Softwood Lumber

The softwood lumber industry is an important sector in the Canadian economy, supporting thousands of jobs in communities across Canada and creating many positive spin-off effects in related industries and services. Canada's modern, efficient, environmentally sustainable lumber companies have the potential to serve markets at home and around the world.

In the United States, where demand for lumber exceeds what domestic mills can supply, housing and other industries rely on Canada for stable, predictable access to quality products. The 2006 Softwood Lumber Agreement (SLA), which provided stability and predictability for industry on both sides of the border, expired on October 12, 2015.

Canada and the United States continue to pursue a negotiated outcome to this important bilateral issue. The Government is also meeting on a regular basis with industry, provinces and territories, and other stakeholders.

Softwood Lumber Dispute

The Canada-U.S. softwood lumber dispute has become one of the most enduring trade disputes between both nations. Over the past 25 years, the United States lumber industry has frequently sought U.S. government restrictions on Canadian softwood lumber imports through the application of U.S. countervailing duty and antidumping laws – laws that allow the imposition of import duties when a U.S. industry is allegedly harmed by subsidies in the exporting country (countervailing duties), or by dumping, which is when a U.S. industry is allegedly harmed by imported products sold at prices that are lower than the cost of production or lower than prices in the domestic market (anti-dumping duties).

Recent Developments

  • 22-04-2024 – United States Department of Commerce announces the selection of respondents for the sixth administrative reviews of the softwood lumber countervailing and anti-dumping duty orders

    On April 10, 2024, the U.S. Department of Commerce selected Canfor and West Fraser as mandatory respondents for the sixth administrative review of the softwood lumber anti-dumping duty order.

    On April 22, 2024, the U.S. Department of Commerce selected Canfor and West Fraser as mandatory respondents for the sixth administrative review of the countervailing duty order.

    For additional information on the administrative review process, please consult the Frequently Asked Questions section of this website.

  • 05-03-2024 – United States Department of Commerce initiates its sixth administrative reviews of the softwood lumber countervailing and anti-dumping duty orders

    On March 5, 2024, the U.S. Department of Commerce published the Notice of Initiation of its sixth administrative reviews of the softwood lumber countervailing and anti-dumping duty orders.

    The next step in administrative reviews is the selection of mandatory and voluntary respondents, which is expected in late March or early April 2024.

    For additional information on the administrative review process, please consult the Frequently Asked Questions section of this website.

  • 01-02-2024 – United States Department of Commerce announces the preliminary results of its fifth administrative reviews of anti-dumping and countervailing duty orders on imports of certain Canadian softwood lumber products

    On February 1, 2024, the U.S. Department of Commerce announced the preliminary results of its fifth administrative reviews with respect to imports of softwood lumber products from Canada. These results do not take effect, but may serve as an indication of the final duty rates the U.S. Department of Commerce will issue later in 2024.

    The Honourable Mary Ng, Minister of Export Promotion, International Trade and Economic Development, issued a statement in response to these preliminary results by the U.S. Department of Commerce.

    Preliminary Results – Fifth administrative reviews (Do not take effect)
    CompanyAnti-dumping Duty RateCountervailing Duty RateCombined Duty Rates
    Canfor Corporation9.65%6.14%15.79%
    West Fraser Mills Ltd.5.33%6.74%12.07%
    J.D. Irving Ltd.7.15%
    (non-selected all others rate)
    3.88%11.03%
    Tolko Industries Ltd.7.15%
    (non-selected all others rate)
    9.61%16.76%
    Resolute FP Canada Inc7.15%
    (non-selected all others rate)
    6.71%
    (non-selected all others rate)
    13.86%
    (non-selected all others rate)
    Non-Selected Respondents (All Others)7.15%6.71%13.86%
  • 29-01-2024 - Canada formally launches challenge to sunset review results

    On January 29, 2024, Canada filed a request for a panel to review the U.S. International Trade Commission’s sunset review final determinations on anti-dumping and countervailing duties on softwood lumber products from Canada, thereby formally launching the challenge under Chapter 10 of the Canada-United States-Mexico Agreement.  

  • 17-01-2024 - Minister Ng announces Canada’s intention to challenge the U.S. International Trade Commission’s final determination on Canadian softwood lumber duties

    On January 17, 2024, Canada filed a notice that it intends to challenge the U.S. International Trade Commission’s sunset review final determination. Canada intends to launch this challenge through Chapter 10 of the Canada-United States-Mexico Agreement.

    The Honourable Mary Ng, Minister of Export Promotion, International Trade and Economic Development, issued a statement on this development.

  • 28-12-2023 - The U.S. International Trade Commission published its final sunset review determination on softwood lumber from Canada

    On December 28, 2023, the U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC) published its final sunset review determination in the U.S. Federal Register. In November, the USITC voted to maintain the duty orders imposed on Canadian softwood lumber products.

  • 30-11-2023 – Statement by the Minister of Export Promotion, International Trade and Economic Development on the results of the U.S. International Trade Commission’s (USITC) sunset reviews on softwood lumber products from Canada

    On November 30, 2023, as part of its five-year sunset reviews, the U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC) voted to maintain the anti-dumping (AD) and countervailing duty (CVD) orders on softwood lumber from Canada, on the grounds that the revocation would likely lead to the continuation or recurrence of material injury to the U.S. domestic industry. As such, the United States will continue to impose AD and CVD duties on Canadian softwood lumber products.

    The Honourable Mary Ng, Minister of Export Promotion, International Trade and Economic Development, issued a statement regarding this outcome.

    For additional information on sunset reviews, please consult the Frequently Asked Questions section of this website.

  • 05-10-2023 – Statement by Minister Ng on NAFTA Chapter 19 panel initial decision regarding U.S. dumping duties on Canadian softwood lumber

    On October 5, 2023, a NAFTA Chapter 19 panel published its initial decision regarding Canada’s challenge of the U.S. Department of Commerce’s anti-dumping duties on softwood lumber. Canada welcomes the Panel’s finding that the U.S. anti-dumping duties on Canadian softwood lumber are inconsistent with U.S. law.

    The Honourable Mary Ng, Minister of Export Promotion, International Trade and Economic Development, issued a statement on this development.

  • 01-09-2023 – Statement by Minister Ng on Canada’s Challenges to U.S. Softwood Lumber Duties

    On September 1, 2023, Canada announced that it is challenging the final results of the U.S. Department of Commerce’s fourth administrative reviews of the U.S. anti-dumping and countervailing duty orders on softwood lumber products from Canada. The challenge of the results related to the countervailing duty order will proceed through Chapter 10 of the Canada-United States-Mexico Agreement (CUSMA), while the challenge of the results pertaining to the anti-dumping duty order will proceed through the U.S. Court of International Trade.

    The Honourable Mary Ng, Minister of Export Promotion, International Trade and Economic Development, issued a statement regarding this development.

    Read the statement by Minister Ng on Canada’s challenges to U.S. softwood lumber duties.

  • 27-07-2023 – Statement by Minister Ng on U.S. duties on softwood lumber products from Canada

    On July 27, 2023, the U.S. Department of Commerce announced the final results of its fourth administrative reviews of the countervailing and anti-dumping duty orders on softwood lumber products from Canada.

    The Honourable Mary Ng, Minister of International Trade, Export Promotion, Small Business and Economic Development, issued a statement regarding these duties.

    The new duty rates listed below will take effect once they are published in the U.S. Federal Register.

    For additional information on administrative reviews, please consult the Frequently Asked Questions section of this website.

    Fourth Administrative Review Final Results
    CompanyFinal anti-dumping duty rateFinal countervailing duty rateCombined final duty rates
    Canfor Corporation5.25%1.36%6.61%
    West Fraser Mills Ltd.7.06%*2.19%9.25%
    J.D. Irving Ltd.6.26% (All Others)1.72%7.98%
    All Others6.26%*1.79%8.05%

    *On August 31, 2023, the U.S. Department of Commerce amended the fourth administrative review anti-dumping duty rates due to ministerial errors.

  • 19-04-2023 – United States Department of Commerce announces the selection of respondents for the fifth administrative reviews of the softwood lumber countervailing and anti-dumping duty orders

    On April 11, 2023, the U.S. Department of Commerce selected Canfor and West Fraser as mandatory respondents for the fifth administrative review of the softwood lumber anti-dumping duty order.

    On April 19, 2023, the U.S. Department of Commerce selected Canfor and West Fraser as mandatory respondents for the fifth administrative review of the countervailing duty order.

    For additional information on the administrative review process, please consult the Frequently Asked Questions section of this website.

  • 03-04-2023 – United States Department of Commerce issues the final results of its first sunset reviews on softwood lumber from Canada

    On March 27 and April 3, 2023, the U.S. Department of Commerce issued the final results of its first sunset review of the countervailing and anti-dumping duty orders on softwood lumber products from Canada, respectively.

    In its decision, Commerce stated that, if duties on Canadian softwood lumber products were revoked, there would likely be a continuation or recurrence of countervailable subsidies and dumping.

    These results do not impact the countervailing and anti-dumping duty rates currently in effect.

    For additional information about the sunset reviews, please consult the Frequently Asked Questions section of this website.

  • 14-03-2023 – United States Department of Commerce initiates its fifth administrative reviews of the softwood lumber countervailing and anti-dumping duty orders

    On March 14, 2023, the U.S. Department of Commerce published the Notice of Initiation of its fifth administrative reviews of the softwood lumber countervailing and anti-dumping duty orders.

    The next step in administrative reviews is the selection of mandatory and voluntary respondents, which is expected in late March or early April 2023.

    For additional information on the administrative review process, please consult the Frequently Asked Questions section of this website.

  • 24-01-2023 – United States Department of Commerce announces the preliminary results of its fourth administrative reviews of anti-dumping duty and countervailing duty orders on imports of certain Canadian softwood lumber products

    On January 24, 2023, the U.S. Department of Commerce announced the preliminary results of its fourth administrative reviews with respect to imports of softwood lumber products from Canada. These results do not take effect, but may serve as an indication of the final duty rates the U.S. Department of Commerce is expected to issue in the summer of 2023.

    The Honorable Mary Ng, Minister of International Trade, Export Promotion, Small Business and Economic Development, issued a statement in response to these preliminary results by the U.S. Department of Commerce.

    Preliminary Results – Fourth administrative reviews (Do not take effect)
    CompanyAnti-dumping Duty RateCountervailing Duty RateCombined Duty Rates
    Canfor Corporation5.25%2.04%7.29%
    Resolute Forest Products Canada Inc.6.05% (All Others)2.19% (All Others)8.24%
    West Fraser Mills Ltd.6.90%2.48%9.38%
    J.D. Irving Ltd.6.05% (All Others)1.72%7.77%
    Non-Selected Respondents (All Others)6.05%2.19%8.24%
  • 29-08-2022 – Minister Ng announces Canada’s intention to challenge U.S. softwood lumber duties under CUSMA Chapter 10

    On August 29, 2022, Canada filed notices that it intends to challenge the final results of the U.S. Department of Commerce’s third administrative reviews of the United States’ anti-dumping and countervailing duty orders on softwood lumber products from Canada under Chapter 10 of the Canada-United States-Mexico Agreement (CUSMA).

    The Honourable Mary Ng, Minister of International Trade, Export Promotion, Small Business and Economic Development, issued a statement on this development.

  • 04-08-2022 – Statement by Minister Ng on U.S. duties on softwood lumber products from Canada

    On August 4, 2022, the U.S. Department of Commerce announced the final results of its third administrative reviews of the countervailing and anti-dumping duty orders on softwood lumber products from Canada.

    The Honourable Mary Ng, Minister of International Trade, Export Promotion, Small Business and Economic Development, issued a statement regarding these duties.

    The new duty rates listed below will take effect once they are published in the U.S. Federal Register.

    For additional information on administrative reviews, please consult the Frequently Asked Questions section of this website.

    Third administrative review final results
    CompanyFinal anti-dumping duty rateFinal countervailing duty rateCombined final duty rates
    Canfor Corporation4.92%0.95%5.87%
    Resolute Forest Products Canada Inc.4.76% (all others)10.10% (mandatory respondent)14.86%
    West Fraser Mills Ltd.4.63%3.62%8.25%
    J.D. Irving Ltd.11.59% (AR2 rate)2.41%14.00%
    All Others4.76%3.83%8.59%
  • 29-04-2022 – United States Department of Commerce announces the selection of respondents for the fourth administrative reviews of the softwood lumber countervailing and anti-dumping duty orders

    On April 29, 2022, the U.S. Department of Commerce selected Canfor and West Fraser as mandatory respondents for the fourth administrative review of the softwood lumber anti-dumping duty order.

    On April 28, 2022, Canfor and West Fraser were selected as mandatory respondents for the fourth administrative review of the countervailing duty order.

    For additional information on the administrative review process, please consult the Frequently Asked Questions section of this website.

  • 09-03-2022 – United States Department of Commerce initiates its fourth administrative reviews of the softwood lumber countervailing and anti-dumping duty orders

    On March 9, 2022, the U.S. Department of Commerce published the notice of initiation of its fourth administrative reviews of the softwood lumber countervailing and anti-dumping duty orders.

    The next step in administrative reviews is the selection of mandatory and voluntary respondents, which is expected in late March or early April 2022.

    For additional information on the administrative review process, please consult the Frequently Asked Questions section of this website.

  • 31-01-2022 – United States Department of Commerce announces the preliminary results of its third administrative reviews of anti-dumping duty and countervailing duty orders on imports of Canadian softwood lumber products

    On January 31, 2022, the U.S. Department of Commerce announced the preliminary results of its third administrative reviews with respect to imports of softwood lumber products from Canada. These results do not take effect, but may serve as an indication of the final duty rates the U.S. Department of Commerce is expected to issue in the summer of 2022.

    Minister Ng issued a statement in response to these preliminary results by the U.S. Department of Commerce.

    AR3 Preliminary Results (Do not take effect)

    CompanyAnti-dumping Duty RateCountervailing Duty RateCombined Duty Rates
    Canfor Corporation4.92%1.83%6.75%
    Resolute Forest Products Canada Inc.4.76% (all others)15.48%20.24%
    West Fraser Mills Ltd.4.63%8.46%13.09%
    J.D. Irving Ltd.4.76% (all others)2.33%7.09%
    All Others4.76%6.88%11.64%
  • 10-01-2022 – Notice of Amended Final Results of the Countervailing Duty Second Administrative Review issued by the U.S. Department of Commerce

    On January 10, 2022, the U.S. Department of Commerce amended the notice of final results for its second administrative review of the countervailing duty order on softwood lumber products from Canada, covering entries from 2019. This amendment was made following Ministerial error corrections, which affected the countervailing duty rate for West Fraser Mills Ltd. and J.D. Irving Ltd. This also resulted in a 0.01% increase to the “all others” rate. This amendment is effective as of January 10, 2022, and it will replace the final countervailing duty rates previously published on December 2, 2021.

    Amended final duty rates:

    CompanyAnti-dumping Duty Rate (2019)Countervailing Duty Rate (2019)Combined Duty Rates (2019)
    Canfor Corporation17.12 %2.42 %19.54 %
    Resolute Forest Products Canada Inc.11.59 % (all others)18.07 %29.66 %
    West Fraser Mills Ltd.6.06 %5.08 %11.14 %
    J.D. Irving Ltd.11.59 % (all others)3.46 %15.05 %
    All Others11.59 %6.32 %17.91 %

    Please direct any questions or comments to Global Affairs Canada: softwood.boisdoeuvre@international.gc.ca

  • 21-12-2021 – Minister Ng announces Canada’s challenges to U.S. softwood lumber duties under the Canada-United States-Mexico Agreement

    On December 21, 2021, Canada filed notices that it will be challenging the final results of the U.S. Department of Commerce’s second administrative reviews of the United States’ anti-dumping and countervailing duty orders on softwood lumber from Canada under Chapter 10 of the Canada-United States-Mexico Agreement (CUSMA).

    The Honourable Mary Ng, Minister of International Trade, Export Promotion, Small Business and Economic Development, issued a statement on this development.

  • 24-11-2021 – Statement by the Minister of International Trade, Export Promotion, Small Business and Economic Development about U.S. Duties on Canadian Softwood Lumber

    On November 24, 2021, the U.S. Department of Commerce announced the final results of its second administrative reviews of the countervailing and anti-dumping duty orders on Canadian softwood lumber.

    The Honourable Mary Ng, Minister of International Trade, Export Promotion, Small Business and Economic Development, issued a statement regarding these duties.

    The new duty rates listed below will take effect once they are published in the U.S. Federal Register.

    For additional information on administrative reviews, please consult the Frequently Asked Questions section of this website.

    Second administrative review final results
    CompanyFinal anti-dumping duty rateFinal countervailing duty rateCombined final duty rates
    Canfor Corporation17.12 %2.42 %19.54 %
    Resolute Forest Products Canada Inc.11.59 % (all others)18.07%29.66 %
    West Fraser Mills Ltd.6.06 %5.06 %11.12 %
    J.D. Irving Ltd.11.59 % (all others)3.41 %15.0 %
    All Others11.59 %6.31 %17.9 %
  • 21-05-2021 – Statement by the Minister of Small Business, Export Promotion and International Trade about the U.S. Second Administrative Review Preliminary Results

    On May 21, 2021, the U.S. Department of Commerce issued the preliminary results for its second administrative reviews of anti-dumping and countervailing duty orders on certain softwood lumber products from Canada.

    The Honourable Mary Ng, Minister of Small Business, Export Promotion and International Trade, issued a statement regarding these preliminary duties.

    Preliminary results do not take effect. Only final results take effect upon publication in the U.S. Federal Register.

    For additional information on the administrative review process, please consult the Frequently Asked Questions section of this website.

  • 20-04-2021 – United States Department of Commerce announces the selection of mandatory respondents for the third administrative reviews of the softwood lumber countervailing and anti-dumping duty orders

    On April 14, 2021, the U.S. Department of Commerce selected Canfor and West Fraser as mandatory respondents for the third administrative review of the softwood lumber anti-dumping duty order.

    On April 20, 2021, Canfor, Resolute, and West Fraser were selected as mandatory respondents for the third administrative review of the countervailing duty order.

    For additional information on the administrative review process, please consult the Frequently Asked Questions section of this website.

  • 12-03-2021 – United States Department of Commerce issues a scope ruling regarding Canadian cedar shakes and shingles

    On March 12, 2021, the U.S. Department of Commerce issued a scope ruling in response to a request by Canada, and found that exports of certain Canadian cedar shakes and shingles, regardless of the producer or exporter, are not covered by the scope of the U.S. duty orders on softwood lumber.

    For additional information regarding the cedar shakes and shingles file, please consult the Frequently Asked Questions section of this website.

  • 04-03-2021 – United States Department of Commerce initiates its third administrative reviews of the softwood lumber countervailing and anti-dumping duty orders

    On March 4, 2021, the U.S. Department of Commerce published the notice of initiation of its third administrative reviews of the softwood lumber countervailing and anti-dumping duty orders.

    Companies interested in participating in these proceedings had to submit their requests to the U.S. Department of Commerce via the ACCESS website by 5:00 p.m. ET on January 31, 2021.

    For additional information on the administrative review process, please consult the Frequently Asked Questions section of this website.

  • 11-12-2020 – Statement by Minister Ng on Canada’s CUSMA Chapter 10 challenge of U.S. duties on Canadian softwood lumber

    On December 11, 2020, the Honourable Mary Ng, Minister of Small Business, Export Promotion and International Trade, issued a statement regarding Canada’s request for a panel review under CUSMA Chapter 10 regarding the final results of the first administrative review of U.S. countervailing duties on imports of Canadian softwood lumber.

  • 24-11-2020 – Statement by the Minister of Small Business, Export Promotion and International Trade about U.S. duties on Canadian softwood lumber

    On November 24, 2020, the U.S. Department of Commerce issued the final results for its first administrative reviews of anti-dumping and countervailing duty orders on certain softwood lumber products from Canada.

    The Honourable Mary Ng, Minister of Small Business, Export Promotion and International Trade, issued a statement regarding these duties.

    For additional information on the first administrative review final results, please consult the Frequently Asked Questions section of this website.

  • 28-09-2020 – Statement by the Minister of Small Business, Export Promotion and International Trade on U.S. appeal of WTO panel report regarding U.S. countervailing duties on Canadian softwood lumber

    On September 28, 2020, the United States appealed the August 2020 WTO panel report on Canada’s challenge of U.S. countervailing duties on softwood lumber.

    The Honourable Mary Ng, Minister of Small Business, Export Promotion and International Trade, issued a statement regarding the U.S. decision to appeal.

    Canada also delivered remarks on the panel report and the U.S. decision to appeal at the WTO Dispute Settlement Body meeting on September 28th.

  • 24-08-2020 – Statement by the Minister of Small Business, Export Promotion and International Trade on WTO panel report regarding U.S. countervailing duties on Canadian softwood lumber

    On August 24, 2020, the WTO Panel ruling on Canada’s challenge of U.S. countervailing duties on softwood lumber released its final report. Canada welcomes the Panel’s finding that U.S. countervailing duties on Canadian softwood lumber are inconsistent with the United States’ WTO obligations.

    The Honourable Mary Ng, Minister of Small Business, Export Promotion and International Trade, issued a statement regarding this unanimous WTO ruling.

  • 26-06-2020 – United States Department of Commerce issues instructions to U.S. Customs and Border Protection to stop collecting duties on certain cedar shakes and shingles and to refund collected amounts

    On June 26, 2020, the U.S. Department of Commerce published a notice of its revised determination regarding cedar shakes and shingles in the U.S. Federal Register. It also issued instructions to U.S. Customs and Border Protection to cease collection of cash deposits for certain shakes and shingles, and to liquidate and refund cash deposits paid on the relevant past entries.

    For additional information on cedar shakes and shingles, please consult the Frequently asked questions section of this website.

  • 22-05-2020 – NAFTA Chapter 19 Panel upholds United States International Trade Commission decision

    On May 22, the NAFTA Chapter 19 Injury Panel issued its ruling on Canada’s challenge of the U.S. International Trade Commission’s (ITC) determination on remand and affirmed the ITC’s decision that imports of Canadian softwood lumber products materially injured U.S. domestic industry.

  • 20-04-2020 – United States Court of International Trade upholds United States Department of Commerce’s decision that Canadian cedar shakes and shingles are outside the scope of the U.S. softwood lumber duty orders

    On April 20, 2020, the U.S. Court of International Trade sustained the remand determination issued by the U.S. Department of Commerce to exclude cedar shakes and shingles from the U.S. softwood lumber countervailing and anti-dumping duty orders.

    The U.S. Department of Commerce is now required to publish a notice of its revised determination and publish instructions to U.S. Customs and Border Protection to cease the collection of duties on imports of Canadian cedar shakes and shingles.

More recent developments