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Intellectual property chapter summary

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Agreement fact sheets

Almost all businesses have some form of intellectual property (IP), whether it be a brand, a design, a trade secret, a literary or artistic work, or an invention. IP is also an increasingly important component of international trade agreements. The Canada-United States-Mexico Agreement (CUSMA) establishes a legal framework of minimum standards for the protection and enforcement of IP rights in North America. The IP chapter builds on existing international IP agreements such as the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and certain treaties administered by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).

The chapter includes obligations on copyright and related rights, trademarks, geographical indications, industrial designs, patents, data protection for pharmaceutical and agricultural chemical products, trade secrets, and IP rights enforcement.

Technical summary of negotiated outcomes: Intellectual property

Copyright and related rights:

Patents and pharmaceutical IP:

Data protection for agricultural chemicals:


Geographical indications:

Industrial designs:

Trade secrets:


Multilateral agreements:


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