire, and New York, the project explains the UN’s move toward controversial practices – like de facto counter-insurgency operations – and contributes to debates about contestation and norm change in international organizations. Before starting her doctorate, Marion worked in the Senate of Canada for LGen the Honourable Roméo Dallaire. She is also an alumna of the Parliamentary Internship Programme. In 2019-2020 Marion will be a Research Fellow with the Centre for International Policy Studies and the Graduate School of Public and International Affairs at the University of Ottawa.

Marion’s IPIC project will explore data-driven peacekeeping.

Executive Summary

The United Nations is committed to improving peace operations by developing its capacity to gather, analyze, and make decisions based on high quality data. The benefits of ‘data-driven’ peacekeeping include better situational awareness, new tools for evaluating performance and holding personnel accountable, and greater public trust in UN peacekeeping. Ongoing challenges include data bias and insufficient ‘data literacy,’ concerns about privacy and confidentiality, and political sensitivities around data gathering and reporting. Systematic data analysis also has limitations – it is not immune to politicization and it is no substitute for a lack of political will or a reluctance to act on reliable information. A better understanding of these issues will help Canada strengthen UN peace operations and advance Canadian policy priorities, including the Elsie Initiative and implementation of the Vancouver Principles.

Policy Recommendations:

  1. Canada should work with the Secretariat, troop and police contributing countries, and other stakeholders to incorporate data literacy within pre-deployment, induction, and in-mission training for all peacekeepers. This should include support for training in how to use SAGE effectively and in how to handle sensitive information responsibly. Special attention should be paid to ensuring that those in leadership positions are able to confidently interpret different types of data, identify sources of data bias, and make decisions accordingly.
  2. Canada should work with the Secretariat and Heads-of-Mission to ensure that tools for gathering and analyzing peacekeeping data support implementation of the Vancouver Principles and the Women, Peace, and Security Agenda. Mission Information Requirements (IRs), Mission Intelligence Acquisition Plans, and Commanders Critical Information Requirements (CCIRs) should include – among other things – information about the recruitment and use of child soldiers and the prevalence of conflict-related sexual violence. SAGE should be configured to ensure that field personnel can record this information as a matter of course and access it in real-time to inform decision making.
  3. Canada should support UN peace operations – especially Joint Mission Analysis Centres – to ensure that their funding, staff, and equipment allow them to effectively gather, manage, and analyze data about their operating environment. This support should include air assets, travel budgets, and personnel with specialized training in data analysis and coordination.
  4. Canada should work with the Secretariat to determine whether its Comprehensive Performance Assessment System (CPAS) can be leveraged to advance the Elsie Initiative’s goal of gathering evidence on effective approaches to increasing women’s meaningful participation in UN peace operations. Canada should also work with likeminded member states to build support for CPAS and maximize the likelihood that key stakeholders – including the Security Council and the Fifth Committee – take performance data into account when making decisions about mandates and budgets for peace operations.
  5. Canada should work to address political and ethical concerns about systematic data analysis by engaging in dialogue with concerned states and other stakeholders, advocating transparency in UN data collection practices, and by promoting awareness of the risks associated with data breaches and violations of privacy, especially for vulnerable populations.

Rachel Schmidt
Addressing Stereotypes and Unconscious Bias in Canadian Counter-Terrorism: Where Does GBA+ Fit In?

Rachel Schmidt is a PhD Candidate at the Norman Paterson School of International Affairs (Carleton University). Her research focuses on women's roles in extremist and insurgent groups, and her doctoral dissertation compares men and women combatants’ decisions to abandon armed groups, using over 100 fieldwork interviews with ex-combatants from guerrilla and paramilitary groups in Colombia. Rachel is also a Junior Research Fellow at the Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security, and Society (TSAS) and a senior editor for OpenGlobalRights. She has conducted fieldwork on insurgencies, extremism, and gang violence in Colombia, Ecuador, Ireland, the United Kingdom, and Canada.

Rachel’s IPIC project will explore the impact of gender stereotypes on counter-terrorism policies.

Executive Summary

There are several key issues affecting Canadian policies and programs to counter radicalization to violence. First, while several departments are making notable progress with GBA+, both gender and racial stereotypes—and the special status accorded to terrorism above other violent crimes—continue to impede objective and comprehensive analyses on both the prevention and disengagement side of CVE and counter-terrorism work. While the Canadian government is clearly an international leader in putting forward gender concerns in global counter-terrorism circles, this policy emphasis is not always translating to domestic work on the ground. Second, there is a significant level of disagreement on what CVE is and how it relates to—or competes with—counter-terrorism work. This disagreement, and the related disparate methods of designing programs, has resulted in gender and intersectional concerns often being sidelined as both less important than other priorities and too complex. Third, there is frustration amongst practitioners about the government’s lack of communication and transparency, particularly on the issue of returning CETs.

Policy Recommendations:

  1. Training on intersectional analysis needs to be reinvented and tailored to better address gender and racial stereotypes affecting CVE and CT work.
  2. The common and persistent conflation of gender with women needs to be systematically addressed and debunked.
  3. Rather than become “bias-free”, departments must address unconscious bias by bringing more biases to the table (i.e., staff from different gender, racial and religious demographics), especially in decision-making roles.
  4. The Canada Centre, in partnership with the RCMP and other Public Safety departments, needs to articulate a clearer definition of what CVE means in Canada, with a defined lexicon across Canada, a set of evidence-based best practices, and detailed expectations on the roles of—and training for—partner agencies. That is, GBA+ should not be left as something to add in the future, or something relegated to a gender expert.
  5. The Government of Canada needs to clearly communicate a plan for returning CETs to organizations working in CVE.

Dr. Prachi Srivastava – Collaborator

Prachi Srivastava is Associate Professor in the area of education and international development and Chair, Critical Policy, Equity and Leadership Studies Academic Research Cluster, University of Western Ontario. She is also Visiting Senior Fellow, Centre for International Education, University of Sussex, Adjunct Professor, School of International Development and Global Studies, University of Ottawa, and Adjunct Professor, Centre for Global Studies, Huron College. She has published widely on global education policy and privatization and non-state private actors in education in the Global South. She is amongst the earliest scholars of ‘low-fee private schooling’, coining the term. Her works have been cited in various EFA Global Monitoring Reports and Global Education Monitoring Reports, and in the World Bank 2018 World Development Report. Dr. Srivastava has provided expertise to donors and agencies (e.g., DFID, European Commission, JICA, UNESCO, World Bank), and presented evidence at Westminster to the UK All Party Parliamentary Group on Global Education for All. She has attracted over $550K in research funding as Principal Investigator. She has headed a major international collaborative research program funded by a SSHRC Insight Grant on the right to education and non-state private actors. She has held visiting appointments at Columbia University, National University of Singapore, and the University of Oxford. She holds a doctorate from the University of Oxford.

Sydney Reis – Collaborator

Sydney Reis is a Master’s student at the Norman Patterson School of International Affairs, specializing in intelligence and international affairs. Her research interests include the intersection of artificial intelligence and ethics, and the role of the internet in terrorism and foreign interference. Sydney is currently a Student Policy Analyst at Public Safety Canada (National Security Operations). She holds a BA in Political Science from Western University, and has previously worked in various support roles for Ontario Cabinet Ministers. 

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