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Report on Exports of Military Goods from Canada

2012-2013

Table of Contents

Export Controls

Canada has some of the strongest export controls in the world. A key priority of Canada’s foreign policy is the maintenance of peace and security. To this end, the Government of Canada strives to ensure that Canadian military exports are not prejudicial to peace, security or stability in any region of the world or within any country.

This policy is implemented primarily through Canada’s system of export controls, as authorized by the Export and Import Permits Act (enacted in 1947). This law requires those who wish to export from Canada any article included in the Export Control List (ECL) to obtain, prior to shipment, an export permit issued by Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (DFATD)Footnote 1. The Export Control List includes military, dual-use, and strategic goods and technology, all U.S.-origin goods and technology, and a limited number of items that are controlled for economic reasons.

The military goods and technology described in this report are included in Group 2 (“Munitions List”) of the Export Control List. Items listed in Group 2 are “specially designed or modified for military use.” Civilian goods and technology that are not covered by any group in the Export Control List are not normally subject to export controls (such as fuel and food), even if they are intended for sale to a military end-user.

Canada prohibits the export of military goods and technology to a number of countries under the authority of the Export and Import Permits Act, the United Nations Act, and the Special Economic Measures ActFootnote 2. As well, Canada maintains an Area Control List, which currently includes two countries: Belarus and North KoreaFootnote 3. All goods and technology destined to these countries are subject to export controls, with normally only those goods and technology that respond to humanitarian needs receiving an export permit.

Under current export control policy guidelines mandated by Cabinet, Canada closely controls the export of military goods and technology to countries:

  • that pose a threat to Canada and its allies;
  • that are involved in or under imminent threat of hostilities;
  • that are under United Nations Security Council sanctions; or
  • whose governments have a persistent record of serious violations of the human rights of their citizens, unless it can be demonstrated that there is no reasonable risk that the goods might be used against the civilian population.

Additional goals of Canada’s export controls regime include:

  • ensuring that exports do not contribute to the development of nuclear, biological or chemical weapons of mass destruction, or of their delivery systems; and
  • that exports are consistent with existing economic sanctions' provisions.

Once an application to export goods or technology has been received, wide-ranging consultations are held among human rights, international security and defence-industry experts at DFATD (including those residents at Canada’s overseas diplomatic missions), the Department of National Defence and, as necessary, other government departments and agencies. Through such consultations, each export permit application is assessed for its consistency with Canada’s foreign and defence policies. Regional peace and stability, including civil conflict and human rights, are actively considered.

A key consideration in the review of each application is the end-use of the export.  Careful attention is paid to mandatory end-use documentation in an effort to ensure that the export is intended for a legitimate end-user and will not be diverted to ends that could threaten the security of Canada, its allies, or other countries or people.  Military goods and technology are generally exported for one of the following purposes:

  • sales to military and, in some cases, police forces or other government agencies;
  • sales of parts and components for the production of new goods;
  • repairs of military equipment in Canada for foreign customers, and shipments of spare parts;
  • sales to private individuals (especially sales of firearms).

Canada’s defence industry makes a valuable contribution to the nation’s prosperity and employs tens of thousands of Canadians. It develops high-technology products and is closely integrated with counterparts in allied countries. Export controls are not meant to hinder international trade unnecessarily but to regulate and impose certain restrictions on exports in response to clear policy objectives, described above. Canada’s defence industry provides the Canadian Forces, as well as the armed forces of our allies, with the equipment, munitions and spare parts necessary to meet operational needs, including requirements for combat and peacekeeping missions. As stated in the United Nations Charter, all states share a right to legitimate self-defence.

Exports of Firearms

Most firearms exports from Canada are intended for sporting or other recreational use and not for military use. Since a large volume of Canadian firearms exports go to private end-users, steps are taken to ensure items are not diverted into the illegal arms trade or used to fuel local violence. As part of this process, the bona fides of the end-users are thoroughly investigated. Canadian diplomatic missions and other sources may also provide information about destination countries’ firearms control laws, procedures and enforcement practices. If concerns remain about the end-user, the export permit will not be issued.

Certain prohibited firearms, weapons, devices, or components thereof that are included on the Export Control List may be exported following the issuance of an export permit only to destinations on the Automatic Firearms Country Control List and only to consignees that are government or authorized by governmentFootnote 4. Canada has inter-governmental defence, research, development, and production arrangements with countries on the Automatic Firearms Country Control List (these countries are listed in Table 6).

International Cooperation on Military Trade

Multilateral action is an important means of promoting international peace and security. Canada supports and participates in a range of arms control and non-proliferation activities, working closely with like-minded countriesFootnote 5.

Wassenaar Arrangement

Most items have been included on the Export Control List because of Canada’s commitments to like-minded countries that participate in multilateral export-control regimes or because of Canada’s obligations as a signatory to international agreements that seek to control and monitor the movement of sensitive goods and technology.

The control regime that deals with the military goods and technology covered in Group 2 of the Export Control List is the Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and TechnologiesFootnote 6. Founded in 1996, the Initial Elements define the objectives of the Arrangement as, inter alia:

"to contribute to regional and international security and stability, by promoting transparency and greater responsibility in transfers of conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies, thus preventing destabilising accumulations"

Through national policies, the 41 Participating States seek to ensure that transfers of items covered by the common export control lists created in meetings of the Wassenaar Arrangement do not contribute to the development or enhancement of military capabilities that have the potential to undermine regional and global security and stability. Participating States also take every precaution to ensure that such goods and technologies are not diverted to illegitimate end-uses.

United Nations Register of Conventional Arms

Canada continues to actively promote greater transparency in the trade of conventional weapons. In 1991, Canada was a founding contributor to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, to which governments voluntarily supply data on their imports and exports of seven major categories of conventional weapons systemsFootnote 7. The annually updated Register makes a significant contribution to transparency, confidence-building and enhanced global security. Each year since the inception of the Register, more than 90 governments on average have made submissions to it; of these, about 70 have done so consistently, including Canada. Currently, there is reasonable representation from most geographic regions, capturing over 95 percent of the international trade in major conventional weapons. As a result, the Register has become an important and authoritative source of information

Canada is also one of a growing number of countries that voluntarily submit data to the Register on military holdings and on procurement through national production. This information goes beyond the minimum currently required by the United Nations and makes an important contribution to global transparency on military capabilities.

Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons

Canada, in cooperation with like-minded partners, is looking at ways to address the problem of illicit small-arms proliferation, which can undermine security and development efforts and contribute to human suffering. Canada has adopted an integrated approach, addressing the arms-control, crime-prevention and peace-building dimensions of the issue at all levels. Such an approach targets supply-side and transit issues, and seeks to cope with post-conflict surplus stocks and reduce the demand for weapons.

Canada promotes measures designed to achieve transparency in legal transfers of small arms and light weapons. Aspects under review include codes of conduct and transparency initiatives. Canada’s own procedures are strict and seek to ensure a high level of control over exports of small arms.

Military Export Statistics

As part of Canada’s effort to encourage greater transparency on military exports, DFATD has published periodic reports on annual exports of military goods and technology since 1990.

Statistics are obtained from utilization reports which must be provided to DFATD as a condition of using export permits for military goods and technology.  These reports include the country of destination, a description of the goods exported, their quantity and their value in Canadian dollars. Details of export transactions are protected due to the commercially confidential nature of such information and restrictions under the Privacy Act.

Export controls apply to all foreign destinations. However, due to close and long-standing military cooperation with the United States, including the integrated nature of North America’s defence industry, permit exceptions apply to most Group 2 exports destined for final use in that country. Exports of military goods and technology to the United States are therefore not reported here.

Certain statistics on Canadian exports may be available from other sources such as Statistics Canada or the Canadian Commercial Corporation. It should be noted that these figures may include non-military goods such as commercial computers, civil-certified aircraft, guns and ammunition designed exclusively for industrial uses, such as the lighting of gas flares at oil wells, or other civilian equipment. Since there is no direct correlation between the commodity codes used by Statistics Canada and the Export Control List numbers, and because each source uses different methods of data collection, a meaningful comparison of the information from these three sources is extremely difficult.

The internationally accepted standard for statistics on worldwide military trade is the previously mentioned United Nations Register of Conventional Arms. However, the Register limits itself to precise categories of weapons systems and does not include parts, components or the wide assortment of non-lethal support systems (such as radar equipment, simulators and software designed for military use) that make up the majority of Canada’s military exports.

For the 2012 and 2013 calendar years, Canada’s total exports of military goods and technology amounted to approximately $1.72 billion. The major share ($1.15 billion or 67%) went to member countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) or non-NATO AFCCL destinations.  Saudi Arabia, a non-NATO AFCCL destination was the largest single destination of Canadian military exports each year, received $575.1 million in military exports, accounting for 33% of all Canadian military exports.  Five NATO countries were also in the top ten destinations for the same period: the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, France and Belgium.  One other of the top ten destinations was non-NATO AFCCL destination; Australia, which received a combined $46.9 million in military exports.  The United Arab Emirates, Austria and Singapore, the second, fourth and ninth-largest destinations for military exports respectively, were the only non-NATO and non-AFCCL countries in the top ten. Military exports to Participating States of the Wassenaar Arrangement accounted for $741.7 million, or 43% of the total military exports.

Data Interpretation Notes

The following data interpretation notes apply to Tables 2, 4, and 5:

  • i) Since procurement contracts awarded by governments may have very high values and extended delivery schedules, a single supply contract by a single exporter may account for a large share of total military exports in a given year or number of years. Major changes in totals from one year to another may be explained by the beginning or end of a small number of large contracts.
  • ii) The tables do not report exports to the United States, which are estimated to account for over half of Canada’s exports of military goods and technology each year.
  • iii) The Export Control List (ECL) item numbers used in Tables 4 and 5 are explained with illustrative examples in Table 3. The full ECL, which consists of detailed technical descriptions of all controlled goods and technology, can be found in “A Guide to Canada’s Export Controls”, which is available on the Internet at: www.exportcontrols.gc.ca.
  • iv) Table 2 reports annual values of total exports of military goods and technology, including exports to individual countries. Table 5 breaks down the value of exports to individual countries according to the ECL item number assigned to those exports. However, the sum total of exports by ECL item number to an individual country calculated from Table 5 might not equal the total value of exports to that destination reported in Table 2. Since goods or technology included in a single export permit may be classified under several ECL item numbers, Tables 4 and 5 contain some double-counting.
Table 1: Summary Statistics
YearValue in 2012Percentage in 2012Value in 2013Percentage in 2013
Total exports of military goods and technologyFootnote 8$1,042,277,614100%$681,366,080100%
Exports to desitnations categorized by Human Development Index (HDI) levelFootnote 9
Very High HDI countries$1,005,237,91696.4%$618,908,11690.8%
High HDI countries$17,418,3271.7%$30,453,0024.5%
Medium HDI countries$7,708,9280.7%$18,095,0602.7%
Low HDI countries$2,628,1040.3%$12,463,0001.8%
Not HDI-ranked$9,284,3390.9%$1,446,9020.2%
Exports to destinations categorized by defence relationship
NATOFootnote 10$217,265,79920.9%$291,733,06342.8%
Non-NATO AFCCFootnote 11$453,732,65143.5%$192,202,19628.2%
Other$371,279,16435.6%$197,430,82129%

Chart 1: Exports to destinations by Human Development Index (HDI) level

2012

Exports to destinations by Human Development Index (HDI) level 2013

2013

Exports to destinations by Human Development Index (HDI) level
Chart 1: Exports to destinations by Human Development Index (HDI) level
20122013
Not Ranked$9,284,339$1,446,902
Medium HDI Countries$7,708,928$18,095,060
Low HDI Countries$2,628,104$12,463,000
High HDI Countries$17,418,327$30,453,002
Very High HDI Countries$1,005,237,916$618,908,116

Chart 2: Exports to destinations by defence relationship

2012

Exports to destinations categorized by defence relationship in 2013

2013

Exports to destinations categorized by defence relationship in 2013
Chart 2: Exports to destinations by defence relationship
20122013
NATO$217,265,799$291,733,063
Other Destinations$371,279,164$197,430,821
Non-NATO AFCCL$453,732,651$192,202,196
Table 2: Exports of Military Goods and Technology by DestinationFootnote 12
Value Exported ($)
Export DestinationFootnote 1320122013
Grand Total$1,042,277,613Footnote 14$681,366,082Footnote 15
Afghanistan$1,709,275$8,222,754
Algeria$40,000$1,453,907
Argentina-$2,660
Australia$24,663,910$22,276,212
Austria$11,365,121$84,644,172
Bahrain$2,173,354$1,208,766
Belgium$16,758,859$11,970,820
Bermuda$17,970$50,450
Bosnia and Herzegovina$1,426
Botswana$283,260
Brazil$1,446,053$274,474
Brunei$15,465
Bulgaria$52,725$41,300
Burkina Faso$40,000
Chile$931,588$3,468,491
China$47,569$1,328,746
Colombia$40,075$780,753
Costa Rica$115,094$40,020
Croatia$55,869$54,910
Cyprus$3,632
Czech Republic$107,214$172,877
Denmark$16,698,549$4,902,259
Egypt$3,965$7,252,754
Estonia$2,016$94,018
Falkland Islands$1,700
Finland$560,260$1,123,247
France$14,532,960$28,841,300
Georgia$1,960
Germany$25,338,364$46,851,284
Greece$213,111$56,875
Guam$6,362
Guatemala$8,731
Guyana$50,000$33
Haiti$1,000
Hong Kong$13,000$2,800
Hungary$1,450$9,032
Iceland$495,302$150,000
India$352,065$2,899,939
Indonesia$108,448$1,909,474
Iraq$190,000
Ireland$8,600$77,206
Israel$2,379,586$4,846,505
Italy$16,050,898$49,580,162
Jamaica$7,000
Japan$10,177,836$8,759,349
Jordan$718,799$888,467
Kazakhstan$92,834
Kenya$47,105
Kuwait$ 868,481$16,116
Latvia$1,394$140,000
Libya$3,116,000
Lithuania$4,200
Luxembourg$10,498,226$12,420,464
Macedonia$1,320
Malaysia$423,308$417,640
Malta$40,000$42,000
Mauritania$6,628$84,193
Mexico$1,171,366$889,854
Mongolia$1,598
Morocco$37,287$4,215
Namibia$9,970$23,482
Netherlands$10,328,175$14,505,677
Netherlands Antilles$725,000$1,450,000
New Caledonia$1,101
New Zealand$1,991,364$1,961,339
Nigeria$911,200$3,622,878
Norway$9,240,485$5,037,534
Oman$652,008$266,512
Panama$7,435$4,110
Peru$6,995$124,580
Philippines$3,268,594$1,226,392
Poland$118,733$147,075
Portugal$118,588$858,816
Qatar$1,200$142,849
Romania$600$5,776
Russia$1,600$373,029
Saudi Arabia$422,298,391$152,772,708
Serbia$3,925
Singapore$20,581,307$6,672,451
Slovakia$54,968
Slovenia$42,939
South Africa$3,688,599$4,466,235
South Korea$9,724,495$13,294,254
Spain$4,907,724$6,520,717
Sweden$3,240,068$9,411,606
Switzerland$5,030,487$14,015,730
Taiwan$9,266,369$1,215,281
Thailand$6,539,962$10,885,694
Trinidad and Tobago$6,500$196,000
Tunisia$160,663$6,030,783
Turkey$5,865,162$3,023,801
Ukraine$21,152$279,215
United Arab Emirates$277,116,557$4,038,373
United Kingdom$85,832,256$106,293,401
Uruguay$25,135
Vietnam$172,008
Yemen$446,070
Zambia$18,946
Table 3: Group 2 of Canada’s Export Control List
Export Control List ItemIllustrative ExamplesFootnote 16
2-1Smooth-bore weapons with a calibre of less than 20 mm, other arms and automatic weapons with a calibre of 12.7 mm or less and accessories
2-2Smooth-bore weapons with a calibre of 20 mm or more, other weapons or armament with a calibre greater than 12.7 mm, projectors and accessories
2-3Ammunition and fuse-setting devices, and specially designed components
2-4Bombs, torpedoes, rockets, missiles, other explosive devices and charges, and related equipment and accessories specially designed for military use
2-5Fire control, and related alerting and warning equipment, and related systems; test and alignment and countermeasure equipment specially designed for military use; and specially designed components and accessories
2-6Ground vehicles and components
2-7Chemical or biological toxic agents, riot control agents, radioactive materials, and related equipment, components, materials
2-8Energetic materials and related substances
2-9Vessels of war, special naval equipment and accessories, and components specially designed for military use
2-10Aircraft, lighter-than-air vehicles, unmanned airborne vehicles, aero-engines and “aircraft” equipment, related equipment and components, specially designed or modified for military use
2-11Electronic equipment, military spacecraft and components not controlled elsewhere
2-12High-velocity kinetic energy weapon systems and related equipment, and specially designed components
2-13Armoured or protective equipment and constructions and components
2-14Specialized equipment for military training or for simulating military scenarios, simulators specially designed for training in the use of any firearm or weapon controlled in 2-1 or 2-2, and specially designed components and accessories
2-15Imaging or countermeasure equipment, specially designed for military use, and specially designed components and accessories
2-16Forgings, castings and other unfinished products the use of which in a controlled product is identifiable by material composition, geometry or function, and which are specially designed for any products controlled in
2-1 to 2-4, 2-6, 2-9, 2-10, 2-12 or 2-19
2-17Miscellaneous equipment, materials, libraries and specially designed components
2-18Equipment for the production of products referred to in the Munitions List
2-19Directed energy weapon systems, related or countermeasure equipment and test models, and specially designed components
2-20Cryogenic and superconductive equipment, and specially designed components and accessories
2-21Software
2-22Technology

Table 4: Exports of Military Goods and Technology by Export Control List (ECL) ItemxviiFootnote 17
ECLValue Exported ($)
20122013
2-1$ 40,463,613$ 126,392,386
2-2$ 32,113,683$ 101,258,644
2-3$ 31,967,854$ 39,981,924
2-4$ 9,206,614$ 3,949,260
2-5$ 38,514,414$ 120,244,907
2-6$ 444,116,160$ 255,509,020
2-7$ 108,200$ 260,946
2-8--
2-9$ 12,483,063$ 21,636,550
2-10$ 303,457,865$ 122,392,971
2-11$ 45,636,251$ 53,736,801
2-12--
2-13$ 2,097,221$ 4,732,902
2-14$ 41,534,816$ 19,737,762
2-15$ 58,122,042$ 95,836,389
2-16$ 5,358,430$ 4,296,036
2-17$ 11,922,209$ 11,112,361
2-18$ 2,571,653$ 2,822,870
2-19--
2-20--
2-21$ 21,233,316$ 25,984,456
2-22$ 8,133,469$ 14,359,417

Table 5: Exports of Military Goods and Technology by Destination and Export Control List (ECL) ItemxviiiFootnote 18
Export DestinationECL ##Footnote 19Value Exported ($)
20122013Footnote 20
Afghanistan2-6$974$488
2-10$1,708,301$8,222,266
2-11$1,708,301$8,222,266
2-15$1,708,301$8,222,266
Algeria2-10-$143,987
2-15-$1,309,920
2-2240,000-
Argentina2-1-$2,660
Australia2-1$200,847$152,761
2-2$157,336-
2-3$7,821-
2-5$1,518,477$664,272
2-6$7,636,679$2,106,090
2-7-$291
2-9$1,502,305$577,270
2-10$3,516,427$10,170,156
2-11$2,058,596$2,440,088
2-13$4,000$4,470
2-14$1,458,340$2,546,140
2-15$4,735,562$4,242,399
2-16$94,057$4,380
2-17$19,734-
2-18$186,640$108,541
2-21$1,090,378$585,291
2-22$823,789$918,764
Austria2-1$8,830,015$81,258,318
2-2$8,837,728$81,271,424
2-3-$1,390
2-5$9,088,043$83,184,919
2-6$9,222,660$82,281,924
2-7$89,700-
2-14-$124,113
2-15$1,731,821-
2-18-$124,113
2-22$40,392$92,084
Bahrain2-1$5,796$698
2-5$2,179,350$595,570
2-15-$612,498
Belgium2-1$1,500$2,681,639
2-2-$3,622
2-3$1,369,885$875,660
2-4$2,468,836$45,090
2-5$8,109,216$3,178,723
2-6$1,071,637$332,735
2-10$278,820$1,273,802
2-11$46,302$5,169
2-16$66,685$495,519
2-17$6,304,101$3,146,356
2-18$20,050$14,622
2-21-$77,987
2-22-$1,254
Bermuda2-2$17,970-
2-3-$50,450
Bosnia and Herzegovina2-1$1,426-
Botswana2-1-$1,750
2-10-$281,510
Brazil2-1$31,936$34,354
2-5$31,936-
2-6-$165,000
2-10$137,127$12,617
2-11-$62,503
2-15$31,936-
2-21$1,276,990-
Brunei2-15-$1,000
2-21-$200
2-22-$14,265
Bulgaria2-1$52,725$32,120
2-17-$9,180
Burkina Faso2-22-$40,000
Chile2-4$800,800-
2-5$4,792-
2-15-$3,388,491
2-22$120,000$80,000
China2-2-$286,169
2-5$27,000$27,000
2-11$5,560$2,790
2-13$15,010$22,787
2-14-$990,000
2-22-$1
Colombia2-6-$321,355
2-10-$346,509
2-11-$25,493
2-15-$84,141
2-18-$3,250
2-21$75-
2-22$40,000$346,514
Costa Rica2-1$115,094$40,020
Croatia2-1$55,869$33,830
2-13-$11,100
2-15-$9,980
Cyprus2-1-$3,632
Czech Republic2-1$23,854$172,876
2-3$3,360-
2-22$80,000$1
Denmark2-1$3,003,571$2,546,760
2-2$123,624$43,143
2-3$7,330,000$667
2-4-$1,993
2-6$5,610,363$47,809
2-9$60,000-
2-10$56,164$248,004
2-11$290,763$220,978
2-13$224,194-
2-15-$837,832
2-16$27,732$49,832
2-18$7,449$18,318
2-21$6,000-
2-22$30,509$924,357
Egypt2-2$1,601-
2-3$2,365-
2-10-$92,492
2-11-$1,429,000
2-15-$5,622,762
2-22-$108,500
Estonia2-1$1,601$45,000
2-11-$49,018
Falkland Islands2-1-$1,700
Finland2-1$16,491$8,780
2-2$14,469-
2-5$164,469-
2-6$164,469$60,584
2-10$356,749$915,320
2-11$22,550$39,110
2-15-$36,168
2-18-$63,285
France2-1$933,140$1,494,915
2-2$74,652$390,750
2-3$1,775,962$342,148
2-4$1,063,880$230,511
2-5$358,416$361,614
2-6$1,210,139$5,821,268
2-7-$307
2-9$2,100,000$30,339
2-10$2,443,644$940,525
2-11$720,256$305,408
2-13-$228,017
2-14$215,186$3,842,589
2-15$2,667,779$14,723,793
2-18$420,696$62,467
2-21$324,716$91,168
2-22$836,184$737,461
Georgia2-1-$1,960
Germany2-1$63,152$15,977,469
2-2$140,421$15,860,151
2-3$183,676$958,318
2-4$47,800$71,786
2-5$1,017,788$15,954,658
2-6$165,544$6,575,994
2-7-$3,600
2-9-$247,685
2-10$5,169,411$6,105,519
2-11$3,079,704$11,910,737
2-13-$46,380
2-14$2,983,119$2,688,843
2-15$4,631,441$3,615,643
2-16$232,360$40,953
2-17$23,432$526,800
2-18$7,241$81,070
2-21$8,685,160$17,131,129
2-22$1,121,898$400,852
Greece2-1$2,600$4,210
2-10$210,511$48,665
2-15-$2,000
2-21-$2,000
2-22-$2,000
Guam2-11-$6,362
Guatemala2-13-$8,731
Guyana2-3$50,000$33
Haiti2-1$1,000-
Hong Kong2-1$13,000$2,800
Hungary2-1-$8,032
2-21-$1,000
2-22$1,450$1,000
Iceland2-1$302-
2-15$495,000$150,000
India2-1$2,610$584,952
2-5-$86,934
2-10$10,000$996,353
2-11$211,085$1,190,703
2-21$5,110$100
2-22$123,260$44,380
Indonesia2-1$108,448$14,298
2-5-$26,564
2-10-$12,203
2-15$94,450$1,870,706
2-22-$1
Iraq2-21$190,000-
Ireland2-1$3,600$13,190
2-3-$1,790
2-10-$12,362
2-11$5,000$4,100
2-15-$12,298
2-17-$33,467
Israel2-1$15,365$34,218
2-3-$1,680
2-4$1,432,500$2,820,772
2-5$525,200$341,724
2-6-$288,383
2-9$30,347$3,685
2-10-$608,523
2-11$326,486$676,065
2-14-$3,212
2-15-$43,487
2-21-$88,100
2-22$80,035$120,061
Italy2-1$4,611,917$2,081,809
2-3$235,422$225,089
2-5$14,300$179,040
2-10$5,998,834$33,743,745
2-11$465,857$413,826
2-14$21,655$1,000,000
2-15$245,000$8,115,197
2-16$2,783,505$1,082,696
2-17$1,611,624$1,778,321
2-21$20,950$1,129,679
2-22$545,201$1,038,482
Jamaica2-1$7,000-
Japan2-1$16,412$43,672
2-4$382,500$375,000
2-5$87,000-
2-9-$226,764
2-10$6,322,719$3,508,885
2-11$1,583,990$2,884,636
2-14$470,436$290,159
2-15$21,347$91,206
2-16$939,266$1,438,680
2-18$199,162$103,386
2-21-$1,995
2-22$155,003$141,309
Jordan2-1$25,704-
2-11-$100,500
2-15$693,095$787,967
Kazakhstan2-1$92,834-
Kenya2-1-$47,105
2-5-$24,950
Kuwait2-1-$15,870
2-6$868,476$246
2-10$4-
2-13$4-
Latvia2-3$1,394-
2-15-$140,000
Libya2-6-$3,116,000
Lithuania2-1$4,200-
Luxembourg2-1$201,700$123,949
2-5-$193,956
2-6-$1,444,819
2-11$108,305$193,957
2-15$9,710,835$10,307,164
2-16$37,386-
2-18-$250,575
2-21$400,000$60,000
2-22$40,000$40,000
Macedonia2-1-$1,320
Malaysia2-7$18,500$40,934
2-10$289,808$306,778
2-11$100,000$29,916
2-15$15,000-
2-21-$12
2-22-$40,000
Malta2-1-$2,000
2-22$40,000$40,000
Mauritania2-1-$44,193
2-15$6,628-
2-22-$40,000
Mexico2-6$903,000$248,104
2-11$35,685$23,138
2-15$232,681$617,026
2-18-$1,380
2-22-$206
Mongolia2-1-$1,598
Morocco2-14$24,987$4,015
2-22$12,300$200
Namibia2-1$7,370$23,482
2-3$2,600-
Netherlands2-1$4,314,744$1,487,674
2-4-$22,361
2-5$132,785$790
2-6-$1,052
2-9$34,607$6,624,968
2-10-$269,108
2-11$35,146$211,952
2-13$1,253,300$4,294,455
2-14$624,442$830,926
2-15$1,535,795$91,382
2-16$81,101$573,175
2-18$20,015$49,553
2-21$1,847,305$5,298
2-22$784,898$2,047,671
Netherlands Antilles2-15$725,000$1,450,000
New Caledonia2-1-$1,101
New Zealand2-1$77,002$242,879
2-2$3,449-
2-3$262,500$200,456
2-5-$1,198
2-7-$19,330
2-9$218,400$601,920
2-10$735,004$284,759
2-11-$90,539
2-14-$436,000
2-15-$83,508
2-21$16,386-
2-22$678,623$750
Nigeria2-6$911,200$3,620,600
2-13-$2,278
Norway2-1$215,775$271,063
2-2$10,155-
2-3$5,794,281$467,568
2-4$247,626-
2-5-$18,254
2-6$248,490$408,088
2-7-$1,684
2-9$710,490$122,804
2-10-$448,000
2-11$170,100$147,882
2-14-$66,875
2-15$1,813,124$3,004,657
2-18-$5,182
2-22$40,100$75,477
Oman2-1-$1,595
2-3-$5,532
2-6-$1
2-14$652,008$259,384
Panama2-3$7,435-
2-11-$4,110
Peru2-1$5,525$124,580
2-13$1,470-
2-15-$113,480
Philippines2-1$3,945-
2-5$5,520-
2-10$34,347$36,392
2-18-$1,190,000
2-21$3,224,782-
Poland2-1$7,181$61,680
2-6$111,267$45,275
2-22$285$40,120
Portugal2-1-$300
2-3-$851,200
2-9-$3,665
2-10$118,588$3,651
Qatar2-1-$142,849
2-22$1,200-
Romania2-1-$5,751
2-3-$25
2-11$600-
Russia2-1$1,600$373,029
2-5-$1,298
Saudi Arabia2-1$9,426,091$1,281,587
2-2$22,020,638$3,112,969
2-3$1,627,497$13,990,256
2-5$6,239,268$489,263
2-6$399,081,803$129,618,480
2-9$150,753-
2-10$2,272,229$3,108,025
2-14-$120,000
2-15-$434,995
2-21$201$536,065
2-22$2,324$81,070
Serbia2-1-$3,925
Singapore2-1-$4,990
2-6$7,610,015$3,192,224
2-9$68,258$657,076
2-10$140,218$2,268,940
2-11$36,574$294,674
2-14$11,476,082$42,609
2-15$4,990-
2-17-$421,670
2-18$1,016,365$30,477
2-21$2,717$11,145
2-22$226,088$149,526
Slovakia2-1-$14,968
2-22-$40,000
Slovenia2-1$2,939-
2-22$40,000-
South Africa2-1$60,207$205,771
2-2$350,000-
2-3-$720
2-4$11,250-
2-5$910,000-
2-6$3,160,614$2,252,872
2-10-$810,486
2-11-$727,546
2-13$4,109-
2-14$13,500$430,340
2-15-$18,500
2-17$12,120$20,000
2-22$66,800-
South Korea2-1-$33,454
2-2$29,925-
2-3$18,509-
2-5$610,850$490,000
2-9$4,252,870$4,362,744
2-10$1,481,458$3,171,145
2-11$931,771$4,640,230
2-14$798,468$827,368
2-15$1,625,694-
2-17$3,740,020$3,885,288
2-18-$500
2-21$1,635$65,160
2-22$486,166$175,773
Spain2-1$84,979$54,592
2-3-$335,175
2-4$623-
2-5$40,757$258,543
2-6$112,458$201,302
2-10$89,785$745,913
2-11$686,059$435,365
2-15$3,509,146$3,802,665
2-16-$10,608
2-17-$184,998
2-18$34,288$23,683
2-21$53,850$900,300
2-22$295,780$620,322
Sweden2-1$41,005$25,243
2-3$91,999$6,010,518
2-4-$21,000
2-5$87,500$1,198
2-6$1,093,552$1,335,915
2-9$12,298$420,749
2-10$695,443$1,143,821
2-11$752,639$33,900
2-14$196,784$5,800
2-15$228,783$282,462
2-21$65$90,000
2-22$40,000$41,000
Switzerland2-1$40,987$140,586
2-3$211,600$251,380
2-5$1,336,346$639,438
2-6$2,386,509$7,930,661
2-10$411,907$1,623,165
2-11-$468,987
2-13$595,134$101,469
2-15-$13,479
2-21-$1,425,000
2-22$48,005$1,421,565
Taiwan2-1$3,247-
2-4$1,020,000-
2-6-$28,207
2-9-$865,000
2-10-$60,132
2-11$8,201,988$201,947
2-17$1,069$865,000
2-21-$19,995
2-22$40,065$40,000
Thailand2-1-$13,349
2-3$4,376-
2-4$1,165,866-
2-10$5,369,720$10,796,487
2-11-$1,100,340
2-13-$888
2-18-$74,970
Trinidad and Tobago2-1-$1,200
2-7-$194,800
2-15$6,500-
Tunisia2-1$139,980-
2-10$20,683$6,030,783
Turkey2-1$936$958
2-6-$330,000
2-10$318,456$50,335
2-11$45,087$77,948
2-14$3,922,905$1,643,057
2-15$489,803$51,583
2-16$16,296$15,128
2-21$1,071,177$854,212
2-22$144,102$680
Ukraine2-1$20,951$279,215
2-3$201-
United Arab Emirates2-1$5,150-
2-2$169,009-
2-3$50,692$290,280
2-4$95,860$7,200
2-6-$1,659,530
2-10$251,134,882$3,677
2-11$18,056,082$41,110
2-14$1,445,850$218
2-15$3,867,343$1,989,253
2-18$379,601-
2-21$1,830,214$3,602
2-22$81,875$43,503
United Kingdom2-1$7,559,874$14,069,222
2-2$162,706$290,416
2-3$12,936,280$15,121,588
2-4$469,073$353,548
2-5$6,019,403$13,365,992
2-6$2,546,313$2,074,016
2-9$3,342,735$6,891,879
2-10$14,136,624$23,547,932
2-11$5,951,767$14,980,315
2-13-$12,326
2-14$17,231,055$3,586,114
2-15$17,294,987$19,210,410
2-16$1,080,042$585,066
2-17$210,109$241,282
2-18$280,147$617,499
2-21$1,185,605$2,905,018
2-22$1,027,136$4,410,269
Uruguay2-1-$25,135
Vietnam2-1-$12,998
2-5-$159,010
Yemen2-15-$446,070
Zambia2-1-$18,946

Table 6: Country Lists

Member countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Albania
Belgium
Bulgaria
Canada
Croatia
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Italy
Latvia
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Slovakia
Slovenia
Spain
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

Automatic Firearms Country Control List

Albania
Australia
Belgium
Botswana
Bulgaria
ChileFootnote 21
Colombia
Croatia
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Italy
Latvia
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
PeruFootnote 22
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Saudi Arabia
Slovakia
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

Participating States of the Wassenaar Arrangement

Argentina
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Bulgaria
Canada
Croatia
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Ireland
Italy
Japan
Latvia
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Malta
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Russia
Slovakia
Slovenia
South Africa
South Korea
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
Ukraine

Footnotes

Footnote 1

More information about Canada’s export controls, including the publication A Guide to Canada’s Export Controls, which contains the Export Control List, can be found on the Internet at www.exportcontrols.gc.ca.

Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

More information about economic sanctions imposed by Canada, including arms embargoes against a number of countries, can be found on the Internet at www.international.gc.ca/sanctions.

Return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

Under the authority of Section 6 of the Export and Import Permits Act, the Governor-in-Council added Belarus to the Area Control List effective December 14, 2006, and North Korea on July 13, 2010.

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Footnote 4

Subsection 84(1) of the Criminal Code provides definitions of “prohibited firearm”, “prohibited weapon” and “prohibited device”.

Return to footnote 4 referrer

Footnote 5

More information about Canada’s non-proliferation policies can be found on the Internet at www.international.gc.ca/arms-armes.

Return to footnote 5 referrer

Footnote 6

More information about the Wassenaar Arrangement can be found on the Internet at www.wassenaar.org.

Return to footnote 6 referrer

Footnote 7

More information about the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms can be found on the Internet at http://www.un.org/disarmament/convarms/Register/HTML/RegisterIndex.shtml.

Return to footnote 7 referrer

Footnote 8

Exports to the United States are not included in this report.

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Footnote 9

Categories are based on the 2014 Human Development Index as presented in the UN Development Programme Human Development Report 2014.

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Footnote 10

A list of member countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is presented in Table 6.

Return to first footnote 10 referrer

Footnote 11

A list of countries on the Automatic Firearms Country Control List (AFCCL) is presented in Table 6.

Return to footnote 11 referrer

Footnote 12

Please refer to Data Interpretation Notes.

Return to footnote 12 referrer

Footnote 13

If a destination does not appear in the above list, there were no military exports from Canada to that destination in the 2012 and 2013 calendar years. As noted in the introduction, exports of military products to the United States do not require a permit and are therefore not reported here.

Return to footnote 13 referrer

Footnote 14

A rounding issue has caused a minor difference of one dollar ($1) between the total value of 2012 exports as it appears in Table 1 and Table 2.

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Footnote 15

A rounding issue has caused a minor difference of two dollars ($2) between the total value of 2013 exports as it appears in Table 1 and Table 2.

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Footnote 16

The full list of goods and technology, including precise definitions of the terms used in the table, may be found in A Guide to Canada’s Export Controls, available on the Internet at www.exportcontrols.gc.ca.

Return to footnote 16 referrer

Footnote 17

Please refer to Data Interpretation Notes.

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Footnote 18

Please refer to Data Interpretation Notes.

Return to footnote 18 referrer

Footnote 19

Please refer to Table 3 for illustrative examples of Export Control List items.

Return to footnote 19 referrer

Footnote 20

A rounding issue has caused a minor difference of five dollars ($5) between the total value for 2013 exports as it appears in Table 4 and Table 5.

Return to footnote 20 referrer

Footnote 21

Added to the AFCCL on April 10, 2014.  More information on this regulatory amendment is available on the Internet: http://www.gazette.gc.ca/rp-pr/p2/2014/2014-04-23/html/sor-dors92-eng.php

Return to footnote 21 referrer

Footnote 22

Added to the AFCCL on April 10, 2014.  More information on this regulatory amendment is available on the Internet: http://www.gazette.gc.ca/rp-pr/p2/2014/2014-04-23/html/sor-dors92-eng.php

Return to footnote 22 referrer