Feminist International Assistance Gender Equality Toolkit for Projects
- Quick reference to tools
- Tool 1: Policy framework for gender equality and key gender equality concepts
- Tool 2: Engaging partners on gender equality
- Tool 3: Gender equality expertise and project team responsibilities
- Tool 4: Gender-based analysis + (GBA+)
- Tool 5: Gender equality outcomes
- Tool 6: Gender-sensitive and sex-age disaggregated indicators, baseline data and targets
- Tool 7: Gender equality risks
- Tool 8: Budget to achieve gender equality outcomes
- Tool 9: Gender equality coding for initiatives
- Tool 10: Project implementation plan and gender equality strategy
- Tool 11: Annual work planning and project steering committee
- Tool 12: Monitoring performance on gender equality
- Tool 13: Reporting on gender equality outcomes
- Tool 14: Evaluating project performance on gender equality
On June 9, 2017, Canada launched the Feminist International Assistance Policy anchoring its commitment to put gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls at the heart of its international development, humanitarian, and peace and security efforts.
Evidence clearly demonstrates that this is the most effective way to reduce poverty and create a world that is more inclusive, more peaceful and more prosperous. By eliminating barriers to equality and helping create better opportunities, women and girls can be powerful agents of change and improve their own lives and those of their families, communities and countries. This requires engaging men and boys in transforming the rigid roles and norms that lead to inequalities. Gender equality benefits everyone.
This means Canada prioritizes the investments, partnerships and advocacy efforts that have the greatest potential to close gender gaps, eliminate barriers to gender equality and help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.
As such, partners seeking international assistance from Global Affairs Canada (GAC) are expected to ensure active and meaningful participation and decision-making by women and girls in all initiatives—from project design to implementation and through monitoring and evaluation. It is important that women and girls know about their rights, and that they have advocates working on their behalf, to promote and defend those rights. To do so, it is necessary to work closely with stakeholders that advance women’s rights—including local women’s organizations.
This toolkit provides guidance for designing and implementing feminist international assistance programing. Stronger projects are those that are rights-based and that focus on addressing the root causes of gender inequalities within historical, social, cultural, economic and political barriers.
- Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women
- Global Affairs Canada
- gender-based analysis plus
- gender-based violence
- gender equality
- gender equality strategy
- logic model
- project implementation plan
- platform for action
- performance measurement framework
- project steering committee
- results based management
- sexual and gender-based violence
- sexual and reproductive health and rights
- terms of reference
- violence against women and girls
Canada’s Feminist International Assistance Policy puts gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls at the heart of international development, humanitarian, and peace and security efforts.
Gender equality means that diverse groups of women, men and non-binary people are able to participate fully in all spheres of life, contributing to an inclusive and democratic society
This toolkit provides guidance on how to plan for, implement, monitor and report on gender equality outcomes within the feminist approach. Aligned with the project cycle and anchored in results-based management, the toolkit is designed to be used by GAC’s project officers and implementing organizations. This toolkit focuses on improving the achievement of gender equality outcomes.
Quick reference to tools
This toolkit provides support on gender equality within the context of GAC’s results-based management (RBM) templates project documents and processes for projects as outlined below.
Managing for gender equality outcomes:
- The project design team includes gender equality expertise
- A context-specific gender-based analysis is conducted to inform the design of the project, including an assessment of the capacity of partner institutions to achieve gender equality outcomes.
- Project commitments to gender equality outcomes are reflected throughout the project proposal.
- Women and girls, including women’s organizations that advance women’s rights and gender equality civil society advocates, are consulted and involved in the development of the project proposal.
Tool(s): All tools
Managing for gender equality outcomes:
- Gender equality outcomes, based on findings from the gender-based analysis, are presented in the logic model at the intermediate outcome level, supported by immediate outcomes and outputs.
- For gender equality specific projects (for which gender equality is the principal objective of the initiative) gender equality outcomes are presented at all levels of the LM.
- Gender equality outcomes contribute to one or more of the three overarching gender equality objectives in GAC’s feminist international assistance policy.
Managing for gender equality outcomes:
- All results have sex-age disaggregated and gender-sensitive indicators
- Baseline data and targets are sex-age disaggregated.
- Targets are set high enough to reduce gender inequalities within the scope and influence of the project
Managing for gender equality outcomes:
- Internal/external risks to the achievement of gender equality outcomes are identified.
- Gender equality issues that may pose a risk to the achievement of the project’s outcomes are identified.
- Mitigation strategies are proposed for gender equality-related risks.
Managing for gender equality outcomes:
- A Gender Equality Strategy (GES) is drafted, completed and/or validated and informed by baseline studies that require sex-age disaggregated data and analysis.
- Women and girls are consulted and involved in the elaboration of the PIP and GES.
- Gender inequalities and activities/specific measures to address them are identified throughout the project.
- Gender equality training for project technical staff and partners is planned.
- The LM and PMF are updated based on the gender-based analysis and GES.
- Local/Canadian/international gender equality expertise is identified.
- Roles and responsibilities related to the achievement of gender equality outcomes are outlined for all project team members and partners.
Managing for gender equality outcomes:
- Adequate financial resources are allocated for gender equality expertise, activities and related equipment/materials, training, monitoring and reporting.
Managing for gender equality outcomes:
- The GES is reviewed annually and updated as needed based on monitoring reports.
- The Annual work plan has gender equality activities and budget allocations across the project based on the GES.
Managing for gender equality outcomes:
- Report on progress toward the achievement of gender equality outcomes in the LM and PMF and contributions to the three overarching gender equality objectives in GAC’s Feminist International Assistance Policy.
- Review and update the LM and PMF.
- Identify challenges/barriers to the achievement of the project’s gender equality outcomes and identify strategies to overcome them.
- Identify new or emerging opportunities to support gender equality outcomes.
- Present good practices, evidence-based success stories, lesson learned and case studies on gender equality.
Tool(s): 12 & 13
Managing for gender equality outcomes:
- Report on expenditures to support gender equality outcomes, with an explanation of variance from the estimated budget allocation for that year.
Managing for gender equality outcomes:
- Include gender equality advisors, gender equality-focused stakeholders and advocates at Project Steering Committee (PSC) meetings.
- Provide adequate time for a discussion on gender equality as a substantive standing agenda item at PSC meetings.
Managing for gender equality outcomes:
- Include progress on gender equality outcomes in project monitoring noting challenges, opportunities and project design and resources, budget allocations and management accountability for GE results.
- Actively involve project beneficiaries, particularly women and girls as well as gender equality project stakeholders, in participatory monitoring and evaluation.
- Specify gender equality as a substantive area in monitoring and evaluation TORs and allocate significant points in selection grids for relevant GE expertise, adequate budget and level of effort for GE.
Tool(s): 12 & 14
Tool 1: Policy framework for gender equality and key gender equality concepts
Canada’s policy framework and international commitments to gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls include:
- Canada’s Feminist International Assistance Policy (FIAP)
- Canada’s Gender Equality Policy
- Canada’s Gender-Based Analysis Plus
- Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)
- Substantive Equality: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rI8lNB-XMIk
- Non-Discrimination: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OBdDB5PKrmk
- State Obligation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=umETapJ4b8o
- Beijing Platform for Action
- International Conference on Population and Development
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security
- Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women
- Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development
These commitments form the basis for GAC’s work in gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls in partner countries around the world. Canada has a long-standing international reputation as a leader on gender equality, the empowerment of women and girls and the protection of their rights. Canada ratified the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women in 1981. In 1995, following the adoption of the Beijing Platform for Action, the Government of Canada committed to conducting Gender-Based Analysis (now called Gender-Based Analysis+) on all future legislation, policies and programs. GAC’s approach to gender equality supported by its long-standing Policy on Gender Equality for international development is consistent with a GBA+ approach and goes beyond analysis to requiring the achievement of gender equality results. Canada takes a leadership role in international efforts to implement the Women Peace and Security (WPS) agenda. Canadian international development and humanitarian assistance works to implement the UNSCR 1325 and subsequent resolutions on WPS by advancing gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls in fragile and conflict-affected states. Canada played an important role in advocating for gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls as a stand-alone goal in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and continues to work with like-minded partners to effectively achieve the gender equality goal and targets.
The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) serves as the strongest legal guidance on gender equality and the requirements to ensure non-discrimination. CEDAW lays the framework for substantive equality, going beyond formal equality in the law, and focusing on a real and lived equality. Subsequently, it is the first and only human rights convention that obliges State Parties to modify and abolish social attitudes and cultural patterns and practices that are based on the idea of inferiority or superiority of either sex. It explicitly prescribes State Parties’ obligations to eliminate discrimination against women not only by State agents, but also by private individuals, organizations and enterprises. It integrates women’s civil rights and political rights and economic, social and cultural rights under the normative framework of non-discrimination and equality. The Convention also covers the guarantee to respect, protect and fulfill women’s human rights in the private sphere of the family. The Convention also allows the application of temporary special measures for the correction of practices of discrimination.
The Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (PFA) of 1995 is a visionary agenda for the empowerment of women. It still remains today the most comprehensive global policy framework and blueprint for action, and is a current source of guidance and inspiration to realize gender equality and the human rights of women and girls, everywhere. The Platform for Action covers 12 critical areas of concern that are just as relevant today: poverty; education and training; health; violence; armed conflict; economy; power and decision-making; institutional mechanisms; human rights; media; environment; and the girl child. For each critical area of concern, strategic objectives are identified, as well as a detailed catalogue of related actions to be taken by governments and other stakeholders, at national, regional and international level. It aims at removing all the obstacles to women's active participation in all spheres of public and private life toward a full and equal share in economic, social, cultural and political decision-making.
The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) of 1994 sets out an ambitious agenda to deliver inclusive, equitable and sustainable global development. This agenda has guided policy and helped secure advances in gender equality and empowerment for women, global health and life expectancy, and education for girls. The Program of Action was remarkable in its recognition that reproductive health and rights, as well as women's empowerment and gender equality, are cornerstones of population and development programs. The Program of Action asserted that everyone counts, that the true focus of development policy must be the improvement of individual lives and the measure of progress is the extent to which we address inequalities.
United Nations Security Resolution (UNSCR) 1325 (2000) and seven subsequent resolutions define the international Women Peace and Security (WPS) agenda. The agenda calls for the international community, including the UN system, regional and sub-regional organizations and member states, to enhance the protection of women and girls in conflict situations and other emergencies and promote the meaningful participation of women in decision-making for conflict prevention, resolution, mediation, peacekeeping and peacebuilding. The agenda also calls for the full respect of the human rights of women and girls and the prevention of sexual violence in conflict, as well as for gender equality, and the integration of a gender perspective in all peace and security activities and interventions.
The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development was adopted by 193 UN member states in September 2015. The 2030 Agenda is a global framework of action for people, planet, prosperity, peace, and partnership. This universal Agenda aims to eradicate poverty and to leave no one behind. Goal 5 is to achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls and GE targets are embedded across other goals. Advancing progress on gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls is core to the achievement of the 2030 Agenda, as it exerts a powerful multiplier effect on progress in all other development areas. António Guterres, UN secretary-General: “In a male-dominated world, the empowerment of women must be a key priority. We are all better off when we open doors of opportunity for women and girls: in classrooms and boardrooms, peace talks and in military ranks in all aspects of productive life.”
Canada’s feminist approach and policy on gender equality for international assistance
Canada’s feminist international assistance policy brings greater rigour, activism and accountability to the implementation of GAC’s approach to gender equality guided by its long-standing Policy on Gender Equality for international development.
Through a feminist approach to international assistance, gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls are objectives in their own right for transforming social norms and power relations. A feminist approach also recognizes that advancing gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls is the most effective way to reduce poverty and build a more inclusive, peaceful and prosperous world. It is recognized that committing to a feminist approach to international assistance represents a significant shift in what we do and how we do it.
The feminist international assistance policy states that to achieve the goals of gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls, Canada will focus its efforts on six action areas.
- Core Action Area: Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women and Girls
- Human Dignity (health and nutrition, education, humanitarian action)
- Growth that Works for Everyone
- Environment and Climate Action
- Inclusive Governance
- Peace and Security
The feminist policy elevates gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls to an overarching priority and includes clear and ambitious gender equality programming targets. By 2021/22, no less than 95 percent of Canada’s bilateral international development assistance initiatives will target or integrate gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls, of which 15 percent will be specifically targeted gender equality.
Canada’s feminist approach to international assistance is:
Human rights-based and inclusive – All people must enjoy the same fundamental human rights, regardless of sex, race, ethnicity, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, sexual orientation, gender identity, age, ability, or any other aspect of identity.
Strategic and focused – Assistance will be directed toward those initiatives that best support the empowerment of women and girls and have the greatest potential to reduce gender inequalities.
Transformative and activist – Unequal power relations, systemic discrimination, and harmful norms and practices will be challenged as a broad range of stakeholders—including men and boys—are engaged and a range of key actions are implemented.
Evidence-based and accountable – Our assistance will be informed by gender-based analysis and will rely on clear accountabilities for planning, achieving, tracking and reporting on gender equality results.
Canada advocates for and supports initiatives through three objectives:
- enhance the protection and promotion of the human rights of women and girls;
- increase the participation of women and girls in equal decision-making, particularly when it comes
to sustainable development and peace; and
- give women and girls more equitable access to and control over the resources they need to secure ongoing economic and social equality.
Outlined below, are the guiding principles of GAC’s long standing Policy on Gender Equality for international development. These principles remain relevant and complement the feminist approach.
Guiding principles of GAC’s approach to advancing gender equality
- 1) Gender equality is an overarching approach and as such must be considered as an integral part of all Global Affairs Canada’s development policies, programs and projects. Addressing gender equality requires that women’s views, interests and needs shape the development agenda as much as men's, and that the development agenda supports progress toward more equal relations between women and men.
- 2) Achieving gender equality requires the recognition that every policy, program and project affects women and men, girls and boys differently. Women and men have different perspectives, needs, interests, roles and resources-and those differences are reinforced by class, caste, ethnicity, ability or age. Policies, programs and projects are required to address the differences in experiences and situations between and among women and men.
- 3) Achieving gender equality does not mean that women become the same as men. Equality means that one's rights or opportunities do not depend on being male or female.
- 4) Women's empowerment is central to achieving gender equality. Through empowerment, women become aware of unequal power relations, gain autonomy over their lives, and acquire a greater voice to overcome inequality in their home, workplace and community.
- 5) Promoting the equal participation of women as agents of change in economic, social and political processes is essential to achieving gender equality. Equal participation goes beyond numbers. It involves women's equal right to articulate their needs and interests, as well as their vision of society, and to shape the decisions that affect their lives, whatever cultural context they live in. Partnership with women's organizations and other groups working for gender equality is necessary to assist this process.
- 6) Gender equality can only be achieved through partnership between women and men. When choices for both women and men are enlarged, all society benefits. Gender equality is an issue that concerns both women and men, and achieving it will involve working with men to bring about changes in attitudes, behaviour, roles and responsibilities at home, in the workplace, in the community, and in national, donor and international institutions.
- 7) Achieving gender equality will require specific measures designed to eliminate gender inequalities. Given ingrained disparities, equal treatment of women and men is insufficient as a strategy for gender equality. Specific measures must be developed to address the policies, laws, procedures, norms, beliefs, practices and attitudes that maintain gender inequality. These gender equity measures, developed with stakeholders, will support women's capacity to make choices about their own lives.
- 8) GAC’s development policies, programs, and projects are required to contribute to the gender equality policy objectives. 95% of Canada's international assistance is required to incorporate gender equality outcomes.
Practical gender needs can be defined as immediate necessities such as water, shelter, food, income and health care. Projects that address practical needs generally include responses to inadequate living conditions but generally do not challenge gender division of labour or women’s subordinate position in most societies.
Strategic gender interests, on the other hand, refer to the relative status/position of women and men within society. Strategic interests may vary in each context and are related to roles and expectations, and gender-based divisions of labour, resources and power. Strategic interests include women’s right to live free from violence, slavery, and discrimination; to be educated; to own property; to vote; to participate equally in decision-making, including control over their bodies; and to earn a fair and equal wage.
To ensure sustainable benefits, both practical needs and strategic interests must be taken into account in the design of policies, programs and projects.
The empowerment of women and girls is central to achieving gender equality. It is about women/girls— taking control over their lives: setting their own agendas, gaining skills, building self-confidence, solving problems, and developing self-reliance. It is not only a collective, social and political process, but an individual one as well — and it is not only a process but an outcome too. Outsiders cannot empower women: only women can empower themselves to make choices or to speak out on their own behalf. Through empowerment, women become aware of unequal power relations, gain control over their lives, and acquire a greater voice to overcome inequality in their home, workplace and community. Projects can support processes that increase women's self-confidence, develop their self-reliance, and help them set their own agendas.
Sexual and Gender-based violence (SGBV) is violence that is directed against a person on the basis of gender or sex, taking many forms (physical, verbal, sexual, psychological, socio-economic) affecting every society and every social class and occurring in private and public life. Whether the context is rape used as a tool of war, sexual slavery, intimate partner violence, or female genital mutilation, in all cases, gender-based violence violates and impairs or nullifies human rights and is a disempowering force, which erodes a person’s self-dignity, capabilities and ability to participate in social, economic and political life. Sexual and gender-based violence is an obstacle to the achievement of the objectives of gender equality, development and peace. SGBV is rooted in gender inequalities and other systems of oppression.
Sexual harassment is any unwanted or unwelcome sexual behaviour, which makes a person feel offended, humiliated or intimidated. It can take the form of an insult, inappropriate remark, joke, insinuation and comments on a person’s dress, physique, age, family situation; a condescending or paternalistic attitude with sexual implications undermining dignity; any unwelcome invitation or request, implicit or explicit, whether or not accompanied by threats; any lascivious look or gesture associated with unwanted advances; and any unnecessary physical contact such as touching, caressing, pinching or assault. Sexual harassment can occur in the private or public sphere. Platform for Action, Para.178, recognizes sexual harassment as a form of discrimination against women.
Tool 2: Engaging partners on gender equality
It is important to be prepared to discuss the rationale and approaches to address gender inequalities in projects with colleagues, partners and stakeholders; to discuss how projects can advance gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls; and to share best practices, strategies and lessons learned. International assistance is successful when partnerships are developed and nurtured. Constructive dialogue will help to build more effective, feminist, and evidence-based projects. Information provided from GAC’s Questions About Culture, Gender Equality and Development Cooperation publication below will assist staff and partners who may face concerns about culture in relation to gender equality.
Actions to promote gender equality with project staff, partners and stakeholders
- Prepare – Review sector-specific information in advance and ask a GE specialist/advisor for support, gender-based analysis and advice. Draw on national and institutional commitments to women’s rights and gender equality. Start the discussion from an informed position on the gender equality issues that are relevant to the sector or initiative. Use their own policies to make the case for addressing gender inequalities. Identify relevant government initiatives. Find out the priorities and position of women’s +organizations. All partner countries have endorsed the Beijing Platform for Action and most have ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Many have also formulated strategies to guide implementation of these commitments. These are important tools for dialogue on gender equality as they ground the discussion in commitments already made by partners and donors. UN organizations, other donors, banks, NGOs and most international development organizations have gender equality policies.
- Create awareness – It is more effective to address gender equality issues as part of the main discussion about the sector or initiative in question. If gender equality is just an extra agenda item ("finally, let us discuss the gender aspects…") there is an implicit invitation to disregard it. Use clear language and make the issues concrete. Raise the issues in a way that makes sense to partners. For example, if you want to ensure that the benefits of an agricultural diversification initiative reach both women and men, then begin the discussion by saying that. If needed, suggest GE and RBM training/workshop and on-going training.
- Share – Use lessons learned on GE issues and approaches relevant to the sector/ geographic area. Provide relevant tools.
- Monitor – Ask for sex- age disaggregated data; set targets for women and men of different age groups that aim for reduction in gender inequalities. Ensure that indicators also measure qualitative changes on gender equality.
- Be consistent on responsibilities and accountability – Consistent messages from managers/project leadership on roles, responsibilities and accountability for delivering GE results and being gender-sensitive in all implementation approaches.
- Advocate – Work with others to build support for addressing gender inequalities. Identify internal allies, individuals or units in partner organizations who are engaged in advancing gender equality. Gain their views on issues and possibilities.
Advocating for gender equality
People are sometimes ambivalent about gender equality or opposed to the changes it entails and thus avoid taking real action. Here are suggestions to respond constructively.
Ways that action is avoided:
Stating that gender equality is not a concern for the country (or region, or community), or that a particular program does not discriminate against women.
‘Equal opportunity already exists for everyone. Why do we need to focus on gender?’
‘Gender equality is a cultural issue and we need to respect the local culture. Promoting for gender equality is an imposition of Western values.’
Present sound empirical evidence (statistics, oral histories, research) that documents gender disparities and discriminatory practices.
Discuss in advance with like-minded and have them raise GE.
Use lessons learned from sector or similar initiatives to build a case;
Suggest gender-based analysis to find out.
Partner countries have commitments in constitutions, CEDAW, PFA, laws, policies. Need to support freedom and dignity of women as defined by women themselves, especially women’s civil society.
Ask if it is ‘cultural’, is it unquestioned? Societies and culture are not static or homogeneous.
Make the point that development is about promoting social and economic improvement; GE is a human rights and development issue.
Speaking on behalf of "women"
Ways that action is avoided:
Generalizing one or two experiences into a broad statement about all women, or presuming that own experience justifies a statement about "what women want" or need (generally ignoring the fact that women are not a homogeneous group).
Find analyses; sex disaggregated data and research that provide a more reliable perspective. Ensure the project collects sex-age disaggregated data and sets targets for women and men that aim for substantial reductions in gender inequalities.
Demonstrate the need for an understanding of the specific situation and promote the use of gender-sensitive participatory methods, dialogue with women’s organizations that advance women’s rights.
Make the case for the differential impact on women and men in the sector/subsector and demonstrate the gaps between women and men (i.e. in decision-making, access and control, realization of rights).
Ways that action is avoided:
Acknowledging that something needs to be done, but selecting an action that can only have limited impact (a small add-on activity) or focusing on women’s participation in a project activity (rather than the project’s impact on gender equality).
Shift attention to the results of the initiative. Ask questions about how the project will change the way in which the partner serves its public – is there an opportunity in the project to improve services to women or impacts on gender equality?
Ways that action is avoided:
Acknowledging the issues at the level of rhetoric but failing to take meaningful action.
Build gender equality into the results and monitoring framework. Strengthen accountability, budgeting, implementation and reporting structures to ensure the achievement of gender equality outcomes.
Ensure the project hires adequate GE expertise.
Ways that action is avoided:
‘We need more research.’ Delaying decisions until after the in-depth study (often in the hope that the need to address the issue will disappear with the delay).
While a study may be necessary, there are other actions that can be taken in parallel with the study. Gender sensitization training may be necessary.
Propose action research, or preliminary action based on what is already known, or a pilot project to explore the issues.
Ways that action is avoided:
Referring all matters concerning women or equality to the person (consultant, specialist, organization) responsible for GE or "women’s development”. Referring everything concerning GE to the Women’s Ministry/ office.
Make a concrete case about the relevance of gender equality issues to the mainstream of the agency’s work or to this specific project. Promote GE training for staff and partners (integrate GE into TORs, planned meetings, missions, training) to provide the necessary tools for integration of GE.
Promote and ensure adequate resources for gender-based analysis and monitoring role of Women’s Ministry/office. Strengthen understanding and application of gender-based analysis.
Appointing a token woman
Ways that action is avoided:
Resolving the need to act by appointing a woman to a committee or a decision-making process.
If you encounter a "token woman" in a meeting, join with her in identifying and pursuing gender issues and encourage others to participate. Or if you are the token woman, look for allies. Emphasize the need for gender mainstreaming and that everyone has a role in it.
Tool 3: Gender equality expertise and project team responsibilities
Gender equality expertise is crucial for the successful achievement of gender equality outcomes. Partners may have in-house gender equality expertise or hire international, Canadian and/or local gender equality advisors with relevant sectoral expertise. Alternatively, partners may seek collaboration with local, Canadian or international organizations that focus or possess expertise on gender equality, the rights and empowerment of women and girls. To be effective, gender equality advisors need to be integral proactive members of the project team, who are involved early in the planning stage and consistently throughout the initiative.
Sample generic TORs for Canadian and/or locally engaged gender equality advisors are provided below.
Project gender equality advisors are responsible for the following:
- Act as the principal resource on gender equality issues, practices and policies relevant to the project and in the project context.
- Take the lead in conducting gender-based analysis, and contribute to the other technical analyses (economic, policy, capacity, social) required for project design.
- Assess the institutional gender equality capacity of partners and key stakeholders.
- Identify key stakeholders to represent women’s rights and gender equality issues.
- Integrate the key findings of the gender-based analysis in the outcomes of the project.
- Provide input and advice on expected results at intermediate and immediate levels in the logic model.
- Draft the project gender equality strategy.
- Identify supporting outputs and activities to achieve gender equality outcomes.
- Identify assumptions, risks and mitigating strategies.
- Provide input into defining, collecting, and analyzing sex-age disaggregated baseline data; define gender-sensitive and sex-age disaggregated indicators and targets for the draft performance measurement framework (PMF).
- Provide gender-based analysis and technical advice for project proposal and associated project implementation plan (PIP).
- Provide inputs into all aspects of the project work plan and budget.
- Coordinate implementation of the gender equality strategy and related project activities.
- Strengthen project team, implementing organizations’ and partners’ gender equality knowledge, skills and capacity with training and tools.
- Assist in monitoring results against the PMF and gender equality strategy.
- Provide inputs to project reports.
While the gender equality advisor takes the lead, the project director and all project team members and consultants are responsible for ensuring that gender equality issues and considerations are addressed within their mandate. That includes ensuring women and girls are involved in all aspects of all projects supported by GAC, including in decision-making and leadership positions. As such, gender equality roles and responsibilities need to be stated in each team member’s Terms of Reference (TORs).
Project team members’ gender equality roles and responsibilities
- Provide leadership to project staff on gender equality in all aspects of the project, and provide consistent messaging on accountabilities for achieving gender equality outcomes.
- Emphasize the responsibility for gender equality in job descriptions of staff and technical advisors; in consultants’ ToRs; and in employment agreements and consultant contracts.
- Apply the findings of the gender-based analysis as central to the project rationale, the scoping mission and project strategies in the project design.
- Focus on gender equality outcomes and the gender equality strategy in project implementation documents and in monitoring.
- Promote the collection and use of sex-age disaggregated and gender-sensitive data and ensure that participation of women and men in projects is monitored.
- Allocate sufficient financial and staff /consultant resources to support implementation of the project gender equality strategy.
- Hire gender equality expertise over the life of the project and pay them within the same scope as other technical advisors.
- Encourage participation of project staff and project partners in gender equality training.
- Take advantage of opportunities to engage in policy dialogue on gender equality with partners and other donors; raise gender equality from the earliest stages of joint programing initiatives.
- Encourage the involvement of GE and women’s organizations that advance women’s rights.
- Ensure that gender equality expertise is central throughout the project (i.e. from planning to evaluation phase).
- Ensure that gender equality outcomes are formulated that respond to gender issues in the specific context of the project.
- Promote significant participation of women and girls, especially in decision-making, throughout the life cycle of the project.
- Manage for gender equality outcomes and report on progress.
- Involve the project gender equality advisor(s) in project meetings, discussions, communications, decision-making, monitoring, and reporting.
- Collaborate with women’s organizations that advance women’s rights.
Other technical advisors involved in the project (e.g. on health, education, governance, agriculture, economic, environment, climate change, security, peace, etc.)
- Be familiar with the organization’s, the partner country’s, and GAC’s gender equality approaches and requirements as well as the project’s gender equality strategy.
- Develop awareness of gender equality issues, resources and opportunities within their areas of specialty.
- Regularly seek advice from and involve the project gender equality advisor(s) in meetings, discussions, communications, decision-making, monitoring, and reporting.
Tool 4: Gender-based analysis + (GBA+)
GBA+ is an analytical process used to assess how diverse groups of women, men and non-binary people may experience policies, programs and initiatives. The “plus” in GBA+ acknowledges that within a gender based analysis grounded on biological (sex) and socio-cultural (gender) differences there are many other intersecting identity factors, such as race, ethnicity, religion, age and mental and physical disabilities.
Gender-based analysis identifies the varied roles played by women and men, girls and boys in the household, community, workplace, political processes, and economy. These different roles usually result in women having less access than men to resources and decision-making processes, and less control over them.
Canada’s feminist approach requires that our international assistance be informed by a gender-based analysis that includes evidence of meaningful consultations with women and girls before a project begins. Canada’s approach also recognizes that inequalities exist along intersectional lines.
Gender-based analysis is required for all GAC projects, programs and policies to ensure that planning is based on evidence and analysis rather than assumptions. It is an integral part of the project’s overall design process.
A gender-based analysis is conducted to provide information and analysis about the women, men, girls and boys within households, communities, businesses, institutions, etc. that will be involved in or affected by the initiative; how activities, needs and priorities differ by sex; and, the implications for the proposed initiative. It identifies key gender dimensions of human rights, decisions-making, and access and control over resources within the initiative. It reviews national and local commitments to gender equality as well as the efforts by governments and civil society to advance gender equality, and how the initiative can complement and support these efforts. Gender-based analysis informs other project analyses, including economic, social, political, environmental and institutional capacity assessments. A gender-based analysis provides key planning information for an initiative to define results and activities related to gender equality.
Gender-based analysis informs the development of the project’s expected outcomes in the logic model; gender-sensitive and sex-age disaggregated baseline data, indicators and targets in the performance measurement framework; and gender equality strategy. Gender-based analysis is expected to be used throughout the project cycle.
Gender-based analysis is an indispensable tool for both understanding the local context, and promoting gender equality within projects. Gender equality is not exclusively about women’s issues; men’s engagement and support for women`s empowerment is critical for successful gender equality initiatives. There is a risk that projects that may focus on women and girls may not contribute to gender equality. If gender-based analysis is not conducted, the project could end up reinforcing gender inequalities. Gender-based barriers to equality can negatively affect the overall functioning of institutions or sectors, and limit the achievement and sustainability of project results.
Key elements of a gender-based analysis are identified in the following table. Many guides are available to assist in identifying the issues to be considered in different sectors or types of initiative. Gender-based analysis requires skilled professionals and local expertise. Consultation with local partners, beneficiaries, government women’s machineries, and non-governmental organizations promoting gender equality and women’s rights is essential. Appropriate and adequate resources must be allocated to conduct the gender-based analysis and address its findings. However, if there are information gaps at the design stage, it is important to identify a plan (with a budget and appropriate expertise) that outlines how these gaps will be rectified as the initiative goes forward.
Criteria for a gender-based analysis:
- Aim to understand power, gender, and diversity dynamics: The gender-based analysis looks at the rights, roles, responsibilities and opportunities among and between diverse women and men and non-binary people. It outlines power relationships and identifies disparities along gender lines. It also assesses how these gender disparities are influenced and differ by other intersecting identity factors such as age group, class, sexual orientation, religion, ability and ethnicity.
- Be relevant to the focus of the initiative: The gender-based analysis focuses on the development challenge or problem the initiative is intended to address. In other words, general information/data/analysis that does not relate to the specific sector or theme of the project is kept to a minimum. Initiatives that focus on building institutional capacity in programing, service delivery, policy-making, and/or public financial management, are expected to assess the institutional capacity of the partners to advance gender equality.
- Be linked to and shape the expected outcomes: The gender-based analysis investigates how gender inequalities and differences are relevant to and affect the achievement of proposed project outcomes. It also looks at how expected outcomes and related issues will affect diverse women and men differently. The findings of the gender-based analysis inform the initiative outcomes. Consistent with interpretations by the Auditor General, the gender-based analysis provides evidence that it has influenced and shaped the design of the initiative. For GAC, this includes explicit considerations in the initiative activities, expected outcomes and indicators, baseline data and targets (i.e., logic model and the performance measurement framework), and choice of partners.
- Aim to understand power, gender, and diversity dynamics: The gender-based analysis looks at the rights, roles, responsibilities and opportunities among and between diverse women and men. It outlines power relationships and identifies disparities along gender lines. It also assesses how these gender disparities are influenced and differ by other intersecting identity factors such as age group, class, sexual orientation, religion, ability and ethnicity.
- Include disaggregated data: The gender-based analysis includes sex-disaggregated data (baseline and targets), which are further disaggregated by intersecting identity factors such as age group, class, ability, sexual orientation, religion, ethnicity or other relevant social categories (as GAC systems allow).
- Consider institutional capacity: It includes an analysis of the capacity of the institutions responsible for project implementation (or that will influence the achievement of the initiative’s results) to work with a gender equality perspective and achieve gender equality results.
- Include citations and references: The gender-based analysis includes information sources (including whether/how and which stakeholders were consulted).
Gender equality issues and gaps
The gender-based analysis examines:
- Power relationships and disparities along gender lines, and how these gender disparities are influenced and differ by other intersecting identity factors such as age, class, income, language, geography, sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, religion, ability and ethnicity.
- Relevant issues identified in CEDAW report and shadow report.
- Different practical gender needs and strategic gender interests of women and men in the project area (or institution).
- Relations between women and men pertaining to their access to, and control over, resources, benefits and decision-making processes.
- Gender roles, workload, and division of labour in income-producing and household activities.
- The rights and opportunities among and between diverse women and men.
- Power relationships and disparities along gender lines, and how these gender disparities are influenced and differ by other intersecting identity factors such as age, class, income, language, geography, sexual orientation, religion, ability and ethnicity.
- Sex-age disaggregated data (baseline and targets), which are further disaggregated by intersecting identity factors such as ethnicity, ability, level of poverty, language, religion or other relevant categories
- The potential differential impact of project interventions on women and men, girls and boys.
- Factors that could promote gender equality: e.g. capacities/knowledge/resources of local stakeholders; and enabling environment (political, administrative, institutional, and economic).
- Threats or risks to the project, e.g. barriers to participation by women/girls; social and cultural constraints; disabling environment.
- Mitigation measures to limit risks or constraints.
- Opportunities to support women’s and girls’ empowerment processes.
- Identification of champions and role models for gender equality.
Shape the expected outcomes
The gender-based analysis identifies gender inequalities that form the basis for the proposed project outcomes that are supported in the outputs, activities, indicators, baseline data and targets (i.e., logic model and the performance measurement framework), budget allocations and choice of partners.
Capacity of implementing partners (See also section below on gender equality capacity assessment.)
- Institutional gender equality/empowerment of women and girls policy statement.
- Capacity of the organization to work with a gender perspective and achieve gender equality outcomes.
- Gender equality expertise available in the organization.
- Relative position of women and men in decision-making and leadership positions in the organization.
- Policy and awareness programs on zero tolerance for harassment and sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV).
Entry points for gender equality integration
- Measures or activities to reduce the identified gaps and to promote gender equality.
- Training and capacity needs of partners and key stakeholders.
- Proposed gender equality outcomes for the Logic Model and indicators, targets and baseline for the PMF; strategy to collect and compile data needed for monitoring and reporting on results.
Gender-based analysis: Questions to consider
Who is the target (both direct and indirect) of the proposed project? Who will benefit? Who will lose?
- Have women and men, girls and boys, been equitably consulted on the 'problem' the intervention is proposing to solve? How have they been involved in development of the 'solution'?
- Are gender disparities influenced by other intersecting identity factors such as age, class, income, language, geography, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, religion, ability and ethnicity?
- Does the intervention challenge the existing gender division of labour, tasks, responsibilities and opportunities?
- What is the best way to build on (and strengthen) the partner government's commitment to the advancement of women?
- What is the relationship regarding gender equality between the intervention and other actions and organizations — national, regional or international?
- Where do opportunities for change or entry points for gender equality exist? And how can they best be used?
- What specific ways can be proposed for encouraging and enabling women to participate in the project, despite the challenges?
- What is the long-term impact in regard to women's and girls’ increased ability to take charge of their own lives, and to take collective action to solve problems?
- What are the expected risks (including backlash) and what are the strategies to minimize these risks?
Gender equality capacity assessment
As part of a gender-based analysis, the capacity of partners (e.g. governmental departments, civil society organizations, international agencies, and businesses) to achieve gender equality outcomes needs to be assessed.
Gender equality capacity assessment analyzes the institutional policies, strategies and mechanisms of implementing partners (governmental departments, civil society organizations, international agencies) to achieve gender equality results.
Key points in assessing gender equality capacity
Supportive institutional policy framework
- Institutional policy statement on gender equality/empowerment of women and girls. Gender equality promoted as a development goal in and of itself, and as integral to achievement of other development goals.
- Gender equality perspectives in core policy/planning documents that guide institution’s work (e.g. institutional results framework).
- Policies on building an equitable and diverse workforce and on zero tolerance for harassment and SGBV
Institutional enabling environment
- Senior management is committed to gender equality
- There are sufficient resources and knowledgeable personnel, along with an enabling corporate environment to promote gender equality; staff (or other) resources dedicated to increasing effectiveness on gender equality; Qualified gender equality specialists and locally-based gender equality advisors are employed on a regular basis
- Comprehensive and systematic approach to promote gender equality outcomes throughout the institution (e.g. guidance notes and tools).
- Institutional capacity to do gender-based analysis of its programs and policies.
- Capacity development to build staff knowledge and skills to promote gender equality.
- There are accountability frameworks, which ensure that the gender equality policy is implemented.
- Existence of “champions” or advocates for gender equality.
Partnerships with other organizations (government or civil society) with gender equality-related knowledge and experience; partners and implementers are selected on the basis of their commitment and capacity to promote gender equality.
Gender balance/employment equity
- Relative position of women and men in the organization (by level of authority and decision-making, skill, access to training and promotion, pay scale and benefits).
- Means are identified to ensure there is equitable participation of women and men as decision makers.
- Capacity of organization to monitor equitable employment practices and address gender-based discrimination and violence.
- Awareness program on zero tolerance for harassment and SGBV
Gender equality results
- Data systems generate sex-age disaggregated data required for program planning and monitoring.
- Institutional systems in place to monitor and report on gender equality results
- Institutional weaknesses or cultural biases that could constrain the achievement of gender equality results are recognized in policy, program, or project design, and strategies are developed to address them.
Tool 5: Gender equality outcomes
The key to addressing gender equality in projects is a combination of gender equality outcomes and applying RBM principles to implementation, and measuring and reporting on progress. Gender equality outcomes focus on promoting gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls.
Gender equality outcomes are measurable changes that explicitly aim to reduce gender inequality, or improve equality between women and men, boys and girls and gender diverse people. Gender equality outcomes contribute to one or more of GAC’s gender equality objectives:
- enhance the protection and promotion of the human rights of women and girls;
- increase the participation of women and girls in decision-making;
- give women and girls more equitable access to and control over the resources they need to secure ongoing economic and social equality.
Gender equality outcomes can be stated using terms such as “gender responsive”, “gender sensitive”, “exempt of gender stereotyping”, “gender balanced”, “gender equitable”. When using gender equality terms in the result statement, it is important to describe in the theory of change how this approach will help achieve the expected results. Terms also need to be defined in footnotes in the logic model. Some examples of gender equality terms can be found in the GAC RBM How-to Guide.
Formulating gender equality outcomes requires technical knowledge of how the result will advance gender equality.
Within the logic model, each level of outcome is very distinct, with clear definitions of the type of change that is expected at that level. These definitions are defined below.
Ultimate outcome: The highest-level change to which an organization, policy, program, or project contributes through the achievement of one or more intermediate outcomes. The ultimate outcome usually represents the raison d'être of an organization, policy, program, or project, and it takes the form of a sustainable change of state among beneficiaries.
Intermediate outcome: A change that is expected to logically occur once one or more immediate outcomes have been achieved. In terms of time frame and level, these are medium-term outcomes that are usually achieved by the end of a project/program, and are usually changes in behaviour, practice, access or performance among intermediaries and/or beneficiaries.
Immediate outcome: A change that is expected to occur once one or more outputs have been provided or delivered by the implementer. In terms of time frame and level, these are short-term outcomes, and are usually changes in capacity, such as an increase in knowledge, awareness, skills or abilities, or access to... among intermediaries and/or beneficiaries.
Examples of gender equality outcomes
Ultimate outcome (change in state, conditions or well-being for ultimate beneficiaries)
- Improved health in rural communities, particularly for women and girls.
- Enhanced food security, particularly for women/girls.
- Reduced rural poverty, especially for women.
- Improved women’s economic empowerment in rural areas.
Intermediate outcome (change in behaviour, practice, access or performance)
- Improved equal participation of women with men in decision-making.
- Strengthened participation of civil society, especially of women and gender equality advocacy organizations, in national consultations.
- Improved services and mechanisms that respond to gender-specific constraints on rights (e.g. violence against women/girls, trafficking of women and girls, sexual violence in conflict zones).
- Improved gender responsive planning and budgeting.
- Improved gender balanced participation in business associations.
- Enhanced gender sensitive curriculum in technical vocational institutions.
- Increased service delivery programs that address gender inequalities.
- Improved quality, coverage and gender-responsiveness* of Primary Health Care services and SRHR services, for women, adolescent girls, and children.
- Increased protection for girls from early marriage.
- Reduced gender-based violence in school.
- Increased women’s political participation.
- Increased access by women’s rights organizations to information and policy fora on government policy and decision-making on environment and natural resources in country X.
- Increased women’s and girls’ participation in climate change response initiatives Improved quality and accessibility of sexual and reproductive health services for women and girls.
Immediate outcome (change in access, capacity, awareness, knowledge, skills)
- Strengthened capacity of government department to develop gender-responsive economic development policies.
- Increased awareness among decision-makers on gender equality issues.
- Increased awareness of gender-responsive policies and budgets in the regions.
- Increased ability of government to conduct gender-based analysis.
- Increased awareness of the need for women’s equal participation in training and consultations.
- Improved knowledge and skills in gender-based analysis of planning and budgeting processes.
- Increased awareness among community members, particularly women, husbands, fathers and caregivers, on the importance of timely and case-appropriate pre-, peri-, and post-natal care, and on gender-based constraints and rights to women’s health.
- Increased access by rural women to literacy and numeracy training programs.
- Increased ability of women to participate in autonomous income-generating activities Increased capacity of men to share decision-making with women
- Increased capacity of agricultural cooperatives, and producers’ organizations to participate in the development of value chain and in mechanisms to integrate gender equality.
- Strengthened networks and support institutions to address critical legal, financial and market barriers faced by women's small enterprises
- Improved access to agricultural resources by women farmers
Tool 6: Gender-sensitive and sex-age disaggregated indicators, baseline data and targets
In order to effectively track and report on the achievement of gender equality outcomes, they must be measured by appropriate gender-sensitive and/or sex-age disaggregated indicators to be included in the performance measurement framework (PMF). A long-term perspective may be required, social change takes time.
Gender sensitive indicators
A Gender-sensitive indicator is a neutral quantitative or qualitative unit to measure gender equality-related changes in a project outcome over time.
When developing gender-sensitive indicators:
- Develop project-level indicators in an equitable participatory approach where women and men diverse stakeholders actively take part in the planning of performance measurement frameworks, in their implementation, and in the discussion of their findings.
- Focus on the needs and priorities of female and male children and youth as well as adult and elderly women and men across diverse groups.
- Ensure sex-age disaggregation of all indicators (not only for gender equality outcomes but for all outcomes in the project) that involve people (e.g. farmers, youth, household members, survey respondents, managers, trainees, participants, employers, employees, health care practitioners, teachers, students, vulnerable people, poor, ethnic minorities, migrant workers, vulnerable, food insecure, etc.), groups of people or entities when sex-segregated (e.g. women’s and men’s cooperatives, girls’ and boys’ clubs), and businesses and organizations (e.g. male and female-led businesses). When this information is disaggregated by female and male, it will provide evidence on gender gaps and progress toward gender equality for the overall project.
- In technical areas, ensure that indicators measure changes related to women, men, girls and boys (e.g. instead of an indicator such as “# tons of crop harvested in X region”; it is recommended to involve people such as: “# tons harvested by number of female farmers and # tons harvested by number of male farmers in X region”)
- To obtain a comprehensive assessment of the different situations of all female and male members of the selected population, encourage the collection of intra-household data (i.e. women, men, girls and boys or by sex and age group); or if household must be used, disaggregate by joint household (two adults as co-heads), single male-headed; single female-headed. It is important to avoid the assumption that if it is a joint household that the male is the ‘head’. The issue of household head is a changing concept as women or men leave as migrant workers; or in the case of a man with many wives, may not be in the household but may still be identified as the ‘head’.
- Choose valid indicators that can measure progress on gender equality, based on project definitions of ‘gender-responsive’, ‘gender-sensitive’, ‘gender-equitable’, etc.
- Reflect on the qualitative dimensions of female and male participation, e.g. the number of person-hours spent in training, active contribution or leadership versus passive listening, capacity to participate, and how the training has empowered the participants to do their work more effectively.
- Conduct surveys with female and male participants to assess the quality of their participation in consultations, decision-making, making recommendations.
- Collect data for indicators in a gender-sensitive manner, for example: collect data from men and women separately; ensure that household questionnaires are filled out by women and men; deliver gender-sensitive training for those conducting surveys; select women surveyors to speak to women and men speak to men; include questions on attitudes to gender equality in all questionnaires, surveys and focus group discussions.
Sex-age disaggregated baseline data and targets
Baseline data provide specific data for an indicator at the start of a project or program, and is the reference point so that realistic targets can be set. Gender-sensitive and sex-age disaggregated baseline data related to all indicators, not only those indicators that are directly linked to gender equality outcomes, need to be collected as early as possible in the project. Targets need to be set high enough to contribute to gender equality for each indicator in the performance measurement framework (PMF).
When collecting baseline data:
- Encourage sex-age disaggregated data collection (women/men, girls/boys within the household, community, organization, department, sector, region, etc.).
- Disaggregate baseline data not only by sex, but also by other variables such as age group, ethnicity, socio-economic status, geographic area, business sector, profession, and any other categories relevant to the project.
- Collect baseline data that are relevant to the scope of the project. For example, if the initiative is focused on delivering agriculture extension services in two rural areas in one province, it is not relevant to use national data (e.g. 11% of women farmers receive agriculture extension services in the country). The baseline would need to collect information on women and men farmers in the two rural areas which will often vary from the national aggregated statistics (e.g. 15% women in rural region A and 20% in rural region B).
When developing targets:
- Set sex-age disaggregated targets for each indicator and include other disaggregated factors, as required. For example, respondents to a satisfaction survey can be disaggregated by sex and age group and this will provide the necessary feedback related to the needs and interests of women, men, girls and boys, adolescent girls, adolescent boys, elderly women and elderly men. The various sex/age group targets would be based on a survey conducted at the beginning of the project. Targets would be set to incrementally increase the level of satisfaction by sex/age group. Other diversity factors could also be included in the disaggregation.
- Set targets based on the relevant baseline data. Describe how the target represents an improvement for the empowerment of women and girls and/or gender equality.
Examples of gender-sensitive indicators, baseline data and targets
Women’s and girls’ economic empowerment
Level of satisfaction of women and of men with business services.
40% out of 150 women with high level of satisfaction
60% out of 150 men with high level of satisfaction
80% out of 150 women with high level of satisfaction
80% out of 150 men with high level of satisfaction
%/# decision-makers (F/M) out of total number using gender-based analysis in economic development policies in department A.
0% of women decision-makers in Dept. A
0% of men decision-makers in Dept. A
100% of women in Dept. A
100% of men in Dept. A
%/# farmers (F/M) with new skills in agriculture marketing.
5 % of women farmers with new skills in region X
30% male farmers with new skills in region X
80% of female farmers
80% of male farmers
Total target 500 farmers (60% women farmers)
%/# farmers (F/M) satisfied with access to financial services.
5% of female farmers satisfied with access to financial services in region X
25% of male farmers satisfied with access to financial services in region X
75% of female farmers with high level of satisfaction
75% of male farmers with high level of satisfaction
Total target 500 farmers (60% women farmers)
%/# cooperative members (F/M) satisfied with decision-making processes of cooperative.
10% women cooperative members satisfied
50% men cooperative members satisfied
80% of 150 women members satisfied with decision-making processes
80% of 150 men members satisfied with decision-making processes
%/ # of technical and vocational policies that address gender stereotyping.
0 policies out of 10 TVET institutions
100%: new policies that address gender stereotyping in all 10 TVET institutions
% time spent on household tasks by women, men, girls and boys.
60% women’s time
5% men’s time
30% girls’ time
5% boys’ time
30% of women’s time
30% of men’s time
10% of girls’ time
10 % of boys’ time
% out of total number of institutions with implemented policies on sexual/gender-based violence and harassment.
1 of 8 institutions with implemented policies on SGBV and harassment
8 of 8 institutions with implemented policies on SGBV and harassment
Women’s and girls’ political empowerment
% participants (F/M/age group) in consultations.
No consultations held
50% women / 50% men among 250 participants
Women’s and girls’ social empowerment
% out of total SRHR initiatives (disaggregated by type) that address harmful traditional practices against women and girls.
20% of 30 nutrition programs
20% of 100 clinic programs
30% of 150 midwife programs
80% of 30 nutrition programs
80% of 150 clinic programs
90% of 150 midwife programs
Tool 7: Gender equality risks
The risk management process is intended to incorporate risks related to the achievement and sustainability of gender equality outcomes alongwith associated mitigation strategies. Project evaluations have demonstrated that there are both internal and external factors related to gender equality performance that merit attention in assessing the risks to be monitored or managed by implementing organizations.
Gender equality risks
- Identify medium to high, internal/external, development, operational, financial, reputation risks to the achievement of gender equality outcomes.
- Propose appropriate mitigation strategies and monitor closely.
Risk: Negative attitudes toward women’s participation in public life reduce the ability of women to influence project decisions. Risk response: Identify specific strategies for encouraging women to participate in culturally sensitive ways.
Risk: Challenge of finding local staff with GE expertise, particularly if remote areas; hiring of staff with limited gender expertise may result in poor implementation of GE strategy. Risk Response: GE training for project staff.
Risk: Not enough funds allocated to GE specific interventions to ensure implementation of the integration of GE. Risk Response: Revise budget to ensure sufficient funds allocated to GE specific interventions.
Risk: The commitment to GE of a project’s institutional beneficiary (e.g. Ministry) relying on the leadership of one or few people who may move on (e.g. Minister being appointed to another Ministry or change in government). Risk Response: Build capacity on GE within the administration/ government department and with civil society.
Tool 8: Budget to achieve gender equality outcomes
Projects must allocate sufficient funds for the successful implementation, monitoring and reporting of gender equality outcomes. The financial allocation for gender equality-related activities must be included in the project proposal, annual work plans and budgets, tracked and reported throughout project implementation. Some GAC Programs as well as some individual projects have established minimum budgetary allocations for gender equality. Gender equality budgetary commitments are often stated in contracts with implementing partners.
The proposed tracking/reporting of gender equality-related expenditures includes remuneration to project staff and consultants, and the actual costs of activities outlined in the project work plan. It is important not to double-count fees or salary of project staff or consultants. Where gender equality content is integrated into a more general activity (such as a research report, training workshop, or study tour), an accurate estimate is needed of what proportion of the resources were allocated to the gender equality part of that activity.
Sample of gender equality-related project expenditures
- Salary/fees to Canadian/local gender equality advisors/consultants.
- Reimbursed expenses of gender equality advisors (e.g. travel per diems).
- Pro-rated remuneration and expenses of other project managers or staff for documented time spent on gender equality (e.g. preparing/conducting gender equality sessions as part of other technical areas).
Gender equality training
- Costs of gender equality training or capacity development for gender equality advisors/consultants and other project staff.
Gender equality-related management costs
- Costs of preparing the project gender-based analysis, gender equality strategy, baseline surveys, indicators, reporting, monitoring, etc. These could include travel, translation, communication and research costs.
Gender equality activities
- Costs of gender equality training, gender fund, study tour, research on gender equality (excluding salary/fees of advisors/staff covered elsewhere).
- Pro-rated costs (according to proportion of time spent on gender equality) of identifiable gender equality activities when part of other project activities. These could include extra expenses related to integrating gender equality in the activity (e.g. outreach for women to attend training); gender equality advisor’s participation in planning and executing non-gender equality-specific activities (excluding salary/fees covered elsewhere).
Tool 9: Gender equality coding for initiatives
GAC’s Feminist International Assistance Policy (FIAP) commits that by 2021-22, no less than 95 percent of Canada’s bilateral international development assistance initiatives will target or integrate gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls. This includes 15 percent of investments specifically targeting gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls, with the remaining 80 percent integrating these goals across all international assistance efforts.
This tool provides further information on GAC’s Gender Equality (GE) coding framework and the internal GE assessment form.
GAC’s Gender Equality coding framework assigns a GE code in relation to a project’s intended contribution to advancing gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls.
GAC’s GE codes cover a spectrum from GE-0 to GE-3 (see table below). GAC GE coding requirements and definitions are based on results-based management (RBM) logic and practice, including the theory of change. Gender Equality results or outcomes are measurable changes that explicitly address a reduction in gender inequality, or an improvement in gender equality between women and men, boys and girls.
Each proposed project is assessed using GAC’s internal Gender Equality Assessment Form as an initial step in the due diligence process. A GE code is assigned using the table below.
|Gender equality code:||Explanation of GE coding:|
|GE - 3||Targeted - Gender equality is the principal objective of the initiative: The initiative was designed specifically to address gender inequalities and would not otherwise be undertaken. All outcomes in the logic model are gender equality outcomes.|
|GE - 2||Fully integrated -There is at least one intermediate gender equality outcome which will achieve observable changes in behaviour, practice, or performance that will contribute to gender equality.|
|GE - 1||Partially integrated - There is at least one gender equality outcome at the immediate outcome level which will achieve a change in skills, awareness, or knowledge that contributes to gender equality.|
|GE - 0||None - There are no gender equality outcomes.|
The types of change associated with each gender equality code are aligned to the levels of change in GAC’s Results Based Management logic model.
A gender equality specific and targeted project (GE 3) means that all the outcomes at all levels are exclusively focussed on addressing gender inequalities to advance women’s and girls’ equal participation with men in decision-making; to support the full realization of women’s and girls’ human rights; and/or to reduce gender inequalities in access to and control over resources and benefits of development.
A gender equality fully integrated project (GE 2) means that the project has identified at least one intermediate outcome that aims to achieve long term transformational change for gender equality that will be sustained after the project ends.
A gender equality partially integrated project (GE 1) means that the project has identified at least one immediate outcome that aims for short term changes in gender equality related to knowledge, awareness or skills. These changes are not expected to be sustainable over the long term.
Since initiatives are assessed at the proposal stage, a project can be strengthened after approval when developing the Project Implementation Plan (PIP). The GE Assessment Form often includes suggested follow-up actions to strengthen GE in the project. In many cases, however, an initiative designed to integrate gender equality cannot be strengthened to become one that specifically targets gender inequalities without a redesign of the initiative.
International Reporting on Gender Equality
The OECD-DAC analyzes its member’s (bilateral development assistance agencies) level of investments that promote gender equality. The OECD-DAC relies on reporting from members that use a gender equality coding or marker system. GAC’s GE codes are rolled up for annual international reporting to OECD-DAC as part of the GAC’s accountability process.
The following table shows how GAC GE coding is mapped to OECD GE policy marker:
Targeted - Gender equality is the principal objective of the initiative: The initiative was designed specifically to address gender inequalities and would not otherwise be undertaken. All outcomes in the logic model are gender equality outcomes.
GE-02 Full integration
Fully integrated -There is at least one intermediate gender equality outcome which will achieve observable changes in behaviour, practice, or performance that will contribute to gender equality.
GE-01 Partial integration
Partially integrated - There is at least one gender equality outcome at the immediate outcome level which will achieve a change in skills, awareness, or knowledge that contributes to gender equality.
No gender equality outcomes
Gender equality is the main objective of the project/program and is fundamental is its design an expected results. The project/program would not have been undertaken without this objective.
Gender equality is an important and deliberate objective, but not the principal reason for undertaking the project/program.
GE-0 Not targeted
The project/program has been screened against the gender marker but has not been found to target gender equality.
For more information on the minimum standards for the gender equality policy marker, refer to OECD.
Tool 10: Project implementation plan and gender equality strategy
The gender equality strategy (GES) outlines the project’s overall approach to achieve gender equality outcomes and provides overall guidance on the approach to be used in the activity matrix, work breakdown structure, monitoring and reporting, and management. If not completed at the project design phase, the project team needs to develop a gender equality strategy for the project at the inception phase as part of the process of preparing the project implementation plan (PIP).
The project GES is informed by the project’s gender-based analysis and consultations with partners and stakeholders, especially women and girls, on how to achieve gender equality outcomes. The GES is a separate section or an appendix to the PIP but it is expected that all the sections of the PIP, including the rationale, overall project description, LM, theory of change, PMF, work breakdown structure, activity matrix, budget, monitoring, and reporting expand on the information presented in the GES. The annual work plan is also expected to further expand upon the implementation of the GES.
During project implementation, best practices include: significant involvement of gender equality expertise as part of implementation team; collaboration and support from women's organizations, key female and male decision makers, leaders and allies; flexibility and openness to respond to new and innovative methods, and to opportunities for supporting gender equality that present themselves during implementation, and promotion of the equitable participation of women with men, especially in decision-making, throughout implementation.
The gender equality strategy is not meant to be a static document. During implementation, projects need to re-evaluate the context for promoting gender equality and engage in dialogue with partners and stakeholders, especially women and girls, in order to identify challenges and emerging opportunities as well as lessons learned. In this respect, the project local gender equality expert is a key resource. As the project builds gender equality capacity both internally and among stakeholders, new possibilities may emerge and projects are expected to be flexible enough to take advantage of them.
Ideally, the project’s gender equality strategy includes the elements presented below.
Outline for Project Gender Equality Strategy
Overview of gender-based analysis: A summary of the gender-based analysis and validation of gender inequalities.
Gender equality outcomes: Description of how gender equality outcomes at the ultimate, intermediate and immediate outcome levels in the LM will address the identified gender inequalities. This information would be integrated into the theory of change section of the proposal or PIP.
Expected outcomes: A plan of the specific approaches and key interventions that will be taken to achieve each immediate outcome and would inform the outputs, activity matrix and work breakdown structure sections of the PIP.
Specific approaches and key interventions such as:
- involvement of women and girls and women’s organizations that advance women’s rights.
- Special measures (e.g. incentives for women and for employer/organization, skills/knowledge upgrading and leadership training programs, gender-sensitization of employers/decision-makers, mentoring) to achieve targets for participation by women (or girls)
- criteria that will be used in the selection process for civil society partners or consultants to ensure that they have commitment and experience on gender equality
- development of tools and methodologies to guide staff, partners and stakeholders for the achievement of gender equality outcomes,
- gender equality issues (such as zero tolerance of harassment and sexual and gender-based violence awareness-raising) to be included in information or advocacy activities.
Capacity building: Plan for training and capacity building on gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls for project staff, partners and implementers. This would be itemized in the budget and activity matrix of the PIP.
Monitoring and reporting: An outline of how the project will use sex-age disaggregated baseline data for indicators to set relevant targets; and how the project will collect data on gender-sensitive indicators in the PMF to monitor progress toward results.
Resources and budget: A statement of the measures or means for implementing the gender equality strategy, including identification of responsibility at the management level; inputs of technical expertise in gender equality; training for project staff and partners; financial resources to adequately cover gender equality expertise, training and project activities that support gender equality. This would be included in the PIP budget and the staffing/technical assistance plan of the PIP.
Contribution to GAC’s Feminist International Assistance Policy: Describe how the project will contribute to the three gender equality objectives which underpin GAC’s Feminist International Assistance Policy:
- to enhance the protection and promotion of the human rights of women and girls;
- to increase the participation of women and girls in equal decision-making, particularly when it comes to sustainable development and peace; and
- to give women and girls more equitable access to and control over the resources they need to secure ongoing economic and social equality.
Tool 11: Annual work planning and project steering committee
Annual work planning
The project work plan sets out specific interventions and budget to implement the gender equality strategy and reflects the integration of gender equality in order to achieve the expected gender equality outcomes.
Annual work planning
- Involve the project GE advisor in drafting annual work plans so that activities are in line with the Project Implementation Plan (PIP) and project gender equality strategy.
- Review the barriers and risks related to gender equality and revise activities so that progress can be made within a changing environment.
- Allocate sufficient resources (human and financial) for activities to implement the project gender equality strategy and to achieve the expected gender equality outputs and outcomes.
- Prioritize activities related to gender equality so that they are carried out and not delayed.
Project steering committee (PSC)
- Invite representatives/experts on gender equality to meetings.
- Report on progress toward gender equality within the project as a standing agenda item for all PSC meetings.
- Ensure Project Progress Reports tabled at the PSC assess the implementation of the project gender equality strategy and achievement of gender equality outcomes.
Project steering committee (PSC) meetings are opportunities to assess and discuss the progress made by a project on gender equality outcomes, to determine whether it is in accordance with the approved work plan and to take any decisions needed to improve performance. PSC meetings present opportunities to raise awareness on gender equality among steering committee members.
Tool 12: Monitoring performance on gender equality
Gender-sensitive monitoring helps project staff, other stakeholders, and beneficiaries to understand how the project is progressing on the achievement of GE outcomes and identifies areas for improvements.
Monitoring progress on gender equality outcomes
- Include the assessment of the implementation of the project gender equality strategy and achievement of gender equality outcomes in the monitor’s ToRs.
- Ensure project monitoring includes tracking gender equality performance, challenges, and recommendations for improvement.
- Ensure the monitor has sufficient expertise to assess gender equality outcomes or that a gender equality advisor participates in project monitoring missions.
- Encourage reporting that uses and analyzes sex-age disaggregated data and gender-sensitive information.
- Share monitoring reports and recommendations back to project staff and beneficiaries on a timely basis to allow for project adjustments.
- Promote the active participation of women and girls and gender equality project stakeholders in participatory monitoring and evaluation.
- Ensure that the monitor’s recommendations for improving gender equality are applied to project work plans.
- Commission, as needed, a gender equality review or gender audit to assess progress on achieving GE results and to make recommendations to revise the gender equality strategy and adjust the logic model and performance measurement framework.
- Carry out capacity-building activities for staff on managing/monitoring gender equality outcomes.
Tool 13: Reporting on gender equality outcomes
Project reports are required to present data on progress on gender equality within each project outcome. It is expected that the project’s gender equality advisor(s) be involved in drafting project reports, particularly the sections on progress toward each expected result and the section on the implementation of the GES.
Reporting on gender equality by outcome
- Starting at the Ultimate Outcome level, it is expected that reporting will cover progress on each result and how outputs contribute to immediate outcomes.
- Report on progress for each outcome, including description of outputs that support gender equality, presentation of sex-age disaggregated data on participation, decision-making, etc.
- Identify and analyze gaps between expected sex-age targets and achieved GE outcomes.
- Demonstrate the results of gender equality capacity-building activities.
- Identify any unanticipated results related to gender equality.
The table below provides examples of how to report on gender equality results at each outcome level.
How to report on gender equality results
- Immediate Outcome: Increased capacity of the national, state and district level health system to deliver accessible, quality gender-sensitive health services.
This result requires both quantitative and qualitative data that measures the system’s capacity to deliver gender sensitive health services, particularly indicators that measure: system capacity to collect and analyze gender-sensitive data; staff capacity to develop, design and deliver programing and services that are gender-sensitive, including addressing women’s and girls’ barriers to access, use, and decision-making on health care; system capacity to and practice in ongoing engagement of women’s groups in the design of policy, programs and services; etc. Sex-age disaggregated data can be used to track the use of health services, and sex-age disaggregated client surveys can measure perceptions of and satisfaction with the health services provided. This data helps to verify that the system is delivering services.
B. Intermediate Outcome: Increased access to basic education for children, particularly girls, in focus areas. (Similar wording may include “especially”, “with a focus on”, etc.).This result statement requires sex-age disaggregated data, as well as comparison to baseline data over time to measure girls’ and boys’ access to school. Qualitative or quantitative indicators are needed to measure the impact of special interventions to make schools girl-friendly (e.g. % of schools with girls-only toilets, % of teachers using gender-sensitive pedagogy, # of courses revised for gender-sensitivity, total # of schools that include mothers and fathers in parent-teacher interviews, total # of schools that have no school fees, total # of schools with feeding programs, level of satisfaction by girls/by boys of school programs, % of girls out of school compared to boys, % of parents (F/M) who support sending girls to school, % of girls under 15 who are pregnant). This data is needed to assess the different reasons girls are able to attend and stay in school.
C. Ultimate Outcome: More predictable and equitable access to the justice system for people, especially women (Indicator: # gender-based violence incidents reported). This result has been included to illustrate how to treat potentially counter-intuitive gender equality indicators, where an understanding of context is important. In contexts where gender-based violence is not discussed but is known to occur, reporting rates of gender-based violence is expected to increase if the project is in its first phase and includes awareness-raising activities. On the other hand, one might expect a downward trend in the actual data collected on indicators if the project is in its later phases, if social awareness is high and levels of social programing designed to address gender-based violence is in evidence. A more accurate indicator is the measurement of attitudes of women and men on violence against women and girls (e.g. % of respondents (F/M, age group) who disagree that men can beat women for burning the food, going out without permission, spending money without permission.)
In addition, a section reporting on the implementation of the GES to cover the elements outlined below.
How to Report on the Gender Equality Strategy
- Provide any additional analysis of how activities are promoting gender equality or the empowerment of women and girls.
- Discuss challenges encountered in implementing the approaches as presented in the GES.
- Identify emerging opportunities/entry points for integrating gender equality in the project (e.g. new local partners).
- Update the context for integrating gender equality in the project (e.g. changes in policy, laws, local environment).
- Identify needs in building gender equality capacity.
- Summarize how the project results are contributing to the three gender equality objectives that underpin all action areas within GAC’s Feminist International Assistance Policy.
- Present best practices/lessons learned on gender equality and additional evidence-based success stories that are not covered in the section on reporting on outcomes.
- Share links to case studies with photos and videos.
Tool 14: Evaluating project performance on gender equality
Gender equality performance is expected to be assessed in all project evaluations. This involves:
- Creating the right conditions to assess gender equality, such as: evaluation questions, allocating sufficient resources, finding appropriate evaluators and defining relevant methodologies.
- Measuring success in achieving outcomes relative to the three overarching gender equality objectives in GAC’s Feminist International Assistance Policy.
- Identifying lessons learned related to gender equality in the project.
If the project or program has a good gender-based analysis, gender equality outcomes, clear gender equality indicators and sex-age disaggregated baseline and targets, there is a much greater probability that the evaluation will examine gender equality elements in a meaningful way. The following table outlines how to plan, design and manage evaluations to assess gender equality outcomes.
How to plan, design and manage evaluations to assess gender equality outcomes
Preparing terms of reference
Gender equality (GE) is often treated superficially in evaluation reports. Sometimes terms of reference (TORs) set out too many competing issues to assess and provide limited direction to evaluators on gender–related questions. Important tips to keep in mind are:
- Integrate GE throughout the TORs (i.e. rationale, scope and focus, stakeholder involvement, accountabilities, responsibilities, deliverables).
- Clarify in the TORs what GAC wants to learn about GE through this evaluation.
- Describe stakeholders by sex, age group, ethnicity, geographic area, institution, sector, socio-economic group, etc.
- Focus and prioritize evaluation issues based on the input of female and male diverse stakeholders.
- Include questions for assessing gender equality outcomes.
- Designate responsibility for the assessment of gender equality outcomes.
Resourcing and expertise
The assessment of GE outcomes brings an extra dimension to traditional methods and requires more time and resources. Where evaluation teams include gender equality expertise, evaluation reports are more likely to include sex-age disaggregated data and a performance assessment of GE results. Involving gender equality expertise can enhance gender-equitable, participatory processes.
- Allocate appropriate time and financial resources to assess GE results.
- Ensure that the planned level of effort is realistic, given participatory methods and the need for in-depth contact with stakeholders.
- Ensure that the evaluation team leader has the capacity to integrate gender equality concerns into evaluation findings, conclusions and recommendations.
- Make it a requirement for evaluation team members to have sufficient gender equality expertise.
- Encourage a gender-balanced evaluation team, including local expertise.
- If interpreters are required, ensure that interpreters are not required to provide technical inputs.
The more participatory the evaluation process, the greater the potential for evaluation findings to include sex-age disaggregated data and address GE results. GE results are validated when evaluation methodologies integrate stakeholder participation throughout the evaluation process. Tips related to methodology include:
- The evaluation work plan outlines a clear and specific approach to explore gender equality issues.
- The evaluation process is participatory and provides for the equal participation of female and male stakeholders (with attention to diverse factors, such as sex, age, group ethnicity, socio-economic group, etc.).
Reporting and sharing results
Effective evaluations enable GAC to assess its performance in achieving GE while providing partners with lessons on gender equality to improve future performance. Evaluation learning is more readily taken up when information is action–oriented and geared to specific audiences. Tips include:
- A strategy is drafted that defines who will use the information on GE results and how best to present, package and disseminate it for each audience.
- Sufficient resources are committed to implementing this strategy.
- Analysis of evaluation findings and conclusions use sex-age disaggregated data and demonstrate how the project has contributed to progress on GE.
- Factors contributing to the achievement of GE results are identified.
- Recommendations related to GE are geared for decision-making.
- Lessons related to GE are strategic and applicable to other development initiatives.
- Evaluation reports present explicit conclusions and recommendations for improving gender equality in projects.
Sample evaluation questions for assessing gender equality outcomes
Achievement of results
- To what extent has the project: 1) advanced women’s equal participation with men as decision-makers, 2) promoted the rights of women and girls, and 3) increased women’s access to and control over development resources and benefits?
- How has the project implemented the guiding principles of GAC’s approach to gender equality to achieve GE results?
- How do the results achieved for women and girls compare to those achieved for men and boys?
- What are the unanticipated effects of the project on women, men, girls and boys?
- How have GE results contributed to the overall results of the project?
- To what extent has the project improved the capacity of stakeholders to promote GE?
Cost-effectiveness of results
- Is the relationship between costs and GE results reasonable?
- Do more cost-effective models exist to achieve the same results?
Relevance of results
- To what extent do the GE results contribute to poverty reduction?
- To what extent are the GE results consistent with the positions/commitments of the partner country with regard to CEDAW, National Action Plan on GE, etc.?
- To what extent do GE results align with GE priorities of key partners/stakeholders in recipient countries (e.g. regional/local organizations/women’s rights organizations)?
- To what extent does the project support the efforts of partners and other bodies promoting GE in this country?
- To what extent are female and male stakeholders satisfied with the GE results?
Sustainability of results
- To what extent are the GE results likely to endure after GAC’s involvement in the project ends?
- What factors in the project’s context present the greatest risks to sustainability?
- What can be done to minimize risk?
- To what extent did the project promote the equitable participation of female and male stakeholders in decision-making?
- To what extent did the project contribute to the building of capacities to support GE in recipient countries?
- Did women and girls face any particular constraints or obstacles in their participation?
- If so, how successful was the project in addressing these constraints?
- To what extent did the project involve women’s organizations and organizations advocating for gender equality in its strategy to achieve GE results?
- Was a detailed gender-based analysis conducted during project design?
- Was project reach clearly identified and disaggregated by sex, age group, ethnicity, socio-economic group, etc.?
- To what extent were women, girls, men and boys consulted with regard to their needs, priorities and the project’s development problem?
- To what extent were the needs and priorities of women, girls, boys and men reflected in the project solution and overall design?
- Did the project planning include a realistic strategy for achieving GE results
Appropriateness of resource utilization
- Were efforts made to ensure equal representation by women and men at all levels of project management and technical assistance delivery?
- How did the participation of women in project management affect GE results?
- How did the absence/inclusion of gender expertise in project management affect GE results?
Informed and timely action
- Did monitoring adequately measure progress in achieving GE results?
- Were risks associated with GE and gender–based constraints adequately monitored?
- Was there adequate understanding and acceptance of the need to promote GE among stakeholders?
- What more could the project have done to increase stakeholder commitment to gender equality?
Example: Project evaluation of district-wide assistance program (DWAP)
The terms of reference: The evaluation questions included extensive and detailed points relating to gender equality including gender equality outcomes, participation issues, constraints/obstacles faced by women and girls, review of the strategy for gender equality outcomes and the understanding of the need to promote gender equality among stakeholders. The findings were to be sex-age disaggregated and the ToR also explicitly requested conclusions, recommendations and lessons learned regarding gender equality.
Resource and expertise: GAC’s working group overseeing the evaluation included the local gender equality advisor. The ToR set out an explicit requirement for an expert on gender equality with a strong background in participatory assessment techniques and participatory gender-based analysis. As mandated by the ToR, a gender equality consultant was part of the evaluation team with a role in the evaluation mission and writing the case studies.
Methodology: The work plan outlined a clear and specific approach to explore gender equality issues. The methodology included mixed methods, both quantitative and qualitative. Separate focus groups were to be held with women and men. The evaluation explicitly included a discussion of gender equality issues. The evaluation matrix included detailed questions on the achievement of gender equality outcomes, the sustainability of these results, constraints to the participation of women and girls, adequate monitoring of gender equality outcomes, etc.
Reporting and sharing results: The report noted that the methodology proposed in the work plan had been implemented and an additional element had been added: focus groups with gender equality experts. There was a specific and detailed section on gender equality as well as attention to these issues throughout the report. Gender equality issues were also highlighted in the Executive Summary. There were clear and evidence-based findings and conclusions on gender equality. Five out of the 22 recommendations were related to gender equality and there were specific lessons learned. Findings and recommendations from the DWAP evaluation served in follow-up programing.
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