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Agreement on security cooperation between Canada and Ukraine

Table of contents


Canada and Ukraine, hereinafter referred to jointly as the “Participants”:

Recalling the Joint Declaration of Support for Ukraine announced together by the Leaders of the Group of Seven (G7) and Ukraine on the margins of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Vilnius Summit on July 12, 2023 (the “G7 Joint Declaration”);

Emphasizing that Canada continues to stand with the people of Ukraine as they defend their country and the shared principles and values that are under attack, that Canada honours the sacrifices that are being made by the Ukrainian people in this fight and supports Ukraine’s inherent right to self-defence as enshrined in Article 51 of the United Nations Charter (“UN Charter”);

Determined to end forever Russia’s unprovoked attacks on Ukraine since 2014 and its full-scale invasion in 2022, which have brought great suffering to Ukraine’s people and threaten European and worldwide security;

Reiterating Canada’s unwavering commitment to Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity within its borders, which have been internationally recognized since 1991, including its territorial waters, and to ensuring Ukraine’s ability to defend itself, to resist future coercion, to choose its own future, and to prosper;

Acknowledging that it is Ukraine’s inherent right to choose its own foreign policy and security arrangements, including with respect to Ukraine’s aspirations to join NATO, and the European Union (EU);

Emphasizing that Canada will continue to support Ukraine’s implementation of the deep and comprehensive reforms necessary for full integration into the EU and NATO, and commends Ukraine for the significant reform progress made to date;

Reiterating the July 11, 2023 NATO Vilnius Summit Communiqué’s statement that Ukraine’s future is in NATO, and that Canada will continue to support that objective, and recognizing that bilateral security commitments are not a replacement for Ukraine’s future membership in NATO but complement and support Ukraine’s future membership;

Have jointly determined to establish the Canada-Ukraine Strategic Security Partnership (CUSSP) that sets out areas for enhanced bilateral engagement and cooperation across various spheres including defence, stability and resilience, and identifies areas for future support as set out in this Agreement.

Part I. Objectives

  1. The Participants acknowledge that the CUSSP is established in the midst of Ukraine waging a full-scale and dynamic war of self-defence against Russia, and that prosecuting this war relies on having reliable access to resources and capabilities to do so. To that end, the CUSSP aims to:
    • (i) increase and deepen the Participants’ political, foreign, military, and security cooperation and effectiveness;
    • (ii) allow the Participantsto share – across various governmental departments and at various levels – information, requests, and feedback as Strategic Partners. This acknowledges the unprecedented experience and knowledge that Ukraine has in terms of use of new technologies in warfare, countering disinformation, and other capabilities;
    • (iii) identify current and future respective needs and requirements, and pair them with each Participant’s strengths, abilities, and available resources;
    • (iv) develop and deliver bespoke military, security, economic, and other support to Ukraine;
    • (v) facilitate the rebuilding and rehabilitation of Ukraine as a stable and democratic state, and enable Ukraine’s efforts to professionalize and modernize its forces in order to defend itself now and deter any future Russian aggression;
    • (vi) provide support to Ukraine in the event of future Russian attacks or aggression;
    • (vii) support and prepare Ukraine as it pursues integration into the Euro-Atlantic community; and
    • (viii) support Ukraine in its pursuit of peace and security for all its citizens, recognizing that all segments of its population – including women, men, boys, girls – are impacted differently by Russia’s war of aggression. These different groups also bring unique perspectives to peace and security issues, underscoring the value of inclusive peace and security processes.
  2. The main components of the security commitments provided to Ukraine by Canada in the CUSSP are:
    • (i) the provision of comprehensive assistance to Ukraine for the protection and restoration of its territorial integrity, reconstruction of its national economy, and the protection of its citizens;
    • (ii) supporting Ukraine’s ability to prevent and deter against further military escalation or new aggression by the Russian Federation; and
    • (iii) supporting Ukraine’s future integration into Euro-Atlantic institutions including by supporting Ukraine’s reform plans and building interoperability with NATO.
  3. To this end, in 2024, Canada will provide $3.02B in macroeconomic and military support to Ukraine.
  4. Canada will continue its multi-faceted support to Ukraine for the duration of this Agreement.

Part II. Consultation Processes, Including in the Event of Future Aggression

  1. Acknowledging the importance and value of regular consultations, engagements, and collaboration between their respective officials, which will deepen bilateral linkages, broaden mutual understanding, and maximize the effectiveness of the CUSSP and its objectives, the Participants will:
    • (i) build on the existing bilateral and multilateral discussions and engagements that already take place at all levels of government, and hold annual meetings at the Canadian Head of Government level and the Ukrainian Head of State, and more frequent meetings at the ministerial level, as appropriate; and
    • (ii) take stock of the progress of the CUSSP and the fulfilment of its objectives, identify new areas of cooperation, address gaps or challenges that may arise, and set the pace and expectations for the continuation of the CUSSP.
  2. The Participants recognize that any future Russian invasion of Ukraine would violate the UN Charter and fundamental principles of international law, and would undermine Euro-Atlantic security, including the security of Canada.
  3. In the event of renewed Russian aggression or attacks against Ukraine following the cessation of current hostilities, and at the request of either of the Participants, the Participants will consult within twenty-four (24) hours to determine measures needed to counter or deter the aggression. With the consent of the Participants, such consultations may take place with representatives of other interested states that have also concluded arrangements with Ukraine under the framework of the G7 Joint Declaration.
  4. In those circumstances, and consistent with its domestic legal framework, Canada will: provide Ukraine with swift and sustained security, military, and economic assistance; impose economic and other costs on Russia; and consult with Ukraine on its needs as it exercises its right to self-defence enshrined in Article 51 of the UN Charter.
  5. The Participants will continue to consult, as appropriate, throughout Russia’s ongoing war of aggression, including in the event of significant escalation.
  6. In order to ensure the widest and most effective collective response to any future armed attack, Canada and Ukraine may amend this part in order to align with any mechanism that Ukraine may subsequently adopt with its other international partners, including the endorsers of the G7 Joint Declaration.

Part III. Coordination and Cooperation with other Forums and Mechanisms

  1. The Participants will strive to ensure that the work undertaken through the CUSSP is aligned, coordinated, and deconflicted with the work undertaken in multilateral forums and mechanisms in which Canada and Ukraine engage. This includes through NATO (and the NATO-Ukraine Council), the Ukraine Defence Contact Group (UDCG), the Security Assistance Group – Ukraine (SAG-U), the G7 Multi-Agency Donor Coordination Platform, and other current or future relevant forums and mechanisms.
  2. The Participants also will continue their close cooperation within international institutions, including NATO (and the NATO-Ukraine Council), the United Nations, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Council of Europe, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and others.
  3. Canada welcomes Ukraine’s efforts to create just and sustainable peace based on the principles articulated in Ukraine’s Peace Formula. Canada will remain fully engaged in cooperation with Ukraine to ensure as wide international participation as possible in Ukraine’s Peace Formula.

Part IV. Areas for Ongoing and Enhanced Cooperation, and Lines of Long-Term Support

  1. The Participants recognize that since Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, Canada has provided multi-faceted support to Ukraine, including diplomatic, financial, development, humanitarian, military, intelligence and cyber, peace and stabilization assistance, as well as immigration measures for Ukrainians seeking safety from Russian aggression.
  2. Building on the ongoing support and successes to date, and recognizing that Canada has much to learn from Ukraine’s experiences and knowledge, the Participantswill aim to deepen their bilateral cooperation across a range of areas including defence, security, stability and resilience. These identified areas will also inform, help identify, and facilitate future lines of support to further develop and strengthen the bilateral relationship.

A. Defence Cooperation and Support

  1. The Participants acknowledge the successful defence cooperation achieved to date under the Defence Cooperation Arrangement between the Department of National Defence of Canada and the Canadian Armes Forces and the Ministry of Defence of Ukraine, signed on 3 April 2017 as a milestone in their defence relations.
  2. Since 2022 and the start of Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine, Canada has committed more than $2.4B to Ukraine in military assistance. Building on the strong relations established between our defence and military institutions since the creation of Operation UNIFIER in 2015, and on the significant training and military assistance provided by Canada prior to and following Russia’s full-scale invasion in 2022, the Participants will further reinforce their defence cooperation.
  3. The Participants recognize that the swift development and professionalization of the future defence forces of Ukraine is critical to enabling them to fully restore Ukraine’s territorial integrity within its internationally recognized borders, and to deter and defend against future attacks.
  4. Alongside other international partners, Canada and Ukraine will work together to continue building a sustainable Ukrainian security and defence forces capable of regaining and defending its territory now and deterring Russian aggression in the future. Canada, in accordance with its legal and policy frameworks, will continue to provide defence support and military assistance to Ukraine. This may include the continued provision of modern military equipment, across the land, air, sea, space and cyber domains, prioritizing, where possible, Ukraine’s needs under the framework of future defence forces, such as armoured vehicles, artillery, and air force and other key capabilities which Ukraine needs to defend itself.
  5. The Participants will also work to accelerate the development and professionalization of the future defence forces of Ukraine, including by supporting enhanced interoperability with NATO, with a goal for Ukraine’s military capabilities to reach a level that, in the event of external military aggression against Canada, Ukraine is able to provide effective military assistance.
  6. The Participants acknowledge that in the context of the current conflict, Ukraine has gained significant experience and expertise that can contribute to the continued modernization of the Canadian Armed Forces including in the development and military use of new technologies and emerging capabilities.
  7. To advance these objectives, the Participants will:
    • (i) hold annual senior-level Strategic Defence Policy Dialogues;
    • (ii) share information on defence related priorities and plans through bilateral or multilateral forums, as appropriate;
    • (iii) continue providing training, exercises and capacity building support to the security and defence forces. While remaining responsive to Ukraine’s evolving needs, Canadian contributions to these efforts may include, as appropriate:
      1. (A) providing training and capacity building in line with Ukraine’s priorities and Canada’s expertise. This may include but would not be limited to: leadership training; basic combat skills; specialized training, such as combat engineering and medical training; and collective training;
      2. (B) providing train-the-trainer training to enhance the security and defence forces of Ukraine’s own force generation capacity; and
      3. (C) returning to conduct associated activities in Ukraine when conditions permit.
    • (iv) provide advice and guidance on professional military education and development, which may include but would not be limited to, future force design, integration of gender perspective and the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) agenda in military operations and institutions, NATO concepts and operating procedures, and command and control;
    • (v) continue supporting the development and sustainment of the capabilities of the security and defence forces of Ukraine, in conjunction with Allies and partners, including by providing military assistance such as weapons, equipment, munitions, supplies, infrastructure, and other possible forms of support, such as the associated use and maintenance training where required;
      • (A) To advance this effort, Canada commits to contributing to the Air Force and Armour Capability Coalitions. Canada will also continue to explore opportunities for potential contributions to other Capability Coalitions;
    • (vi) enhance information sharing and cooperation, including defence intelligence, best practices and lessons learned, as appropriate;
    • (vii) enhance Research and Development (R&D) information sharing, cooperation, and best practices as appropriate;
    • (viii) enhance defence materiel cooperation, including through an instrument on Defence Materiel Cooperation and other arrangements as appropriate;
    • (ix) enhance cooperation in the fields of defence-related security reforms and capacity building, including by providing advice and support to help Ukraine align with NATO standards and principles such as defence governance, civilian oversight of the military, gender integration, and defence policies; and
    • (x) conduct officials and expert visits to promote cooperation between their respective security and defence organizations;
  8. The Participants may establish cooperation in other areas of mutual interest.
  9. As they enhance their defence cooperation, amid an uncertain and challenging regional security context, the Participants will:
    • (i) seek to assist Ukraine in preserving and enhancing its defence and military edge;
    • (ii) seek to provide greater long-term strategic planning for training and equipment donations, while maintaining flexibility to support Ukraine’s most pressing needs; and
    • (iii) aim to provide greater long-term predictability for their respective defence industries through the identification of longer-term, defence-related opportunities.

B. Defence Industry Cooperation

  1. The Participants recognize that Ukraine’s defence industry has the potential to become a powerful asset for Ukraine and Euro-Atlantic security, to enable Ukraine to restore its territorial integrity, and to contribute to the effective deterrence of future aggression. The Participants further recognize that defence industrial cooperation can contribute to drive economic recovery and create business opportunities for both countries and they will therefore endeavour to explore opportunities to enhance such cooperation where appropriate and in accordance with applicable law, policies, and trade agreements.
  2. Canada will engage with its defence industry and Ukraine to identify opportunities for closer defence industrial partnerships and collaboration that would bring mutual benefits. These efforts may include convening seminars, organizing trade missions, facilitating Ukrainian attendance at Canadian defence industry events, and other business-to-business engagements.
  3. The Participants will work together, and with industry, to reduce existing barriers for cooperation, including through joint production, the exchange of technologies, and investment.
  4. The Participants will work with their defence industries to seek opportunities to mitigate existing defence materialssupply chain bottlenecks and, where possible, expand the production of military capabilities to meet urgent needs for both countries, such as for manufacturing of ammunition, in particular large calibre ammunition, or other priority weapons.
  5. Canada will work with Canadian defence industries that choose to invest into localization of repair, maintenance and production in Ukraine to strengthen economic value for both Participants, as applicable. The Participants will work to identify international funding sources required to enable development of Ukraine’s defence industrial base, including investment and financial assistance, in particular in time of war and post-war recovery.
  6. The Participants will work together to facilitate the protection of any transferred technologies and enforcement of intellectual property rights.
  7. Canada will support, where possible, Ukraine’s efforts to integrate its defence industry into NATO defence and security frameworks.

C. Intelligence and Counterintelligence Cooperation

  1. The Participants will continue and enhance the cooperation between their respective intelligence and counterintelligence services. This includes by enhancing information and intelligence sharing, exchanging best practices and lessons learned, continuing capacity-building efforts, and pursuing joint initiatives.
  2. The Participants will seek to conclude a General Security of Information Agreement (GSOIA) between their respective countries. Once in force, the GSOIA will facilitate even greater information sharing regarding defence and security between various Canadian and Ukrainian government departments and agencies.
  3. The Participants will take measures, within their applicable legal and policy frameworks, to enable Ukraine to detect, deter and disrupt Russian intelligence and subversive activities, including espionage, and sabotage actions to secure Ukraine and Canada from such malign activities, while supporting the enhancement and reform of Ukraine’s security and intelligence architecture. This will be achieved through intelligence and experience sharing, pursuing joint initiatives, trainings and providing technical assistance.

D. Cyber Security and Resilience

  1. The Participants will work together to enable Ukraine to detect, deter and disrupt Russian cyber aggression, cyber espionage and hybrid warfare, including through continuing cyber resilience and critical infrastructure protection, from malicious cyber activity. This may be achieved through cyber threat intelligence sharing and cooperation, pursuing joint initiatives, training of specialists of the defence, intelligence, special services, and law enforcement agencies of Ukraine, and providing cyber assistance to Ukraine.
  2. The Participants will work together to identify and deter the irresponsible and malicious use of cyber capabilities by the Russian Federation and other hostile state and non-state actors against the Participants.
  3. Acknowledging the importance of a robust cyber defence capability for both state and non-state actors, and looking to expand cooperation in this important sphere, the Participantswill:
    • (i) exchange information on national cyber security policies, best practices, and lessons learned to strengthen their respective cyber security and cyber resilience; and
    • (ii) explore further areas of cooperation and opportunities in cyber defence and security, and continue to foster expert exchanges in this area.
  4. In particular, Canada will continue to:
    • (i) provide Ukraine with specific cyber defence security assistance; and
    • (ii) engage with partners to coordinate civilian cyber capacity building in Ukraine. This coordination is intended to help Ukraine defend itself against ongoing malicious cyber activity, and address longer-term cyber resilience needs.

E. Strengthening Information Security and Countering Disinformation

  1. The Participants recognize that the Russian Federation continues to manipulate information in support of its war on Ukraine. The Participants will seek to continue to collaborate and support efforts to address disinformation campaigns. For both Canada and Ukraine, media freedom is a core value to democratic societies, and to protecting human rights and fundamental freedoms. The Participants believe in the importance of protecting information integrity, which also reinforces resilience in our societies. The Participants will therefore build, defend, and mitigate threats to their information ecosystems including by:
    • (i) deepening efforts to improve international coordination in exposing and countering disinformation by championing such efforts at multilateral institutions such as NATO and the G7 Rapid Response Mechanism;
    • (ii) working to establish, promote, and operationalize a common framework to counter disinformation within relevant international forums;
    • (iii) continuing to engage industry and support civil society, recognizing the need for a whole of society approach to maintain the integrity of the information environment, in developing innovative ways and means to expose and counter disinformation;
    • (iv) collaborating to improve Ukraine’s capabilities to counter information security threats, primarily Russian propaganda and disinformation campaigns; and
    • (v) seeking to promote the development of joint educational and training programs for information security professionals and regular exchanges of experience.
  2. The Participants recognize that Russia’s war on Ukraine has sought to destroy the Ukrainian identity and silence Ukrainian voices. The Participants will work together to expose the Russian theft of artifacts and other works of art as well as Russian efforts aimed at rewriting history and removing the Ukrainian language from school curriculums within the temporarily occupied territories of Ukraine. Acknowledging that art, history and language are key aspects of culture, Canada will, in particular:
    • (i) work with Ukraine to access audiences in the temporarily occupied territories of Ukraine, understanding that Russia has been deliberately targeting radio, television, and other broadcast infrastructure within Ukraine and rerouting internet traffic within the temporarily occupied territories; and
    • (ii) support and promote Ukrainian voices internationally, as well as support Ukrainian diplomatic engagement as Ukraine expands its diplomatic presence around the world.
  3. The Participants will continue to identify individuals and entities involved in the invasion of Ukraine, as well as those involved in Russian disinformation operations, and seek to impose costs on such malign actors by regularly updating Canada’s sanctions list.
  4. The Participants will continue to collaborate and broaden efforts to expose and counter Russian and any other propaganda, including disinformation regarding Russia’s destabilization of global food supplies.

F. Demining Support

  1. Recognizing that due to Russia’s illegal and unjustifiable war against Ukraine, Ukraine has become one of the most heavily mined countries in the world with close to twenty percent of Ukraine’s territory affected. While acknowledging the commitments and support Canada has made to date to support humanitarian and combat demining actions, Canada will strive to:
    • (i) continue supporting humanitarian demining capacity of the Ukrainian state actors involved in such activities through technical and material support;
    • (ii) consider how to increase cooperation with, and support to, non-governmental organizations that are active in humanitarian demining efforts in Ukraine, including but not limited to cooperation within various multilateral partnership platforms;
    • (iii) continue supporting risk education initiatives to help Ukrainians understand and avoid the risks associated with landmines and unexploded ordinances in urban and rural environments;
    • (iv) continue addressing the needs of small-scale farmers and rural households affected by landmines and explosive remnants of war, and help restore livelihoods and agricultural land to productive use;
    • (v) support an inclusive approach to mine action to ensure that all elements including risk education, victim support, and prioritization of demining efforts recognizes the different impacts and needs of the entire population including women and girls; and
    • (vi) provide any possible assistance to develop combat demining capabilities of the Defence Forces of Ukraine.
  2. The Participants will also deepen cooperation in the context of Canada recently joining the Supervisory Board for the newly-created Centre for Humanitarian Demining under the leadership of the Minister of Economy of Ukraine.

G. Cooperation in the Sphere of Combating Serious and Organized Crime

  1. The Participants recognize that the Russian Federation and its proxies use serious and organized crime (SOC), particularly illicit finance, to finance actions aimed at undermining Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, as well as its internal stability.
  2. The Participantswill explore opportunities for cooperation to take actions to counteract SOC activities, in particular individuals and groups that are trying to infiltrate across Ukrainian society, have criminal influence in certain regions, including the temporarily occupied territories, and are actively used as a tool of hybrid warfare to counteract the processes of recovery and reconciliation in Ukraine.
  3. Such cooperation may include, but is not limited to, joint activities, information sharing and analysis, the identification of assets that may be seized in respective criminal proceedings, the creation of joint working groups, and the facilitation of training and best-practices sharing.

H. Economic Cooperation

  1. The Participants acknowledge the significant economic assistance Canada has provided to Ukraine since February 2022, including the provision of loan assistance provided both bilaterally and through the International Monetary Fund (IMF) Administered Account for Ukraine championed by Canada; the issuance of the Ukraine Sovereignty Bond as an innovative financing tool that allowed Canadians to show their support for Ukraine; grant assistance provided through the World Bank’s Ukraine Relief, Recovery, Reconstruction and Reform Trust Fund; comprehensive relief on imports from Ukraine until June 2024; the suspension of debt service due by Ukraine until 2027; the provision of a loan guarantee to facilitate a loan from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) to support critical gas purchases for Ukrainian households and businesses before winter; and the provision of financing assurances in concert with other G7 members to enable Ukraine’s 2023 IMF program.
  2. Considering that Canada and Ukraine are trading nations, and their economic growth and prosperity are inextricably linked to trade, and recognizing the important economic and people-to-people relationships between Canada and Ukraine, as well as the importance of ensuring Ukraine’s economic resilience and recovery in the face of damage caused by war, the Participants will:
    • (i) work to further strengthen Ukraine’s economic stability and resilience, including through reconstruction and recovery efforts, and will promote Ukraine’s economic prosperity;
    • (ii) cooperate on the attraction of private capital and investments in projects for the restoration, reconstruction and modernization of Ukraine; and
    • (iii) further enhance and liberalize trade, including by fully implementing and building on the recently modernized Canada-Ukraine Free Trade Agreement, done at Ottawa on 22 September 2023, which supports long-term security, stability, and economic development in Ukraine, as well as the creation of middle-class jobs in Canada and Ukraine.

I. Resilience of Energy and other Critical Infrastructure

  1. Acknowledging that energy supply security remains crucial for Ukraine’s resilience, and building upon existing support for Ukraine’s energy infrastructure from the G7 and others, Canada will continue to seek to support Ukraine’s overall energy sector with a special focus on nuclear safety and security and clean energy transition.
  2. Canada will also explore opportunities to support Ukraine in enhancing the resilience of its critical infrastructure.

J. Recovery, Reconstruction, and Sustainable Development

  1. Canada is steadfast in its commitment to support Ukraine’s recovery and reconstruction. In this spirit, and in coordination with its G7 partners and with relevant international organisations and international financial institutions, Canada will seek to facilitate continued support towards Ukraine’s short and long-term recovery. Canada and Ukraine will therefore continue to strengthen the Multi-agency Donor Coordination Platform initiated by the G7 as well as other coordination mechanisms for joint international efforts for reconstruction and encourage Ukraine’s reform agenda as well as private sector led growth.
  2. Canada will continue to support recovery and reconstruction efforts in Ukraine, using innovative, climate-neutral, gender-sensitive, and energy-efficient approaches to the extent possible. Ukraine recognizes that the recovery process should be transparent and accountable to the people of Ukraine and the international community.
  3. Canada and Ukraine acknowledge the fundamental role that non-government actors play in Ukraine’s recovery and reconstruction. This includes the engagement of the private sector, civil society and local levels of government as drivers of an ambitious, inclusive, decentralized reconstruction process. Canada and Ukraine will aim to promote business-to-business and civil society exchanges. Efforts will also include mental health and psychosocial needs to overcome trauma, and assistance to conflict-affected communities and individuals, including veterans. Canada and Ukraine remain committed to integrating gender equality as an important cross-cutting feature in development cooperation and reconstruction efforts. Implementing the WPS agenda in recovery and reconstruction planning and execution will support the goal of achieving gender equality in Ukraine.
  4. Recognizing that many members of the Ukraine’s security and defence forces and their families will continue to suffer from the impacts of injuries and illnesses resulting from Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine, the Participants will expand cooperation in veterans of war care by:
    • (i) sharing strategies, standards, frameworks and best practices for supporting veterans of war and family members through their transition to civilian life and successful reintegration into the social and economic fabric of society; and
    • (ii) sharing expertise, evidence, and guidance in the implementation of programs and services for veterans of war and family members, including physical and vocational rehabilitation, health care services, mental health treatment, financial supports, and commemoration initiatives to support all dimensions of well-being and ensure veterans of war receive the recognition and honour they deserve.
  5. As Ukraine continues early recovery and reconstruction, the Participants will seek to ensure the continuation of well-coordinated life-saving humanitarian aid where it is needed. The Participants will work together to ensure targeted humanitarian response which delivers to those most in need, including in hard-to-reach areas.
  6. Canada will also seek to support stabilization and civil defence needs, including support in critical areas that bolster emergency response and improve civil defence.

K. Sanctions 

  1. The Participants recognize the value of sanctions in restricting the Russian Federation’s and its proxies’ access to the finance, goods, technology and services being utilized in Russia’s war of aggression, and to deter future attacks.Recognizing that sanctions on individuals and entities that facilitate Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine are intended to constrain Russia’s ability to wage its brutal war, while also acknowledging that Russia, either directly or indirectly, attempts to circumvent the international sanctions regime that has been imposed against it, and that increased vigilance and cooperation is required to prevent such circumvention, the Participants will expand cooperation in this important sphere by:
    • (i) expanding consultations between Ukrainian and Canadian sanctions teams in order to develop shared priorities for future sanctions;
    • (ii) strengthening exchange of information between sanctions research teams in order to share research data used to develop cases for sanctions listings;
    • (iii) increasing cooperation between various Canadian and Ukrainian government departments and agencies that track, investigate, and enforce sanctions evasion to help address such evasion and to counter illicit Russian procurement; and
    • (iv) increasing coordination on diplomatic outreach to third countries to reduce Russian attempts at sanctions circumvention.
  2. While the Russian Federation’s aggression towards Ukraine continues, Canada will remain committed to pursuing robust sanctions against sectors of the Russian economy and those in the Russian Federation and outside of it who are supporting or profiting from the war, or assisting in sanctions circumvention in third countries. Canada will also take determined action with partners to tackle all forms of sanctions circumvention as well as reinforcing its own domestic resilience in this respect.
  3. The Participants will provide each other up-to-date information to support sanctions, in compliance with their respective legal framework.
  4. The Participants will work to ensure that the costs to Russia of its aggression continue to rise, including through sanctions and export controls.
  5. In the event of future Russian aggression or attacks against Ukraine, the Participantswill:
    • (i) coordinate with respect to the application of new sanctions; and
    • (ii) consider the potential re-imposition of any sanctions that may have been lifted.

L. National Police, State Border Guard Service, and National Guard

  1. Recognizing the critical role that the National Guard of Ukraine, State Border Guard Service, and the National Police of Ukraine have played in the defence and security of Ukraine, particularly since the full-scale invasion of February 2022, including in liberated territories, and also acknowledging that Canada has been engaged in training and capacity building support of the National Police of Ukraine since 2015, the Participants will:
    • (i) explore and identify areas of need, in support of Ukraine’s Overarching Strategic Plan for Reforming the Law Enforcement Agencies (2023-2027). This support may include capacity building, provision of equipment or training requirements (including on gender integration and implementation of the WPS agenda) that can be facilitated through Canadian programming, including:
      • (A) completing the delivery of the Police Service Trust Accountability and Resilience Project (PSTAR), whose main goal is to strengthen the capacity of the National Police of Ukraine and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine to effectively respond to new demands and responsibilities in the context of the ongoing war with Russia; and
      • (B) exploring how the Canadian Police Arrangement, through the Canadian Police Mission in Ukraine (CPMU) may be leveraged to provide capacity building support to Ukrainian counterparts.

M. Accountability

  1. The Participants reaffirm their commitment to holding the Russian Federation accountable for causing losses or damage to individuals and entities, as well as to the state of Ukraine, as a result of its internationally unlawful acts in Ukraine or against Ukraine, including its aggression in violation of the UN Charter. They also reaffirm that that there must be no impunity for war crimes and other atrocities and the Russian Federation must bear the legal responsibility, including making reparation for any damage caused by such act, which will also help deter future attacks and support Ukraine’s recovery. To that end, Canada and Ukraine will continue to:
    • (i) seek to hold to account those responsible for war crimes and other international crimes committed in or against Ukraine, consistent with international law, including by supporting the work of the Office of the Prosecutor General of Ukraine and the International Criminal Court to ensure allegations of war crimes are fully and fairly investigated by independent, effective and robust legal mechanisms;
    • (ii) collaborate to ensure the enforcement of international law with the view to prevent future crimes; and
    • (iii) engage in the Core Group, which is examining options forestablishing a special tribunal on the crime of aggression against Ukraine and finding the most effective means to hold the Russian Federation to account for its war of aggression against Ukraine.
  2. Ukraine commends Canada’s leadership with regard to the return to Ukraine of the Ukrainian children who have been illegally deported to the Russian Federation or forcibly displaced within the territories of Ukraine temporarily occupied or controlled by the Russian Federation. Canada and Ukraine note that the immediate release and return of all unlawfully detained, forcibly transferred and illegally deported civilians, including children, are among the principles supporting a comprehensive, just and lasting peace. The Participants will exert all possible efforts to:
    • (i) continue to engage within the International Coalition for the Return of Ukrainian Children, established on 2 February 2024 and co-headed by Ukraine and Canada, and pursue the goals set by its Framework Document;
    • (ii) contribute to the international efforts to bring those responsible for organizing the illegal deportation and displacement of Ukrainian children to justice according to the norms of international law and decisions of international judicial institutions; and
    • (iii) facilitate all necessary assistance to children and their families affected by the illegal deportation and forced displacement by the Russian Federation, with the aim of their return, reintegration, and the restoration of their well-being, health, and welfare, consistent with the best interests of the child.

N. Compensation for Losses, Injuries and Damages Caused by Russian Aggression

  1. The Participants will continue to explore all routes to ensure that Russian assets be directed to support Ukraine and are made available in support of Ukraine’s reconstruction in line with the Participants’ respective domestic legal frameworks and international law.
  2. The Participants will continue to work together with others, including G7 states, towards the establishment of a compensation mechanism for losses, injuries and damages caused by Russian aggression, as envisaged by the Statute of the Register of Damage Caused by the Aggression of the Russian Federation against Ukraine adopted by the Resolution of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe CM/Res(2023)3. In this regard, the Participants will explore appropriate options for establishing and financing a compensation mechanism to provide prompt and adequate compensation to victims of Russian aggression, and to support Ukraine’s reconstruction, including options with regard to seizure and repurposing of Russian sovereign Options for compensation mechanisms should also recognize and address the gendered dimension of losses, injuries and damages caused by Russian aggression.
  3. The Participants reaffirm the Russian Federation should pay for the long-term reconstruction of Ukraine. Consistent with Canada’s legal system, Russian sovereign assets in Canada’s jurisdiction will remain immobilized until the Russian Federation has paid for the damage it has caused to Ukraine. In that respect, Canada may deal with such assets in a manner consistent with the objectives of this Agreement.

Part V. Commitment to Implement Reforms

  1. The Participants understand that the CUSSP is founded on a commitment to a common set of core values including democracy, the rule of law, security, peace, justice, human rights, truth, freedom, and gender equality which are the foundations of a developed and sustainable democracy and a strong market economy. Canada recognizes that Ukraine is actively defending these values, and by doing so, is contributing positively to Canadian security.
  2. The Participants also understand that since re-establishing its independence in 1991, and in particular since the Revolution of Dignity in 2014, Ukraine has made progress in terms of implementing various political, economic, social, legal, judicial, anti-corruption, security and defence related reforms as it pursues integration with the EU and NATO.
  3. As stated in the G7 Joint Declaration, Ukraine is committed to pursuing further comprehensive reforms. Recognizing the requirements of both EU and NATO accession processes, as well as IMF benchmarks, Ukraine will further:
    • (i) enhance democratic civilian oversight and control of its military, ensure alignment with NATO doctrine, principles and standard, including command and control, transparency and defence planning to improve interoperability with NATO, reform its security and defence forces, modernize and improve transparency related to its defence acquisition and resource management processes, including its defence industry, as well as transparency and accountability with regard to partner assistance, including by ensuring its tracking and judicious use;
    • (ii) strengthen respect for democratic principles and institutions, the rule of law and good governance, inclusivity and gender equality, human rights and fundamental freedoms including the rights of persons belonging to national minorities, media freedoms, continued reform of its judiciary with strengthened judicial appointment procedures, and implementation of decentralization reforms; and
    • (iii) improve public financial management, including by improving corporate governance in its state-owned enterprises and banks, and continuing to focus on comprehensive multi-sectoral anti-corruption efforts.
  4. In a post-war context, and as circumstances allow Ukraine to transition from martial law, Ukraine will continue its efforts towards broader democratic strengthening.
  5. Canada will continue to support Ukraine in delivering on its comprehensive reform agenda, which is crucial for supporting sustainable and inclusive economic growth, in line with mutually agreed priorities and in coordination with other donors.

Part VI. Differences in Interpretation and Application

  1. The Participants will resolve any differences in the interpretation or application of the CUSSP amicably through negotiations or consultations.
  2. The Participants acknowledge that the absence of a reference to an existing, or potential, area of cooperation in this Agreement does not preclude Canada and Ukraine from engaging in such cooperation, or from it being considered for inclusion in the CUSSP in the future.

Part VII. Designated Authorities

  1. The Participants will, if necessary, designate authorized bodies for the development and implementation of additional instruments in accordance with the areas of cooperation specified in this Agreement.
  2. The authorized bodies of the Participants can conclude executive and technical arrangements on specific areas of cooperation within the framework of the implementation of this Agreement.

Part VIII. Final Dispositions

A. Coming into Effect and Timeframe

  1. This Agreement will enter into effect on the date of signature and is valid for a period of ten (10) years.
  2. The Participants intend for this Agreement to remain in effect as Ukraine pursues its path to future membership in NATO.
  3. In the event that Ukraine becomes a member of NATO before the expiry of this Agreement, the Participants will decide on its future status.

B. Review

  1. The Participantswill conduct a comprehensive review of the CUSSP within three (3) years after the signature of this Agreement, to update and make any amendments as necessary, and the Participants will continue such reviews on an ongoing basis, as necessary.

C. Amendment

  1. The Participants may amend this Agreement, including to add annexes thereto, upon their mutual written consent.

D. Termination

  1. This Agreement may be terminated by either Participant by providing written notice to the other, and this Agreement will be terminated six (6) months from the date of receipt of such notice.

SIGNED in duplicate in Kyiv on 24 February 2024, in the English, French and Ukrainian languages, each version being equally valid.

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