Canada-United States relations
Canada and the United States (US) enjoy a unique relationship. The Canada-United States partnership is forged by shared geography, similar values, common interests, deep connections and powerful, multi-layered economic ties. Canada and the United States enjoy the largest trading relationship in the world, and close to 400,000 people cross the shared border each day for business or pleasure or to maintain family ties. A secure and efficient flow of goods and people across the border is vital to both countries’ economic competitiveness and prosperity.
When Canada and the United States work together, they enhance their security and accelerate the legitimate flow of people, goods and services.
Canada has an embassy in Washington, D.C. and consulates general in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, San Francisco and Seattle. The United States maintains an embassy in Ottawa and consulates general across Canada.
Security and defence cooperation
Canada and the United States are committed to increasing border security by working cooperatively to:
- address threats early
- facilitate trade, economic growth and jobs
- integrate cross-border law enforcement
- bolster critical infrastructure and cybersecurity
The United States is Canada’s most important ally and defence partner. Defence relations are of long standing and well entrenched.
- Canada and the United States have worked side by side in the North American Aerospace Defence Command since the pact was created in 1957
- Canada and the United States cooperate closely in support of international peace and security
- Canada and the United States share a land border close to 9,000 km (more than 5,500 miles) long
Canadians and Americans breathe the same air, drink the same water and share the same responsibility to ensure that future generations have a safe, clean and healthy continent.
The two countries work together to address shared environmental challenges:
- climate change
- water quality
- air quality
- fisheries stock management
- wildlife protection
- energy requirements
History has shown that trade is the best way to create jobs, growth and long-term prosperity.
- Canada is the United States’ largest customer and buys more goods from the United States than China, Japan and the United Kingdom combined
- Canada is the top trading partner in most U.S. states
- Canadian companies operating in the United States directly employ 500,000 Americans
The trading relationship between Canada and the United States helps both countries:
- grow stronger economies together
- support economic growth
- eliminate barriers
- compete globally
Trade and investment agreements
Trade and investment agreements involving Canada and the United States:
- Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)
- Agreement on Trade-related Investment Measures (TRIMS)
- Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (CUSFTA)
- Canada-United States-Mexico Agreement (CUSMA)
- General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 (GATT)
- General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)
- Trade in Services Agreement (TISA)
- World Trade Organization Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA)
- World Trade Organization Agreement on Trade Facilitation (TFA)
- World Trade Organization Environmental Goods Agreement (EGA)
- World Trade Organization Information Technology Agreement (ITA)
For more information, consult trade and investment agreements for background, consultations and statuses.
Partners and organizations
To develop effective responses to today’s most pressing global challenges, Canada and the United States work closely in multilateral fora, such as:
- Arctic Council
- Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
- North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
- Organization of American States (OAS)
- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
- Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)
- Pacific Alliance
- United Nations (UN)
- United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
- World Trade Organization (WTO)
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